[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The poor therapeutic effect of traditional antiangiogenic therapy on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) may be attributed to vasculogenic mimicry (VM), which was previously reported to be promoted by cancer stem‑like cells (SLCs). All‑trans retinoic acid (ATRA), a potent reagent which drives differentiation, was reported to be able to eradicate cancer SLCs in certain malignancies. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of ATRA on the VM formation ability of U87 glioblastoma SLCs. The expression of cancer SLC markers CD133 and nestin was detected using immunocytochemistry in order to identify U87 SLCs. In addition, the differentiation of these SLCs was observed through detecting the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), β‑tubulin III and galactosylceramidase (Galc) using immunofluorescent staining. The results showed that the expression levels of GFAP, β‑tubulin III and Galc were upregulated following treatment with ATRA in a dose‑dependent manner. Furthermore, ATRA significantly reduced the proliferation, invasiveness, tube formation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion of U87 SLCs. In conclusion, the VM formation ability of SLCs was found to be negatively correlated with differentiation. These results therefore suggested that ATRA may serve as a promising novel agent for the treatment of GBM due to its role in reducing VM formation.
Full-text Article · Mar 2015 · Molecular Medicine Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that function as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. MicroRNA-107 (miR-107), a transcriptional target of p53, is deregulated in many cancer cell lines. Here, we showed that miR-107 is down-regulated in glioma tissues and cell lines, in particular, p53-mutated U251 and A172. Transfection of wild-type p53 into these cells stimulated miR-107 expression. To investigate the role of miR-107 in tumorigenesis, we constructed a lentiviral vector overexpressing miR-107. Notably, miR-107 inhibited proliferation and arrested the cell cycle at the G0-G1 phase in glioma cells. Transduction of Lenti-GFP-miR-107 into glioma cells inhibited CDK6 and Notch-2 protein expression. Our findings collectively demonstrate that p53-induced miR-107 suppresses brain tumor cell growth and down-regulates CDK6 and Notch-2 expression, supporting its tumor suppressor role and utility as a target for glioma therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Vasculogenic mimicry (VM), a process involving the formation of a tubular structure by highly invasive and genetically dysregulated tumor cells, can supplement the function of blood vessels to transport nutrients and oxygen to maintain the growth of tumor cells in many malignant tumors. We aimed to explore the existence of VM and its clinical significance in medulloblastoma in this study. VM was identified in 9 out of 41 (22%) medulloblastoma tissues. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that the presence of VM was associated with the expression of MMP-2, MMP-14, EphA2 and laminin 5γ2. Tumor tissues with VM were associated with lower microvessel density (MVD), which was indirect evidence of the blood supply function of VM. Survival analysis and log-rank tests showed that patients with VM had shorter overall survival time than those without VM. Multivariate analysis and the Cox proportional hazards model identified VM as independent prognostic factor for overall survival. Our results confirmed the existence of VM for the first time and revealed that VM is a strong independent prognostic factor for survival in patients with medulloblastoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Immunotoxins have shown great promise as an alternative treatment for brain malignancies such as gliomas, but their failure to penetrate into the tumor mass remains a major problem. Mesenchymal stem cells exhibit tropism to tumor tissue and may serve as a cellular vehicle for the delivery and local production of antitumor agents. In this study, we used human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) as a vehicle for the targeted delivery of EphrinA1-PE38, a very specific immunotoxin against the EphA2 receptor that is overexpressed in gliomas. hMSCs were transduced with adenovirus to express secretable EphrinA1-PE38. Our invitro assays confirmed the expression, release and selective killing effect of the immunotoxin produced by hMSCs. Furthermore, the intratumoral injection of engineered hMSCs was effective at inhibiting tumor growth in a malignant glioma tumor model. These results indicate that gene therapy utilizing EphrinA1-PE38-secreting hMSCs may provide a novel approach for the local treatment of malignant gliomas.