Onur Güntürkün

Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

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Publications (304)1154.05 Total impact

  • Henrik Mouritsen · Dominik Heyers · Onur Güntürkün
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    ABSTRACT: Migratory birds can navigate over tens of thousands of kilometers with an accuracy unobtainable for human navigators. To do so, they use their brains. In this review, we address how birds sense navigation- and orientation-relevant cues and where in their brains each individual cue is processed. When little is currently known, we make educated predictions as to which brain regions could be involved. We ask where and how multisensory navigational information is integrated and suggest that the hippocampus could interact with structures that represent maps and compass information to compute and constantly control navigational goals and directions. We also suggest that the caudolateral nidopallium could be involved in weighing conflicting pieces of information against each other, making decisions, and helping the animal respond to unexpected situations. Considering the gaps in current knowledge, some of our suggestions may be wrong. However, our main aim is to stimulate further research in this fascinating field. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Physiology Volume 78 is February 10, 2016. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2016 · Annual Review of Physiology
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    ABSTRACT: Pigeons are well known for their visual capabilities as well as their ability to categorize visual stimuli at both the basic and superordinate level. We adopt a reverse engineering approach to study categorization learning: Instead of training pigeons on predefined categories, we simply present stimuli and analyze neural output in search of categorical clustering on a solely neural level. We presented artificial stimuli, pictorial and grating stimuli, to pigeons without the need of any differential behavioral responding while recording from the nidopallium frontolaterale (NFL), a higher visual area in the avian brain. The pictorial stimuli differed in color and shape; the gratings differed in spatial frequency and amplitude. We computed representational dissimilarity matrices to reveal categorical clustering based on both neural data and pecking behavior. Based on neural output of the NFL, pictorial and grating stimuli were differentially represented in the brain. Pecking behavior showed a similar pattern, but to a lesser extent. A further subclustering within pictorial stimuli according to color and shape, and within gratings according to frequency and amplitude, was not present. Our study gives proof-of-concept that this reverse engineering approach-namely reading out categorical information from neural data-can be quite helpful in understanding the neural underpinnings of categorization learning.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
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    ABSTRACT: Handedness is a multifactorial trait and genes contributing to the differentiation of the left-right axis during embryogenesis have been identified as a major gene group associated with this trait. The ethyltransferase SETDB2 (SET domain, bifurcated 2) has been shown to regulate structural left-right asymmetry in the vertebrate central nervous system by suppressing fgf8 expression. Here, we investigated the relation of genetic variation in SETDB2 - and its paralogue SETDB1 - with different handedness phenotypes in 950 healthy adult participants. We identified a haplotype on SETDB2 for which homozygous individuals showed a significantly lower lateralization quotient for handedness than the rest of the cohort after correction for multiple comparisons. Moreover, direction of handedness was significantly associated with genetic variation in this haplotype. This effect was mainly, but not exclusively, driven by the sequence variation rs4942830, as individuals homozygous for the A allele of this single nucleotide polymorphism had a significantly lower lateralization quotient than individuals with at least one T allele. These findings further confirm a role of genetic pathways relevant for structural left-right axis differentiation and functional lateralization. Moreover, as the protein encoded by SETDB2 regulates gene expression epigenetically by histone H3 methylation, our findings highlight the importance of investigating the role of epigenetic modulations of gene expression in relation to handedness.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Molecular Neurobiology
  • Felix Ströckens · Onur Güntürkün
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    ABSTRACT: The visual system of adult pigeons shows a lateralization of object discrimination with a left hemispheric dominance at the behavioral, physiological, and anatomical level. The crucial trigger for the establishment of this asymmetry is the position of the embryo inside the egg which exposes the right eye to light falling through the egg shell. As a result, the right sided retina is stronger stimulated with light during embryonic development. However, it is unknown how this embryonic light stimulation is transduced to the brain since rods/cones are not yet functional. A possible solution could be the blue light sensitive molecule Cryptochrome 1 (Cry1), which is expressed in retinal ganglion cells (RGC's) of several mammalian and avian species. RGC's have been shown to be functional during the time of asymmetry induction and possess projections to primary visual areas. Therefore, Cry1 containing RGC's could be responsible for asymmetry induction. The aim of this study was to identify the expression pattern of the Cry1 subtype Cry1b in the retina of embryonic, post hatch and adult pigeons by immunohistochemical staining and to show if Cry1b containing RGC's project to the optic tectum. Cry1b positive cells were indeed mainly found in the retinal ganglion cell and to lesser extent in the inner nuclear layer at all ages, including the embryonic stage. Tracing in adult animals revealed that at least a subset of Cry1b containing RGC's project to the optic tectum. Thus, Cry1b containing RGC's could represent the asymmetry inducing instance within the retina of embryonic pigeons. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · European Journal of Neuroscience
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    Onur Güntürkün

    Preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Most people are right-handed and show left-hemispheric language lateralization, but a minority exhibits left-handedness and right-hemispheric language lateralization. This atypical laterality pattern is observed significantly more often in schizophrenia patients than in the general population, which led several authors to conclude that there is a genetic link between laterality and schizophrenia. It has even been suggested that a failure in the lateralization process, orchestrated by genes, could be the primary cause of schizophrenia. However, the molecular genetic evidence for a link between laterality and schizophrenia is weak. Recent genetic evidence indicates that schizophrenia is not a single disorder but a group of heritable disorders caused by different genotypic networks leading to distinct clinical symptoms. To uncover the link between schizophrenia and laterality we therefore suggest a paradigm shift where genetics are not mapped on schizophrenia as a whole but on discrete schizophrenia symptoms. In addition, we provide a critical evaluation of current theories on the genetic link between schizophrenia and brain asymmetry.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews
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    ABSTRACT: When memories are recalled, they enter a transient labile phase in which they can be impaired or enhanced followed by a new stabilization process termed reconsolidation. It is unknown, however, whether reconsolidation is restricted to neurocognitive processes such as fear memories or can be extended to peripheral physiological functions as well. Here, we show in a paradigm of behaviorally conditioned taste aversion in rats reconsolidation-like processes in learned immunosuppression. The administration of sub-therapeutic doses of the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A together with the conditioned stimulus (CS/saccharin) during retrieval blocked extinction of conditioned taste aversion and learned suppression of T cell cytokine (interleukin-2; interferon-γ) production. This conditioned immunosuppression is of clinical relevance since it significantly prolonged the survival time of heterotopically transplanted heart allografts in rats. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that memories can be updated on both neural and behavioral levels as well as on the level of peripheral physiological systems such as immune functioning.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Brain Behavior and Immunity
  • Onur Güntürkün · Monika Güntürkün · Constanze Hahn
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    ABSTRACT: Whistled languages represent an experiment of nature to test the widely accepted view that language comprehension is to some extent governed by the left hemisphere in a rather input-invariant manner [1]. Indeed, left-hemisphere superiority has been reported for atonal and tonal languages, click consonants, writing and sign languages [2-5]. The right hemisphere is specialized to encode acoustic properties like spectral cues, pitch, and melodic lines and plays a role for prosodic communicative cues [6,7]. Would left hemisphere language superiority change when subjects had to encode a language that is constituted by acoustic properties for which the right hemisphere is specialized? Whistled Turkish uses the full lexical and syntactic information of vocal Turkish, and transforms this into whistles to transport complex conversations with constrained whistled articulations over long distances [8]. We tested the comprehension of vocally vs. whistled identical lexical information in native whistle-speaking people of mountainous Northeast Turkey. We discovered that whistled language comprehension relies on symmetric hemispheric contributions, associated with a decrease of left and a relative increase of right hemispheric encoding mechanisms. Our results demonstrate that a language that places high demands on right-hemisphere typical acoustical encoding creates a radical change in language asymmetries. Thus, language asymmetry patterns are in an important way shaped by the physical properties of the lexical input. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Current biology: CB
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral asymmetries are a ubiquitous phenomenon evident in many species, incl. humans, and they display some similarities in their organization across vertebrates. In many species the left hemisphere is associated with the ability to categorize objects based on abstract or experience-based behaviors. Using the asymmetrically organized visual system of pigeons as an animal model, we show that descending forebrain pathways asymmetrically modulate visually evoked responses of single thalamic units. Activity patterns of neurons within the nucleus rotundus, the largest thalamic visual relay structure in birds, were differently modulated by left and right hemispheric descending systems. Thus, visual information ascending towards the left hemisphere was modulated by forebrain top-down systems at thalamic level, while right thalamic units were strikingly less modulated. This asymmetry of top-down control could promote experience-based processes within the left hemisphere, while biasing the right side towards stimulus-bound response patterns. In a subsequent behavioral task we tested the possible functional impact of this asymmetry. Under monocular conditions, pigeons learned to discriminate color pairs, so that each hemisphere was trained on one specific discrimination. Afterwards the animals were presented with stimuli that put the hemispheres in conflict. Response patterns on the conflicting stimuli revealed a clear dominance of the left hemisphere. Transient inactivation of left hemispheric top-down control reduced this dominance while inactivation of right hemispheric top-down control had no effect on response patterns. Functional asymmetries of descending systems that modify visual ascending pathways seem to play an important role in the superiority of the left hemisphere in experience-based visual tasks. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Neuropsychologia
  • Sara Letzner · Annika Simon · Onur Güntürkün
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    ABSTRACT: The anterior commissure (AC) and the much smaller hippocampal commissure constitute the only interhemispheric pathways at telencephalic level in birds. Since the degeneration study from Zeier and Karten (1973), no detailed description of the topographic organization of the AC has been performed. This information is not only necessary for a better understanding of interhemispheric transfer in birds, but also for a comparative analysis of the evolution of commissural systems in the vertebrate classes. We, therefore, examined the fiber connections of the AC by using Choleratoxin subunit B (CTB) and biotinylated dextran amine (BDA). Injections into subareas of the arcopallium and posterior amygdala (PoA) demonstrated contralateral projection fields within the anterior arcopallium (AA), intermediate arcopallium (AI), PoA, lateral, caudolateral and central nidopallium, dorsal and ventral mesopallium and medial striatum (MSt). Interestingly, only arcopallial and amygdaloid projections were reciprocally organized, and all AC projections originated within a rather small area of the arcopallium and the PoA. The commissural neurons were not GABA-positive, and thus possibly not of inhibitory nature. In sum, our neuroanatomical study demonstrates that a small group of arcopallial and amygdaloid neurons constitute a wide range of contralateral projections to sensorimotor and limbic structures. Different from mammals, in birds the neurons that project via the AC constitute mostly heterotopically organized and unidirectional connections. In addition, the great majority of pallial areas do not participate by themselves in interhemispheric exchange in birds. Instead, commissural exchange rests on a rather small arcopallial and amygdaloid cluster of neurons. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · The Journal of Comparative Neurology
  • Erhan Genç · Sebastian Ocklenburg · Wolf Singer · Onur Güntürkün
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    ABSTRACT: During unilateral hand movements the activity of the contralateral primary motor cortex (cM1) is increased while the activity of the ipsilateral M1 (iM1) is decreased. A potential explanation for this asymmetric activity pattern is transcallosal cM1-to-iM1 inhibitory control. To test this hypothesis, we examined interhemispheric motor inhibition in acallosal patients. We measured fMRI activity in iM1 and cM1 in acallosal patients during unilateral hand movements and compared their motor activity pattern to that of healthy controls. In controls, fMRI activation in cM1 was significantly higher than in iM1, reflecting a normal differential task-related M1 activity. Additional functional connectivity analysis revealed that iM1 activity was strongly suppressed by cM1. Furthermore, DTI analysis indicated that this contralaterally induced suppression was mediated by microstructural properties of specific callosal fibers interconnecting both M1s. In contrast, acallosal patients did not show a clear differential activity pattern between cM1 and iM1. The more symmetric pattern was due to an elevated task-related iM1 activity in acallosal patients, which was significantly higher than iM1 activity in a subgroup of gender and age-matched controls. Also, interhemispheric motor suppression was completely absent in acallosal patients. These findings suggest that absence of callosal connections reduces inhibitory interhemispheric motor interactions between left and right M1. This effect may reveal novel aspects of mechanisms in communication of two hemispheres and establishment of brain asymmetries in general. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Behavioural brain research
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    ABSTRACT: While it is well known that the left hemisphere is more efficient than the right in most tasks involving perception of speech stimuli, the neurophysiological pathways leading to these lateralised performance differences are as yet rather unclear. In particular, the question whether language lateralisation depends on semantic processing or is already evident in early perceptual stimulus processing has not been answered unequivocally. In the present study, we therefore recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) during tachistoscopic presentation of horizontally or vertically presented verbal stimuli in the left (LVF) and the right visual field (RVF). Participants were asked to indicate, whether the presented stimulus was a word or a non-word. On the behavioural level, participants showed stronger hemispheric asymmetries for horizontal, than for vertical stimulus presentation. In addition, ERP asymmetries were also modulated by stimulus presentation format, as the electrode by visual field interactions for P1 and N1 were stronger after vertical, than after horizontal stimulus presentation. Moreover, sLORETA revealed that ERP left-right asymmetries were mainly driven by the extrastriate cortex and reading-associated areas in the parietal cortex. Taken together, the present study shows electrophysiological support for the assumption that language lateralisation during speech perception arises from a left dominance for the processing of early perceptual stimulus aspects. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Behavioural brain research
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    ABSTRACT: Extinction learning provides the ability to flexibly adapt to new contingencies by learning to inhibit previously acquired associations in a context-dependent manner. The neural networks underlying extinction learning were mostly studied in rodents using fear extinction paradigms. To uncover invariant properties of the neural basis of extinction learning, we employ pigeons as a model system. Since the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of mammals is a key structure for extinction learning, we assessed the role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in the nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL), the avian functional equivalent of mammalian PFC. Since NMDARs in PFC have been shown to be relevant for extinction learning, we locally antagonized NMDARs through 2-Amino-5-phosphonovalerianacid (APV) during extinction learning in a within-subject sign-tracking ABA-renewal paradigm. APV-injection slowed down extinction learning and in addition also caused a disinhibition of responding to a continuously reinforced control stimulus. In subsequent retrieval sessions, spontaneous recovery was increased while ABA renewal was unaffected. The effect of APV resembles that observed in studies of fear extinction with rodents, suggesting common neural substrates of extinction under both appetitive and aversive conditions and highlighting the similarity of mammalian PFC and the avian caudal nidopallium despite 300 million years of independent evolution.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: Serotonin 1A receptors (5-HT1ARs), which are widely distributed in the mammalian brain, participate in cognitive and emotional functions. In birds, 5-HT1ARs are expressed in prosencephalic areas involved in visual and cognitive functions. Diverse evidence supports 5-HT1AR-mediated5-HT-induced ingestive and sleep behaviors in birds. Here, we describe the distribution of 5-HT1ARs in the hypothalamus and brainstem of birds, analyze their potential roles in sleep and ingestive behaviors, and attempt to determine the involvement of auto-/hetero-5-HT1ARs in these behaviors. In 6 pigeons, the anatomical distribution of [(3)H]8-OH-DPAT binding in the rostral brainstem and hypothalamus was examined. Ingestive/sleep behaviors were recorded (1h) in 16 pigeons pretreated with MM77 (a heterosynaptic 5-HT1AR antagonist; 23 or 69 nmol) for 20min, followed by intracerebroventricular ICV injection of 5-HT (N:8; 150 nmol), 8-OH-DPAT (DPAT, a 5-HT 1A,7R agonist, 30 nmol N:8) or vehicle. 5-HT- and DPAT-induced sleep and ingestive behaviors, brainstem 5-HT neuronal density and brain 5-HT content were examined in 12 pigeons, pretreated by ICV with the 5-HT neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) or vehicle (N:6/group). The distribution of brainstem and diencephalic c-Fos immunoreactivity after ICV injection of 5-HT, DPAT or vehicle (N:5/group) into birds provided with or denied access to water is also described. 5-HT1ARs are concentrated in the brainstem 5-HTergic areas and throughout the periventricular hypothalamus, preoptic nuclei and circumventricular organs. 5-HT and DPAT produced a complex c-Fos expression pattern in the 5-HT1AR-enriched preoptic hypothalamus and the circumventricular organs, which are related to drinking and sleep regulation, but modestly affected c-Fos expression in 5-HTergic neurons. The 5-HT-induced ingestivebehaviors and the 5-HT- and DPAT-induced sleep behaviors were reduced by MM77 pretreatment. 5,7-DHT increased sleep per se, decreased tryptophan hydroxylase expression in the raphe nuclei and decreased prosencephalic5-HT release but failed to affect 5-HT- or DPAT-induced drinking or sleep behavior. 5-HT- and DPAT-induced ingestive and sleep behaviors in pigeons appear to be mediated by heterosynaptic and/or non-somatodendritic presynaptic 5-HT1ARs localized to periventricular diencephalic circuits. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Behavioural brain research
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    ABSTRACT: Functional hemispheric asymmetry is a common feature of vertebrate brain organization, yet little is known about how hemispheric dominance is implemented at the neural level. One notable example of hemispheric dominance in birds is the leading role of the left hippocampal formation in controlling navigational processes that support homing in pigeons. Relying on resting state fMRI analyses (where Functional connectivity (FC) can be determined by placing a reference 'seed' for connectivity in one hemisphere), we show that following seeding in either an anterior or posterior region of the hippocampal formation of homing pigeons and starlings, the emergent functional connectivity maps are consistently larger following seeding of the left hippocampus. Left seedings are also more likely to result in functional connectivity maps that extend to the contralateral hippocampus and outside the boundaries of the hippocampus. The data support the hypothesis that broader functional connectivity is one neural-organizational property that confers, with respect to navigation, functional dominance to the left hippocampus of birds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Hippocampus
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    ABSTRACT: Birds can rely on a variety of cues for orientation during migration and homing. Celestial rotation provides the key information for the development of a functioning star and/or sun compass. This celestial compass seems to be the primary reference for calibrating the other orientation systems including the magnetic compass. Thus, detection of the celestial rotational axis is crucial for bird orientation. Here, we use operant conditioning to demonstrate that homing pigeons can principally learn to detect a rotational centre in a rotating dot pattern and we examine their behavioural response strategies in a series of experiments. Initially, most pigeons applied a strategy based on local stimulus information such as movement characteristics of single dots. One pigeon seemed to immediately ignore eccentric stationary dots. After special training, all pigeons could shift their attention to more global cues, which implies that pigeons can learn the concept of a rotational axis. In our experiments, the ability to precisely locate the rotational centre was strongly dependent on the rotational velocity of the dot pattern and it crashed at velocities that were still much faster than natural celestial rotation. We therefore suggest that the axis of the very slow, natural, celestial rotation could be perceived by birds through the movement itself, but that a time-delayed pattern comparison should also be considered as a very likely alternative strategy.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: The corpus callosum (CC), the largest commissure in the human brain, is thought to play an essential part in the formation and maintenance of lateralized cognitive and motor functions. In particular, it has been suggested that inhibition of the subdominant hemisphere via commissural fiber tracts plays a crucial role for functional lateralization. However, many studies supporting this idea have either been conducted in nonhuman model species or used indirect measures of callosal functioning. In order to directly assess the impact of the presence or absence of the CC on both the existence and the extent of functional hemispheric asymmetries, we investigated handedness and language lateralization, as well as interhemispheric information integration, in 6 high-functioning individuals with partial or complete agenesis of the CC (AgCC). Performance was compared with that of 30 IQ- and age-matched controls with intact CC. We found a stronger predisposition for ambidexterity in individuals with AgCC. Similarly, the typical right ear advantage in the dichotic listening task was significantly reduced in AgCC. Furthermore, AgCC patients generally reacted slower than controls in a test of interhemispheric information integration, and showed reduced accuracy in trials that required interhemispheric integration. These findings indicate that reduced hemispheric specialization in the acallosal brain might be due to a higher degree of hemispheric autonomy in AgCC. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Neuropsychology
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    Silke Lissek · Benjamin Glaubitz · Onur Güntürkün · Martin Tegenthoff
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    ABSTRACT: Renewal in extinction learning describes the recovery of an extinguished response if the extinction context differs from the context present during acquisition and recall. Attention may have a role in contextual modulation of behavior and contribute to the renewal effect, while noradrenaline (NA) is involved in attentional processing. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we investigated the role of the noradrenergic system for behavioral and brain activation correlates of contextual extinction and renewal, with a particular focus upon hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), which have crucial roles in processing of renewal. Healthy human volunteers received a single dose of the NA reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine prior to extinction learning. During extinction of previously acquired cue-outcome associations, cues were presented in a novel context (ABA) or in the acquisition context (AAA). In recall, all cues were again presented in the acquisition context. Atomoxetine participants (ATO) showed significantly faster extinction compared to placebo (PLAC). However, atomoxetine did not affect renewal. Hippocampal activation was higher in ATO during extinction and recall, as was ventromedial PFC activation, except for ABA recall. Moreover, ATO showed stronger recruitment of insula, anterior cingulate, and dorsolateral/orbitofrontal PFC. Across groups, cingulate, hippocampus and vmPFC activity during ABA extinction correlated with recall performance, suggesting high relevance of these regions for processing the renewal effect. In summary, the noradrenergic system appears to be involved in the modification of established associations during extinction learning and thus has a role in behavioral flexibility. The assignment of an association to a context and the subsequent decision on an adequate response, however, presumably operate largely independently of noradrenergic mechanisms.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: Because of their sophisticated vocal behaviour, their social nature, their high plasticity and their robustness, starlings have become an important model species that is widely used in studies of neuroethology of song production and perception. Since magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents an increasingly relevant tool for comparative neuroscience, a 3D MRI-based atlas of the starling brain becomes essential. Using multiple imaging protocols we delineated several sensory systems as well as the song control system. This starling brain atlas can easily be used to determine the stereotactic location of identified neural structures at any angle of the head. Additionally, the atlas is useful to find the optimal angle of sectioning for slice experiments, stereotactic injections and electrophysiological recordings. The starling brain atlas is freely available for the scientific community.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Brain Structure and Function
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    ABSTRACT: The neural response to occasional variations of acoustic stimuli in a regular sequence of sounds generates an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-modulated event-related potential in primates and rodents in primary auditory cortex known as mismatch negativity (MMN). The current study investigated MMN in pigeons (Columba livia L) via intracranial recordings from Field L of the caudomedial nidopallium, the avian functional equivalent to the mammalian primary auditory cortex. Auditory evoked field potentials were recorded from awake birds by employing a low (800 Hz) and highfrequency (1400 Hz) deviant auditory oddball procedure with deviant-as-standard ("flipflop design") and multiple-standard control conditions. An MMN-like field potential was recorded and blocked with systemic 5 mg/kg ketamine administration. Our results are consistent with human and rodent findings of an MMN-like event-related potential in birds suggestive of similar auditory sensory memory mechanisms in birds and mammals that are homologue from a common ancestor 300 million years ago or resulted from convergent evolution.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Neuroreport

Publication Stats

9k Citations
1,154.05 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1985-2015
    • Ruhr-Universität Bochum
      • • Biopsychology
      • • Institut für Kognitive Neurowissenschaft (IKN)
      • • Faculty of Psychology
      Bochum, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1989-1993
    • Universität Konstanz
      • Faculty of Sciences
      Constance, Baden-Württemberg, Germany