Kandai Nozu

Kobe University, Kōbe, Hyōgo, Japan

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Publications (110)373.43 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Duchene muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive muscle wasting disease, caused by mutations in the dystrophin (DMD) on the X chromosome. One-third of patients are estimated to have de novo mutations. To provide in-depth genetic counseling, the comprehensive identification of mutations is mandatory. However, many DMD patients did not undergo genetic diagnosis because detailed genetic diagnosis was not available or their mutational types were difficult to identify. Here we report the genetic testing of a sporadic DMD boy, who died >20 years previously. Dried umbilical cord preserved for 38 years was the only available source of genomic DNA. Although the genomic DNA was severely degraded, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis was performed but no gross mutations found. Sanger sequencing was attempted but not conclusive. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed by controlling the tagmentation during library preparation. A nonsense mutation in DMD (p.Arg2095*) was clearly identified in the proband. Consequently, the identical mutation was detected as an 11% mosaic mutation from his healthy mother. Finally, the proband's sister was diagnosed as a non-carrier of the mutation. Thus using NGS we have identified a pathogenic DMD mutation from degraded DNA and low-level somatic mosaicism, which would have been overlooked using Sanger sequencing.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 7 January 2016; doi:10.1038/jhg.2015.157.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Human Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Background: X-linked Alport syndrome (XLAS) is a progressive hereditary nephropathy caused by mutations in the type IV collagen alpha chain 5 gene (COL4A5). Although many COL4A5 mutations have previously been identified, pathogenic synonymous mutations have not yet been described. Methods: A family with XLAS underwent mutational analyses of COL4A5 by PCR and direct sequencing, as well as transcript analysis of potential splice site mutations. In silico analysis was also conducted to predict the disruption of splicing factor binding sites. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of kidney biopsies was used to detect α2 and α5 chain expression. Results: We identified a hemizygous point mutation, c.876A>T, in exon 15 of COL4A5 in the proband and his brother, which is predicted to result in a synonymous amino acid change, p.(Gly292Gly). Transcript analysis showed that this mutation potentially altered splicing because it disrupted the splicing factor binding site. The kidney biopsy of the proband showed lamellation of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), while IHC revealed negative α5(IV) staining in the GBM and Bowman's capsule, which is typical of XLAS. Conclusions: This is the first report of a synonymous COL4A5 substitution being responsible for XLAS. Our findings suggest that transcript analysis should be conducted for the future correct assessment of silent mutations.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: Background The etiology of Kawasaki disease (KD) is unknown. Reportedly, there is an association between KD and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (YPT). Steroid therapy for KD patients with high risk of cardiac sequelae (CS) has been reported; however, the number of reports is limited. Methods We conducted a prospective study of 108 patients with newly diagnosed KD in one year to determine how many KD patients have positive anti-YPT antibody titers and/or positive anti-YPT-derived mitogen (YPM) antibody titers. In addition, we tried to identify clinical differences between KD patients in whom YPT infection was or not a contributing factor. We also compared clinical characteristics of patients treated with the protocol of the Randomized controlled trial to Assess Immunoglobulin plus Steroid Efficacy for Kawasaki disease (RAISE) study (RAISE group) and with the conventional Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) protocol (conventional group). Results Eleven patients (10 %) were positive for anti-YPT and/or anti-YPM antibodies (positive group) and 97 (90 %) were negative (negative group). Cardiac sequelae (CS) occurred significantly more frequently in the positive than the negative group (two patients, 18 % vs one patient, 1 %, p = 0.027). Forty patients were in the RAISE group. Two of 40 (5 %) in the RAISE group and one of 68 (1.47 %) in the conventional group had CS (p = 0.55). Conclusions KD patients with YPT infection had CS significantly more frequently and treatment with RAISE protocol did not decrease the frequency of CS in our cohort, nor did YPT infection affect risk scores of no response to IVIG. However, our sample size was overly small to draw such conclusions. Further investigation in a larger cohort is necessary to confirm our findings. Additionally, further research is needed to determine whether early diagnosis of YPT can prevent KD from developing and reduce the incidence of CS.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · BMC Pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: To date, there have been a very limited number of case reports on combined Alport syndrome (AS) and Klinefelter syndrome (KS). We herein describe the case of a 9-month-old boy diagnosed with concomitant AS and KS. KS was detected on chromosomal analysis of the amniotic fluid, and hematuria/proteinuria was identified in urinary screening at 6 months of age. Renal biopsy indicated AS, with complete deficit of the α5 chain of type IV collagen in the glomerular basement membranes. On genetic analysis for AS, de novo homozygote mutation (c.3605-2a > c) was seen in the gene encoding α5 chain of type IV collagen (COL4A5) on the X chromosomes of maternal origin. This is the first case report of combined AS and KS diagnosed during infancy, and it indicates the need to consider the concurrent existence of these two disorders in infants with urine abnormalities, even in the absence of a family history.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Pediatrics International
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare neurological disorder that is associated with paraneoplastic diseases. Because OMS can frequently relapse, patients may be inflicted with neurological problems for a long time. Recently, rituximab (RTX) was introduced as a drug to treat OMS. To assess RTX treatment, we studied a patient who experienced recurrence of OMS. Case report: A 2-year-old Japanese boy, who had left adrenal neuroblastoma, suddenly showed OMS symptoms, including ataxia and opsoclonus. Surgical resection of the tumor and subsequent steroid therapy ameliorated his symptoms. When OMS relapsed during the time when prednisolone was reduced, he was treated with full-dose RTX therapy (375mg/m(2)/week) for 4 consecutive weeks. However, 1year later, he presented again with OMS symptoms. This time, we only administered an additional single dose of RTX treatment (375mg/m(2)), allowing remission of OMS symptoms. During 2years after the additional RTX treatment, OMS symptoms did not appear, even when prednisolone was reduced. He had no adverse events associated with RTX during the whole treatment period. Conclusions: An additional single-dose RTX therapy might be effective for relapsed OMS patients who were previously treated with full-dose RTX therapy.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Brain & development
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    ABSTRACT: The nuclear pore complex (NPC) is a huge protein complex embedded in the nuclear envelope. It has central functions in nucleocytoplasmic transport, nuclear framework, and gene regulation. Nucleoporin 107 kDa (NUP107) is a component of the NPC central scaffold and is an essential protein in all eukaryotic cells. Here, we report on biallelic NUP107 mutations in nine affected individuals who are from five unrelated families and show early-onset steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). These individuals have pathologically focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, a condition that leads to end-stage renal disease with high frequency. NUP107 is ubiquitously expressed, including in glomerular podocytes. Three of four NUP107 mutations detected in the affected individuals hamper NUP107 binding to NUP133 (nucleoporin 133 kDa) and NUP107 incorporation into NPCs in vitro. Zebrafish with nup107 knockdown generated by morpholino oligonucleotides displayed hypoplastic glomerulus structures and abnormal podocyte foot processes, thereby mimicking the pathological changes seen in the kidneys of the SRNS individuals with NUP107 mutations. Considering the unique properties of the podocyte (highly differentiated foot-process architecture and slit membrane and the inability to regenerate), we propose a "podocyte-injury model" as the pathomechanism for SRNS due to biallelic NUP107 mutations.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia type 1 (ADH1) is a relatively rare endocrine disorder characterized by hypocalcemia and inadequate parathyroid hormone secretion. ADH is caused by activating mutations in the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) gene, CASR. CaSR plays a crucial role in calcium and magnesium homeostasis in the kidney. ADH may be accompanied by hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis when it is classified as type V Bartter syndrome. However, the mechanism underlying hypokalemia in this disease is unclear. We investigated a 33-year-old woman with hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism since childhood, whose mother also had hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism, but with no clinical symptoms. Blood examinations showed hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis in the patient, but not her mother. We conducted mutation analysis and diuretic tests to clarify the patient's and her mother's diagnosis and to investigate the onset mechanism of hypokalemia in ADH1. We also determined the localization of CaSR in the kidney by immunohistochemistry. We detected a known gain-of-function mutation in CASR in both the patient and her mother. Diuretic tests revealed a response to furosemide and no reaction to thiazide in the patient, although the mother responded well to both diuretics. CaSR co-localized with the Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCCT) on distal tubular epithelial cells. These results indicate that the NCCT in the distal convoluted tubule was secondarily affected in this patient. We conclude that the main pathogenesis of secondary hypokalemia in ADH1 in this patient was secondary NCCT dysfunction.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: Pericatheter leakage is a catheter-related complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). To prevent pericatheter leakage, a modified technique of PD catheter insertion with fibrin glue was performed in 19 children. At the time of PD catheter insertion, as much fibrin glue as possible was injected into the subcutaneous tissue along the tunneled segment of the catheter and then the skin was compressed. There was no occurrence of pericatheter leakage and full PD could be initiated 1 day (median) after implantation. This technique prevented pericatheter leakage completely even in smaller-weight infants and will enable initiation of full PD with no break-in period. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of pediatric urology
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    ABSTRACT: Some patients with childhood immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) progress to end-stage renal disease within 20 years, while others achieve spontaneous remission even without medication. Prognosis of IgAN with minimal proteinuria (MP-IgAN, <0.5 g/day/1.73 m(2)) at diagnosis seems to be generally good. However, the long-term outcome for patients with childhood MP-IgAN has not yet been determined. We retrospectively analyzed 385 children newly diagnosed with biopsy-proven IgAN between June 1976 and July 2009 whose renal biopsy specimens could be evaluated by the Oxford classification criteria. Of these 385 children with IgAN, 106 (27.5 %) were diagnosed with MP-IgAN. We compared clinical and pathological findings between the 106 patients with MP-IgAN and the remaining 279 patients to elucidate the characteristics of MP-IgAN in children. Patients with MP-IgAN were identified through a school screening program (73.6 %) or upon presentation with gross hematuria (26.4 %). Patients with MP-IgAN had significantly milder pathological symptoms than those with IgAN. The most frequently used therapeutic regimes were angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (30.2 %) and no therapy (36.8 %). None of the patients with MP-IgAN reached stage III chronic kidney disease within 15 years after onset. Four patients with MP-IgAN (3.8 %) received immunosuppressive therapy during the course of the disease. Our results indicate that the outcome of patients with a diagnosis of childhood MP-IgAN is good, but that careful long-term observation is required.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Pediatric Nephrology

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Nippon Jinzo Gakkai shi
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    ABSTRACT: X-linked Alport syndrome (XLAS) is a progressive, hereditary nephropathy. Although men with XLAS usually develop end-stage renal disease before 30 years of age, some men show a milder phenotype and develop end-stage renal disease later in life. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with this milder phenotype have not been fully identified. We genetically diagnosed 186 patients with suspected XLAS between January 2006 and August 2014. Genetic examination involved: (1) extraction and analysis of genomic DNA using PCR and direct sequencing using Sanger's method and (2) next-generation sequencing to detect variant allele frequencies. We identified somatic mosaic variants in the type VI collagen, α5 gene (COL4A5) in four patients. Interestingly, two of these four patients with variant frequencies in kidney biopsies or urinary sediment cells of ≥50% showed hematuria and moderate proteinuria, whereas the other two with variant frequencies of <50% were asymptomatic or only had hematuria. De novo variants can occur even in asymptomatic male cases of XLAS resulting in mosaicism, with important implications for genetic counseling. This is the first study to show a tendency between the variant allele frequency and disease severity in male XLAS patients with somatic mosaic variants in COL4A5. Although this is a very rare status of somatic mosaicism, further analysis is needed to show this correlation in a larger population.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 27 May 2015; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015.113.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · European journal of human genetics: EJHG
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    ABSTRACT: Phenotypic overlap exists among type III Bartter syndrome (BS), Gitelman syndrome (GS), and pseudo-BS/GS (p-BS/GS), which are clinically difficult to distinguish. We aimed to clarify the differences between these diseases, allowing accurate diagnosis based on their clinical features. A total of 163 patients with genetically defined type III BS (n = 30), GS (n = 90), and p-BS/GS (n = 43) were included. Age at diagnosis, sex, body mass index, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and serum and urine electrolyte concentrations were determined. Patients with p-BS/GS were significantly older at diagnosis than those with type III BS and GS. Patients with p-BS/GS included a significantly higher percentage of women and had a lower body mass index and estimated glomerular filtration rate than did patients with GS. Although hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria were predominant biochemical findings in patients with GS, 17 and 23% of patients with type III BS and p-BS/GS, respectively, also showed these abnormalities. Of patients with type III BS, GS, and p-BS/GS, 40, 12, and 63%, respectively, presented with chronic kidney disease. This study clarified the clinical differences between BS, GS, and p-BS/GS for the first time, which will help clinicians establish differential diagnoses for these three conditions.Genet Med advance online publication 16 April 2015Genetics in Medicine (2015); doi:10.1038/gim.2015.56.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: CDKL5-related encephalopathy is an X-linked dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by early infantile epileptic encephalopathy or atypical Rett syndrome. We describe a 5-year-old Japanese boy with intractable epilepsy, severe developmental delay, and Rett syndrome-like features. Onset was at 2months, when his electroencephalogram showed sporadic single poly spikes and diffuse irregular poly spikes. We conducted a genetic analysis using an Illumina® TruSight™ One sequencing panel on a next-generation sequencer. We identified two epilepsy-associated single nucleotide variants in our case: CDKL5 p.Ala40Val and KCNQ2 p.Glu515Asp. CDKL5 p.Ala40Val has been previously reported to be responsible for early infantile epileptic encephalopathy. In our case, the CDKL5 heterozygous mutation showed somatic mosaicism because the boy's karyotype was 46,XY. The KCNQ2 variant p.Glu515Asp is known to cause benign familial neonatal seizures-1, and this variant showed paternal inheritance. Although we believe that the somatic mosaic CDKL5 mutation is mainly responsible for the neurological phenotype in the patient, the KCNQ2 variant might have some neurological effect. Genetic analysis by next-generation sequencing is capable of identifying multiple variants in a patient. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Brain & development
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    Kazumoto Iijima · Mayumi Sako · Kandai Nozu
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    ABSTRACT: In the past 10 years, many reports have suggested that rituximab, a chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, is effective for children with complicated, frequently relapsing or steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (FRNS/SDNS). However, those reports were case reports, case series, retrospective surveys, and single-arm or short-term trials. Therefore, well-designed controlled trials are required to establish the value of rituximab in this condition. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of rituximab in childhood-onset, complicated FRNS/SDNS, a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was carried out by the Research Group of Childhood-onset Refractory Nephrotic Syndrome (RCRNS) in Japan (RCRNS01). RCRNS01 showed that rituximab is safe and effective for the treatment of childhood-onset, complicated FRNS/SDNS. In 2014, the use of rituximab for patients with complicated FRNS/SDNS was approved, first in the world, by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2015

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · The Lancet
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    ABSTRACT: Although a 2-year combination therapy is effective for severe childhood immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy, proteinuria persists in some patients even after the treatment. Seventy-nine patients aged <18 years with IgA nephropathy in which >80 % of glomeruli showed mesangial proliferation were enrolled in the study. Risk factors for persistent proteinuria after combination therapy were investigated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Proteinuria (≥0.2 g/1.73 m(2)/day) persisted in 27 patients (34 %) after the combination therapy. Twenty-four-hour urinary protein excretion, rate of glomeruli with crescents, rate of glomeruli with segmental sclerosis and rate of glomeruli with global sclerosis at diagnosis were higher in patients with persistent proteinuria than those without. In the multivariate analysis, 24-h urinary protein excretion [odds ratio (OR) 6.9; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 2.1-27.8; p = 0.001] and rate of glomeruli with crescents (OR 3.8; 95 % CI 1.1-13.9; p = 0.03) were independent risk factors for persistent proteinuria. Analysis of the receiver operating characteristic curve demonstrated that the most accurate cut-off values to detect persistent proteinuria were a urinary protein excretion of 1.32 g/1.73 m(2)/day and a 14 % rate of glomeruli with crescents. In our cohort, urinary protein excretion and rate of glomeruli with crescents at diagnosis were independent risk factors for persistent proteinuria after the combination therapy.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Pediatric Nephrology

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Pediatric Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: Background Rituximab could be an effective treatment for childhood-onset, complicated, frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome (FRNS) and steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS). We investigated the efficacy and safety of rituximab in patients with high disease activity. Methods We did a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial at nine centres in Japan. We screened patients aged 2 years or older experiencing a relapse of FRNS or SDNS, which had originally been diagnosed as nephrotic syndrome when aged 1–18 years. Patients with complicated FRNS or SDNS who met all other criteria were eligible for inclusion after remission of the relapse at screening. We used a computer-generated sequence to randomly assign patients (1:1) to receive rituximab (375 mg/m2) or placebo once weekly for 4 weeks, with age, institution, treatment history, and the intervals between the previous three relapses as adjustment factors. Patients, guardians, caregivers, physicians, and individuals assessing outcomes were masked to assignments. All patients received standard steroid treatment for the relapse at screening and stopped taking immunosuppressive agents by 169 days after randomisation. Patients were followed up for 1 year. The primary endpoint was the relapse-free period. Safety endpoints were frequency and severity of adverse events. Patients who received their assigned intervention were included in analyses. This trial is registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network clinical trials registry, number UMIN000001405. Findings Patients were centrally registered between Nov 13, 2008, and May 19, 2010. Of 52 patients who underwent randomisation, 48 received the assigned intervention (24 were given rituximab and 24 placebo). The median relapse-free period was significantly longer in the rituximab group (267 days, 95% CI 223–374) than in the placebo group (101 days, 70–155; hazard ratio: 0·27, 0·14–0·53; p<0·0001). Ten patients (42%) in the rituximab group and six (25%) in the placebo group had at least one serious adverse event (p=0·36). Interpretation Rituximab is an effective and safe treatment for childhood-onset, complicated FRNS and SDNS. Funding Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · The Lancet
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    ABSTRACT: Microdeletion of 16q12 is a rare chromosomal abnormality. We present the cases of two Japanese patients with developmental and renal symptoms of differing clinical severity. Both patients had 16q12 interstitial microdeletions that included the entire SALL1 gene. Patient 1 was a 15-year-old Japanese boy clinically diagnosed with branchio-oto-renal syndrome with mild developmental delay, but with no imperforate anus or polydactyly. Array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) indicated a 5.2 Mb deletion in 16q12, which included SALL1. Patient 2 was a 13-year-old Japanese boy diagnosed with Townes–Brocks syndrome and severe developmental delay, epilepsy, and renal insufficiency requiring renal replacement therapy. Fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated deletion of the entire SALL1 gene. Subsequent aCGH showed a 6 Mb deletion in 16q12q13, which included SALL1. Precise analysis of the present two cases will give us some clues to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of 16q12 microdeletion syndrome.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Pediatrics International
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objectives: X-linked Alport syndrome is caused by mutations in the COL4A5 gene. Although many COL4A5 mutations have been detected, the mutation detection rate has been unsatisfactory. Some men with X-linked Alport syndrome show a relatively mild phenotype, but molecular basis investigations have rarely been conducted to clarify the underlying mechanism. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: In total, 152 patients with X-linked Alport syndrome who were suspected of having Alport syndrome through clinical and pathologic investigations and referred to the hospital for mutational analysis between January of 2006 and January of 2013 were genetically diagnosed. Among those patients, 22 patients had suspected splice site mutations. Transcripts are routinely examined when suspected splice site mutations for abnormal transcripts are detected; 11 of them showed expected exon skipping, but others showed aberrant splicing patterns. The mutation detection strategy had two steps: (1) genomic DNA analysis using PCR and direct sequencing and (2) mRNA analysis using RT-PCR to detect RNA processing abnormalities. Results: Six splicing consensus site mutations resulting in aberrant splicing patterns, one exonic mutation leading to exon skipping, and four deep intronic mutations producing cryptic splice site activation were identified. Interestingly, one case produced a cryptic splice site with a single nucleotide substitution in the deep intron that led to intronic exonization containing a stop codon; however, the patient showed a clearly milder phenotype for X-linked Alport syndrome in men with a truncating mutation. mRNA extracted from the kidney showed both normal and abnormal transcripts, with the normal transcript resulting in the milder phenotype. This novel mechanism leads to mild clinical characteristics. Conclusions: This report highlights the importance of analyzing transcripts to enhance the mutation detection rate and provides insight into genotype-phenotype correlations. This approach can clarify the cause of atypically mild phenotypes in X-linked Alport syndrome.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

Publication Stats

1k Citations
373.43 Total Impact Points


  • 2008-2015
    • Kobe University
      • Division of Pediatrics
      Kōbe, Hyōgo, Japan
  • 2011-2012
    • Medical College of Wisconsin
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2006-2009
    • Wakayama Medical University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Wakayama, Wakayama, Japan