[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: TNFα levels are increased in liver cirrhosis even in the absence of infection, most likely owing to a continuous endotoxin influx into the portal blood. Soluble TNFα receptors (sTNFR type I and II) reflect release of the short-lived TNFα, because they are cleaved from the cells after binding of TNFα. The aims were to investigate the circulating levels of soluble TNFR-I and -II in cirrhotic patients receiving TIPS.
Forty-nine patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension (12 viral, 37 alcoholic) received TIPS for prevention of re-bleeding (n = 14), therapy-refractory ascites (n = 20), or both (n = 15). Portal and hepatic venous blood was drawn in these patients during the TIPS procedure and during the control catheterization two weeks later. sTNFR-I and sTNFR-II were measured by ELISA, correlated to clinical and biochemical characteristics.
Before TIPS insertion, sTNFR-II levels were lower in portal venous blood than in the hepatic venous blood, as well as in portal venous blood after TIPS insertion. No significant differences were measured in sTNFR-I levels. Hepatic venous levels of sTNFR-I above 4.5 ng/mL (p = 0.036) and sTNFR-II above 7 ng/mL (p = 0.05) after TIPS insertion were associated with decreased survival. A multivariate Cox-regression survival analysis identified the hepatic venous levels of sTNFR-I (p = 0.004) two weeks after TIPS, and Child score (p = 0.002) as independent predictors of mortality, while MELD-score was not.
Hepatic venous levels of sTNFR-I after TIPS insertion may predict mortality in patients with severe portal hypertension.
Full-text available · Article · Dec 2013 · PLoS ONE
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: In cirrhosis portal hypertension can promote bacterial translocation and increase serum endotoxin levels. Vice versa, endotoxin aggravates portal hypertension by induction of systemic and splanchnic vasodilation, and by triggering hepatic inflammatory response via tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). However, the hepatic elimination of endotoxin in cirrhotic patients with severe portal hypertension, in the absence of acute complications, has not been investigated so far.
Twenty patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis received transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt at an event-free interval for either refractory ascites or recurrent bleeding. During the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedure portal and hepatic venous blood samples were obtained and endotoxin levels were measured by a chromogenic limulus-assay. In 16 of these patients an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure levels of the soluble TNFα-receptors sTNF-R55 and sTNF-R75.
Portal venous endotoxin levels correlated with portal vein velocity (P=0.03) and arterial systolic blood pressure (P=0.007). Portal endotoxin levels correlated with portal venous sTNF-R75-levels (P=0.039; r=0.521) and hepatic venous sTNF-R55-levels (P=0.009; r=0.669). Hepatic venous levels of both sTNF-R55 and sTNF-R75 correlated directly with the model for end-stage liver disease-score, and inversely with cholinesterase. However, we did not find significant differences in endotoxin levels nor in sTNF-R55-levels and sTNF-R75-levels between portal and hepatic venous blood.
Endotoxin levels correlated with hemodynamic derangement in cirrhotic severe portal hypertension, and with levels of soluble TNFα-receptors. Soluble TNFα-receptor levels correlated with the severity of liver dysfunction. However, in this study an endotoxin concentration gradient across the liver was absent, suggesting negligible primary hepatic endotoxin elimination in the absence of complications.
Article · Nov 2011 · European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology