[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ginseng saponin and ginsenosides exert anti-obesity effects via the modulation of physiological lipid metabolism in vivo or intracellular signalling in cell culture systems. However, the complicated relationship between the anti-obesity effects of ginseng and gene expression has yet to be defined under in vivo conditions. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between the anti-obesity effects of Korean red ginseng extract (KRGE) and hepatic gene expression profiles in mice fed long-term on a high-fat diet (HFD) in this study.
KRGE reduces the levels of cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), serum triglycerides, and atherogenic indices. Levels of leptin, adiponectin and insulin, which regulate glucose and lipid metabolism, were impaired profoundly by HFD. However, KRGE treatment brought these levels back to normal. KRGE was found to down-regulate genes associated with lipid metabolism or cholesterol metabolism (Lipa, Cyp7a1, Il1rn, Acot2, Mogat1, Osbpl3, Asah3l, Insig1, Anxa2, Vldlr, Hmgcs1, Sytl4, Plscr4, Pla2g4e, Slc27a3, Enpp6), all of which were up-regulated by HFD.
KRGE regulated the expression of genes associated with abnormal physiology via HFD. Leptin, insulin, and adiponectin, which carry out critical functions in energy and lipid metabolism, were shown to be modulated by KRGE. These results show that KRGE is effective in preventing obesity.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the anticoagulant compounds in Korean red ginseng (KRG) were investigated. KRG powder was extracted using hot methanol, and the methanol extract was fractionated into n-hexane, ethylacetate, n-butanol, and aqueous fractions by solvent partitioning. The remains from the methanol extraction were further extracted with water and then dialyzed to obtain low and high molecular weight fractions. The anticoagulant activities of the seven fractions were evaluated in terms of thrombin time, prothrombin time, and activated partial thromboplastin time. Among these fractions, the ethylacetate fraction showed the most potent anticoagulant activity. The active components in the ethylacetate fraction were identified as the phenolic compounds vanillic, caffeic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acid via TLC and HPLC. These findings suggest that the anticoagulant activities of phenolic compounds contribute to the cardiovascular effects of KRG.
No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Journal of ginseng research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We reported previously that the administration of Korean red ginseng water extract (KRG-WE) protected the guinea pig testis against damage induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (a potent endocrine disruptor). We also found that crude saponin from ginseng was the active ingredient responsible for this protection. Here, we examined the biological role of KRG-WE in an animal model of age-induced dysfunction of spermatogenesis. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley (six 2-month-old and eighteen 12-month-old) rats were used. The young and old control groups received only vehicle. The ginseng saponin (GS)- and KRG-WE-treated groups received GS (40 mg/kg body weight/day) and KRG-WE (200 mg/kg body weight/day), respectively, for 4 months. The number of cells, Sertoli cell index, Johnsen's score, and sex hormone levels decreased significantly with age. However, the administration of KRG-WE and GS markedly improved the number of germ cells, seminiferous tubular size, and Johnsen's score in the old rats. Ginseng produced a distinct testicular histological improvement in old rats. KRG-WE and GS elevated testosterone levels, while attenuating the aberrant increase in follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels. Sperm kinematics evaluated by a computer-assisted sperm analyzer demonstrated improvement in the percentage of motile sperm, progressive sperm motility, and curvilinear velocity associated with sperm quality, supporting the beneficial role of red ginseng in senile spermatogenesis. Overall, the total water extract had a more potent effect than the corresponding saponin fraction. In conclusion, Korean red ginseng rejuvenated age-induced testicular dysfunction. Additionally, the total water extract was more potent than the corresponding saponin fraction.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Journal of ginseng research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been reported that red ginseng acidic polysaccharide (RGAP), isolated from Korean red ginseng, displays immunostimulatory and anti-tumor activities. In a follow-up study, we have carried out a study on the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of RGAP using hyperlipidemic rats acutely induced by Triton WR1339 or corn oil intravenously injected. Oral administration of RGAP (100 to 1000 mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced the serum levels of triglyceride (TG) up-regulated by Triton WR1339, an inducer of endogenous model hyperlipidemia. Moreover, RGAP treatment was shown to significantly decrease the levels of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concomitant with TG reduction. However, such reduction effects were not observed in cases of total cholesterol (TC) and phospholipid levels increased under the same conditions, although there was an inhibitory tendency. Similar suppressive patterns were also seen in hepatic parameters (total lipids and TG) under the same conditions. The exogenous hyperlipidemic rat condition triggered by corn oil also supported the anti-hyperlipidemic activity of RGAP in serum and hepatic parameters of TG and NEFA. Interestingly, RGAP significantly enhanced the serum activity of lipoprotein lipase, a key hydrolytic enzyme of lipid molecules in lipoprotein, in a dose-dependent manner up to 80%, implying potential involvement of this enzyme in lowering TG and NEFA by RGAP. Therefore, our data suggest that RGAP may play an additional role in reducing hyperlipidemic conditions, which can be used as a valuable neutraceutical application for the treatment of hyperlipidemia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to investigate the protective effect of crude saponin from red ginseng efflux (RGE-CS) on biochemical parameters in male rats acutely exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo--dioxin (TCDD). Forty male rats () were divided into 4 groups. Normal control group (NC) received vehicle and saline; only TCDD-treated group (TT) received TCDD (, single dose) intrperitoneally; RGE-CS 20 received 20 mg/kg of crude saponin i.p. for 4 weeks from 1 week before TCDD-exposure; RGE-CS 40 also received 40 mg/kg of crude saponin i.p. for 4 weeks from 1 week before TCDD-exposure. Body weight of TT group was significantly decreased after TCDD-exposure. However, body weight of crude saponin groups increased throughout the experimental period, although the increasing rate was slower than that of NC group. Decrease in body weight was not observed during the experimental period in RGE-CS 40. Increases in triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), AST, ALT and levels by TCDD intoxication were significantly attenuated by the RGE-CS treatment. Decrease in glucose, amylase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatinine kinase (CK) by TCDD also were inhibited by the RGE-CS. These results suggest that saponin from red-ginseng efflux might be a useful protective agent against TCDD, an endocrine disrupter.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2006 · Journal of ginseng research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous reports demonstrated that ip. administration of Korean red ginseng acidic polysaccharide (RGAP) exerts antitumor activity In mice. The present study was carried out to compare the effects of ip. and p.o. routes of administration of RGAP on either normal or tumor-bearing BALB/c mice. RGAP was administered either ip. or p.o. at doses of 100, 300, 500, 1000 mg/kg for 1 or 5 weeks. Peritoneal macrophages from mice treated with RGAP p.o. at a dose of 300 mg/kg either for 1 or 5 weeks did not exhibit growth inhibition activity toward WEHI-I64 tumor cells. However, administration of RGAP at a dose of 600 mg/kg for both 1 and 5 weeks increased the antitumor activity of macrophages. Oral administration of RGAP (600 mg/kg) for 5 weeks and ip. administration of RGAP (300 mg/kg) for 1 week resulted in antitumor activities of and , respectively, indicating that the effect of i.p. injection is more potent 2 and 5 times than that of p.o. one in terms of dose and duration, respectively. Tumor inhibition rates of RGAP at doses of 300, 500, 1000 mg/kg in mice transplanted with B16-F10 melanoma were 4.4, 12.0, and , respectively, meaning that p.o. dose higher than 500 mg/kg possess marked antitumor activity. The results above suggests that p.o. administration of RGAP also show antitumor activity in vivo depending on the dose.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2005 · Journal of ginseng research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to investigate the antioxidative and antitumor effects of crude polysaccharide fraction from Pleurtus eryngii (CPPE). CPPE inhibited autoxidation of linoleic acid at 1,000 g/mL concentration, and the inhibitory rates of lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsome were 5.28, 9.40, and 32.5% at 10, 100, and 1,000 g/mL concentrations, respectively. After treatment with CPPE for 72 hours, the inhibitory rates against MCF-7, A549 and AGS cell lines showed 42.3, 33.4 and 26.7% at concentration of 1,000 g/mL, respectively. Results of CPPE treatment at 100 and 300 mg/kg/day for 7 days in sarcoma-180 bearing-mice showed survival rates of 70 and 90%, respectively. Body weights of mice treated with CPPE were significantly decreased when compared with the control.
Preview · Article · Jan 2004 · Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition