Min Qi

Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Feng-t’ien, Liaoning, China

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Publications (8)21.2 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Pseudolaric acid B (PAB) is a diterpene acid, isolated from the root and trunk bark of Pseudolarix kaempferi Gordon (Pinaceae). Previous studies demonstrated that PAB induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis in several cancer cell lines, but the relationship between G2/M arrest and apoptosis is still unclear. We examined the relevant signaling pathways for human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells treated with 1 μM PAB. Intriguingly, we found that activation of ATM-p53 signaling pathway by the treatment with 1 μM PAB played a protective role for the subsequent apoptosis. Although the treatment with 1 μM PAB up-regulated the expression of cyclin B1 and p-Histone 3 (mitotic markers) at 12 h, the expression decreased at 24 and 36 h along with the up-down expression of mitotic markers. The expressions of p-ATM and p-p53 that were involved in G2/M arrest increased at 12 h after treatment with PAB. However, a prolonged treatment with PAB (longer than 24 h) caused cell apoptosis. When the cells were arrested in G1 or S phase by the treatment with serum starvation, cytosine β-D-arabinofuranoside (Ara-C) or hydroxyurea (Hu), the apoptotic ratio induced by PAB decreased.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Pseudolaric acid B (PAB), the primary biologically active compound isolated from the root bark of P. kaempferi Gordon, has been reported to exhibit anti-tumor effect primarily via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Our previous study demonstrated that PAB triggered mitotic catastrophe in L929 cells. In addition, a small percentage of the cells undergoing mitotic catastrophe displayed an apoptotic phenotype. Therefore, we continued to investigate the fate of the other cells. The results indicated that PAB induced senescence through p19-p53-p21 and p16-Rb pathways in L929 cells. PAB also triggered autophagy via inhibiting Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity in L929 cells. In addition, autophagy was demonstrated to reinforce senescence through regulating the senescence pathways. Thus, we focused on the detailed molecular mechanisms whereby autophagy promoted senescence. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays an important in autophagy and senescence. We found that PAB triggered a ROS-JNK-p53 positive feedback loop and this feedback loop played a crucial role in autophagy via repressing the activation of mTOR. Furthermore, ROS-JNK-p53 positive feedback loop was demonstrated to regulate senescence. Tuberous sclerosis proteins1 and 2, also known as TSC1 and TSC2, form a protein-complex. TSC1/TSC2 heterodimer is a downstream target of growth factor-phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt signaling which negatively regulates mTOR activity. Activation of mTOR by insulin or inhibition of endogenous TSC2 levels by siRNA obviously delayed PAB-induced senescence. In conclusion, mTOR inactivation by ROS-JNK-p53 pathway played an important role in autophagy-dependent senescence in PAB-treated L929 cells.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · European journal of pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Pseudolaric acid B (PAB) is the primary biologically active compound isolated from the root bark of P. kaempferi Gordon. Our previous study demonstrated that PAB induced mitotic catastrophe in L929 cells and indicated that only a small percentage (12%) of the cells undergoing mitotic catastrophe displayed an apoptotic phenotype after PAB treatment for 72 h. In this study, we found that a minority of the cells undergoing mitotic catastrophe ended in apoptosis, and a majority of them entered a period of senescence. Further data confirmed that PAB induced autophagy, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and mitochondrial dysfunction in L929 cells. Subsequently, we found that autophagy inhibitors significantly delayed the senescence process, indicating that autophagy facilitated senescence. Moreover, ROS scavenger significantly decreased the autophagic level and improved mitochondrial function. Additionally, autophagy inhibitors effectively reduced ROS levels and ameliorated mitochondrial function. In conclusion, autophagy promoted senescence via enhancement of ROS generation and mitochondrial dysfunction in PAB-treated L929 cells.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms mediating hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced protection against oridonin-induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Oridonin induced decrease in Bcl-2/Bax ratio and activation of caspase-3, while these processes were reversed by HGF, suggesting that HGF played an anti-apoptotic role in oridonin-induced A549 cell death. HGF-induced protective effect was partially attributed to the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), since the protective effect was abolished by inhibition of NF-κB or interruption of COX-2. Then the activated COX-2 could prevent cells from initiating the apoptotic response by promoting prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) release. Activation of NF-κB-COX-2 by HGF-treatment triggered the increase in Bcl-2/Bax ratio, inhibition of procaspase-3 cleavage, promotion of Ca²⁺-independent intracellular phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) expression and augmentation of PGE₂ release, leading to antagonizing oridonin-induced cell death in A549 cells. HGF-induced cell survival in response to oridonin administration was associated with the activation of c-Met-NF-κB-COX-2 and c-Met-Bcl-2-caspase-3 signaling pathways. iPLA2, downstream effector of caspase-3, also participated in these processes.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
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    ABSTRACT: Silibinin is an active constituent extracted from the blessed milk thistle (Silybum marianum). In a previous study, we demonstrated that silibinin treatment induced the generation of reactive nitrogen species (RNS), which were associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS), and caused apoptosis and autophagy in HeLa cells. Another study reported that silibinin treatment attenuated the apoptotic effect of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) by generating ROS in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells [ 1 ]. To clarify the relationship between RNS and nitric oxide (NO) in HeLa cells, we chose SNP as a NO donor to inhibit the cell viability. We found that silibinin treatment did not reduce the cytotoxicity of NO by reducing the ROS-induced RNS levels; conversely, silibinin treatment enhanced the cytotoxicity of NO. Pre-treatment with the NO scavenger PTIO preserved the viability of SNP- or silibinin-treated cells. Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) treatment was also used to deplete the level of glutathione (GSH) and subsequently enhance the cytotoxicity of NO. Pre-treatment with BSO enhanced the SNP-induced reduction of cell viability but had no such effects in the silibinin-treated cells. These results led us to investigate whether silibinin treatment could induce the depletion of GSH. JNK and p53 have been shown to mediate the depletion of GSH [ 2 , 3 ], and we previously demonstrated the existence of a ROS-JNK-p53 cycle in silibinin-treated HeLa cells [ 4 ]. Thus, we speculated that p53 also plays a crucial role in the silibinin-induced GSH depletion. To elucidate the role of p53 in this process, A431 cells were used because they are naturally devoid of a functional p53 (p53His273 mutation). To our surprise, silibinin treatment did not lower the GSH level in A431 cells but rather elevated the GSH level. Unlike the ROS level, the NO level was still up-regulated by silibinin treatment in A431 cells. Cumulatively, these findings support the idea that the silibinin-induced GSH depletion, which is mediated by p53, enhances the cytotoxicity of NO in HeLa cells.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · Free Radical Research
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    ABSTRACT: Pseudolaric acid B (PAB) is the primary biologically active compound isolated from the root bark of P. kaempferi Gordon. Previous studies have demonstrated that PAB arrests cells in G2/M phase in several cancer cell lines without significantly perturbing the G2/M transition-associated proteins. CylinB1, a marker for mitotic phase arrest, was up-regulated in cells treated with PAB. Therefore, we investigated whether PAB affects cell cycle progression at the mitotic phase. The mitotic index increased during a 24h treatment with PAB, suggesting that PAB arrested cell cycle progression at mitosis. In addition, after a prolonged mitotic arrest, the cells underwent mitotic catastrophe. After an extended treatment with PAB (longer than 24h), the protein levels of cylinB1 and cdc2 significantly decreased in both nuclear and cytosolic extracts. According to these results, we concluded that mitotic slippage could be due to the inactivation of the cylinB1-cdc2 complex resulting from prolonged treatment with PAB. The cells undergoing mitotic catastrophe died via apoptosis.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · European journal of pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Silibinin is an active constituent extracted from blessed milk thistle (Silybum marianum). Our previous study demonstrated that silibinin induced autophagy and apoptosis via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in HeLa cells. In this study, we investigated whether the autophagy- and apoptosis-associated molecules also involved in ROS generation. Silibinin promoted the expression phosphorylated-p53 (p-p53) in a dose-dependent manner. Pifithrin-α (PFT-α), a specific inhibitor of p53, reduced ROS production and reversed silibinin's growth-inhibitory effect. The ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) attenuated silibinin-induced up-regulation of p-p53 expression, suggesting that p53 might be regulated by ROS and forms a positive feedback loop with ROS. On the other hand, silibinin dose-dependently promoted the expression of phosphorylated-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK). Inhibition of JNK by SP600125 decreased ROS generation. NAC down-regulated the expression of p-JNK, indicating that JNK could be activated by ROS. Activation of p53 was suppressed by SP600125 and expression of p-JNK was inhibited by PFT-α, therefore silibinin might activate a ROS-JNK-p53 cycle to induce cell death. Silibinin up-regulated the PUMA and Bax expressions and down-regulated the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) level. PFT-α reduced the expression of PUMA and Bax. These results showed that p53 could interfere with mitochondrial functions such as MMP via PUMA pathways, thus resulting in ROS generation. In order to elucidate the functions of p53 in silibinin induced ROS generation, we have chosen the A431 cells (human epithelial carcinoma) because they lack p53 activity (p53His273 mutation). Interestingly, silibinin did not up-regulate the ROS level in A431 cells but lower the ROS level. PFT-α had no influence on ROS level in A431 cells. p53 activation plays a crucial role in silibinin induced ROS generation.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Free Radical Research
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    ABSTRACT: Silibinin, as the major active constituent of silymarin, has its various biological effects. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effects of silibinin on HeLa cell growth in relation to autophagy and apoptosis induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generation. Silibinin dose and time-dependently decreased cell growth cultured in medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum or in serum free media (SFM) with an IC(50) of approximately 80-100 and 40-60 μM at 24 h, respectively. Silibinin induced autophagy at 12 h, confirmed by monodansylcadervarine (MDC) staining and up-regulation of beclin-1, and induced apoptosis at 24 h, detected by observation of apoptotic bodies and activation of caspase-3. 3-methyladenine (3-MA) inhibited silibinin-induced autophagy and attenuated the silibinin's inhibitory effect on cell viability, suggesting that autophagy enhanced silibinin-induced cell death. Silibinin increased ROS levels at 12 h, and ROS scavenger, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), significantly reversed the cytotoxicity of silibinin through inhibiting both autophagy and apoptosis. Specific antioxidants were applied and results indicated that hydroxyl radical (·OH) was the major ROS induced by silibinin, and OH scavenger glutathione (GSH) inhibited apoptosis and autophagy. Silibinin also generated RNS production in the cells at 12 h. High concentration of N omega-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) as nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor attenuated the cytotoxicity of silibinin by decreasing ROS levels, leading to down-regulation of apoptosis. Silibinin also could interrupt the respiring functions of mitochondria, leading to ROS production and oxidative damage.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Free Radical Research

Publication Stats

93 Citations
21.20 Total Impact Points


  • 2011-2014
    • Shenyang Pharmaceutical University
      • China-Japan Research Institute of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Feng-t’ien, Liaoning, China