- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenosine modulates different functional activities in many cells of the gastrointestinal tract; some of them are believed to be mediated by interaction with its four G-protein-coupled receptors. The renewed interest in the adenosine A2B receptor (A2BR) subtype can be traced by studies in which the introduction of new genetic and chemical tools has widened the pharmacological and structural knowledge of this receptor as well as its potential therapeutic use in cancer and inflammation- or hypoxia-related pathologies. In the acid-secreting parietal cells of the gastric mucosa, the use of various radioligands for adenosine receptors suggested the presence of the A2 adenosine receptor subtype(s) on the cell surface. Recently, we confirmed A2BR expression in native, non-transformed parietal cells at rest by using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. In this study, we show that A2BR is functional in primary rabbit gastric parietal cells, as indicated by the fact that agonist binding to A2BR increased adenylate cyclase activity and acid production. In addition, both acid production and radioligand binding of adenosine analogues to isolated cell membranes were potently blocked by selective A2BR antagonists, whereas ligands for A1, A2A and A3 adenosine receptors failed to abolish activation. We conclude that rabbit gastric parietal cells possess functional A2BR proteins that are coupled to Gs and stimulate HCL production upon activation. Whether adenosine- and A2BR-mediated functional responses play a role in human gastric pathophysiology is yet to be elucidated.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The A2B adenosine receptor (A2BR) mediates biological responses to extracellular adenosine in a wide variety of cell types. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) can degrade adenosine and bind extracellularly to adenosine receptors. Adenosine modulates chloride secretion in gastric glands and gastric mucosa parietal cells. A close functional link between surface A2BR and ADA has been found on cells of the immune system, but whether this occurs in the gastrointestinal tract is unknown. The goal of this study was to determine whether A2BR and ADA are coexpressed at the plasma membrane of the acid-secreting gastric mucosa parietal cells. We used isolated gastric parietal cells after purification by centrifugal elutriation. The membrane fraction was obtained by sucrose gradient centrifugation. A2BR mRNA expression was analyzed by RT-PCR. The surface expression of A2BR and ADA proteins was evaluated by Western blotting, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Our findings demonstrate that A2BR and ADA are expressed in cell membranes isolated from gastric parietal cells. They show a high degree of colocalization that is particularly evident in the surface of contact between parietal cells. The confocal microscopy data together with flow cytometry analysis suggest a tight association between A2BR and ADA that might be specifically linked to glandular secretory function.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: GRP94 is a member of the heat shock protein family normally confined to the endoplasmic reticulum that sometimes escapes the KDEL-mediated retention system. It is overexpressed in some gastric and other gastrointestinal carcinomas, but little is known about the physiological role of GRP94 in gastric mucosa. We investigated the membrane presence of GRP94 in parietal cells, which secrete acid into the gastric lumen, using subcellular fractionation, selective solubilization of membrane proteins, Western blotting, and radio-ligand binding and provided evidence of functional GRP94 expression at the surface of gastric mucosa parietal cells anchored to the basolateral domain. Our results show that GRP94 is not an integral membrane protein since 50 mM Na2CO3 treatment dissociates part of it from the membrane. However, 100 mM Na2CO3 treatment did not extract all GRP94 from the membrane, which indicates that it is strongly associated with it. The presence of GRP94 in isolated plasma membrane was demonstrated by Western blotting and its functionality by radio-lig- and binding experiments. Both the K D value obtained in saturation experiments with N-ethylcarboxamido-[3H]adenosine at 4°C, at the nanomolar range, and the inhibition constant of its binding by radicicol, the most specific GRP94 inhibitor, indicate that active receptor regions are exposed at the membrane surface. Western blotting of plasma membrane subfractions showed that GRP94 is mainly expressed in the basolateral membrane of gastric parietal cells, while its presence in the apical domain is negligible, thereby inferring a role for GRP94 in processes operating in this membrane domain.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify the causes for the inhomogeneity of ventricular repolarization and increased QT dispersion in hypothyroid mice. We studied the effects of 5-propyl-2-thiouracil-induced hypothyroidism on the ECG, action potential (AP) and current density of the repolarizing potassium currents I(to,fast), I(to,slow), I(K,slow) and I(ss) in enzymatically isolated myocytes from three different regions of mouse heart: right ventricle (RV), epicardium of the left ventricle (Epi-LV) and interventricular septum. K(+) currents were recorded with the patch-clamp technique. Membranes from isolated ventricular myocytes were extracted by centrifugation. Kv4.2, Kv4.3, KChIP and Na/Ca exchanger proteins were visualized by Western blot. The frequency or conduction velocity was not changed by hypothyroidism, but QTc was prolonged. Neither resting membrane potential nor AP amplitude was modified. The action potential duration (APD)(90) increased in the RV and Epi-LV, but not in the septum. Hypothyroid status has no effect either on I(to,slow), I(k,slow) or I(ss) in any of the regions analysed. However, I(to,fast) was significantly reduced in the Epi-LV and in the RV, whereas it was not altered in cells from the septum. Western blot analysis reveals a reduction in Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 protein levels in both the Epi-LV and the RV and an increase in Na/Ca exchanger. From these results we suggest that the regional differences in APD lengthening, and thus in repolarization inhomogeneity, induced by experimental hypothyroidism are at least partially explained by the uneven decrease in I(to,fast) and the differences in the relative contribution of the depolarization-activated outward currents to the repolarization process.