Chris Theriault

Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

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Publications (13)56.31 Total impact

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Canadian Journal of Diabetes
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Sellar masses (SM) are mostly benign growths of pituitary or nonpituitary origin that are increasingly encountered in clinical practice. To date, no comprehensive population-based study has reported the epidemiology of SM from North America. Aim: To determine the epidemiology of SM in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods: Data from all pituitary-related referrals within the province were prospectively collected in interlinked computerized registries starting in November 2005. We conducted a retrospective analysis on all patients with SM seen within the province between November 2005 and December 2013. Results: A total of 1107 patients were identified, of which 1005 were alive and residing within the province. The mean age at presentation was 44.6±18 years, with an overall female preponderance (62%) and a population prevalence rate of 0.1%. Of patients with SM, 837 (83%) had pituitary adenomas and 168 (17%) had nonpituitary lesions. The relative prevalence and standardized incidence ratio, respectively, of various SM were: nonfunctioning adenomas (38.4%; 2.34), prolactinomas (34.3%; 2.22), Rathke’s cyst (6.5%; 0.5), growth hormone–secreting adenomas (6.5%; 0.3), craniopharyngiomas (4.5%; 0.2), adrenocorticotropic hormone–secreting adenomas (3.8%; 0.2), meningiomas (1.9%), and others (3.9%; 0.21). At presentation, 526 (52.3%) had masses ≥1 cm, 318 (31.6%) at <1 cm, and 11 (1.1%) had functioning pituitary adenomas without discernible tumor, whereas tumor size data were unavailable in 150 (14.9%) patients. The specific pathologies and their most common presenting features were: nonfunctioning adenoma (incidental, headaches, and vision loss), prolactinomas (galactorrhea, menstrual irregularity, and headache), growth hormone–secreting adenomas (enlarging extremities and sweating), adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting adenoma (easy bruising, muscle wasting, and weight gain) and nonpituitary lesions (incidental, headaches, and vision problems). Secondary hormonal deficiencies were common, ranging from 19.6% to 65.7%; secondary hypogonadism, hypothyroidism, and growth hormone deficiencies constituted the majority of these abnormalities. Conclusions: This is the largest North American study to date to assess the epidemiology of SM in a large stable population. Given their significant prevalence in the general population, more studies are needed to evaluate the natural history of these masses and to help allocate appropriate resources for their management.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques
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    ABSTRACT: To determine nephritis outcomes in a prospective multi-ethnic/racial SLE inception cohort. Patients in the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics inception cohort (≤15 months of SLE diagnosis) were assessed annually for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), proteinuria and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Health-related quality of life was measured by the Short Form (36 questions) health survey questionnaire (SF-36) subscales, mental and physical component summary scores. There were 1827 patients, 89% females, mean (s.d.) age 35.1 (13.3) years. The mean (s.d.) SLE duration at enrolment was 0.5 (0.3) years and follow-up 4.6 (3.4) years. LN occurred in 700 (38.3%) patients: 566/700 (80.9%) at enrolment and 134/700 (19.1%) during follow-up. Patients with nephritis were younger, more frequently men and of African, Asian and Hispanic race/ethnicity. The estimated overall 10-year incidence of ESRD was 4.3% (95% CI: 2.8%, 5.8%), and with nephritis was 10.1% (95% CI: 6.6%, 13.6%). Patients with nephritis had a higher risk of death (HR = 2.98, 95% CI: 1.48, 5.99; P = 0.002) and those with eGFR <30 ml/min at diagnosis had lower SF-36 physical component summary scores (P < 0.01) and lower Physical function, Physical role and Bodily pain scores. Over time, patients with abnormal eGFR and proteinuria had lower SF-36 mental component summary (P ≤ 0.02) scores compared to patients with normal values. LN occurred in 38.3% of SLE patients, frequently as the initial presentation, in a large multi-ethnic inception cohort. Despite current standard of care, nephritis was associated with ESRD and death, and renal insufficiency was linked to lower health-related quality of life. Further advances are required for the optimal treatment of LN. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Rheumatology (Oxford, England)
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    ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that powered wheelchair users who receive the Wheelchair Skills Training Program (WSTP) improve their wheelchair skills in comparison with a Control group that receives standard care. Our secondary objectives were to assess goal achievement, satisfaction with training, retention, injury rate, confidence with wheelchair use and participation. Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Rehabilitation centers and communities. 116 powered wheelchair users. Five 30-minute WSTP training sessions. Assessments were done at baseline (T1), post-training (T2) and 3 months post-training (T3) using the Wheelchair Skills Test Questionnaire (WST-Q 4.1), Goal Attainment Score (GAS), Satisfaction Questionnaire, Injury Rate, Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale for Power Wheelchair Users (WheelCon) and Life Space Assessment (LSA). There was no significant T2-T1 difference between the groups for WST-Q capacity scores (p = 0.600) but the difference for WST-Q performance scores was significant (p = 0.016) with a relative (T2/T1 x 100%) improvement of the median score for the Intervention group of 10.8%. The mean (SD) GAS for the Intervention group after training was 92.8% (11.4) and satisfaction with training was high. The WST-Q gain was not retained at T3. There was no clinically significant difference between the groups in injury rate and no statistically significant differences in WheelCon or LSA scores at T3. Powered wheelchair users who receive formal wheelchair skills training demonstrate modest transient post-training improvements in their WST-Q performance scores, they have substantial improvements on individualized goals and they are positive about training. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation
  • R. Lee Kirby · Laura Keeler · Sherry Wang · Kara Thompson · Chris Theriault
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To determine the proportion of wheelchair users who receive wheelchair skills training during an inpatient stay at a Canadian rehabilitation center. Methods: Each of 42 wheelchair-using inpatients completed a questionnaire within 72 hours of his or her expected discharge. Results: Twenty-three (54.8%) participants reported having received wheelchair skills training. The median number and duration of training sessions was five 30-minute sessions. None (0%) of the other 19 participants knew of arrangements to receive training after discharge. Conclusion: Only 54.8% of wheelchair-using people nearing discharge from a rehabilitation center reported that they had received wheelchair skills training.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Canadian Journal of Diabetes

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Arthritis & Rheumatology

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the frequency and characteristics of headaches and their association with global disease activity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A disease inception cohort was assessed annually for headache (5 types) and 18 other neuropsychiatric (NP) events. Global disease activity scores (SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 [SLEDAI-2K]), damage scores (Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index [SDI]), and Short Form 36 (SF-36) mental and physical component summary scores were collected. Time to first headache and associations with SF-36 scores were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards and linear regression models with generalized estimating equations. Among the 1,732 SLE patients enrolled, 89.3% were female and 48.3% were white. The mean ± SD age was 34.6 ± 13.4 years, duration of disease was 5.6 ± 5.2 months, and length of followup was 3.8 ± 3.1 years. At enrollment, 17.8% of patients had headache (migraine [60.7%], tension [38.6%], intractable nonspecific [7.1%], cluster [2.6%], and intracranial hypertension [1.0%]). The prevalence of headache increased to 58% after 10 years. Only 1.5% of patients had lupus headache, as identified in the SLEDAI-2K. In addition, headache was associated with other NP events attributed to either SLE or non-SLE causes. There was no association of headache with SLEDAI-2K scores (without the lupus headache variable), SDI scores, use of corticosteroids, use of antimalarials, use of immunosuppressive medications, or specific autoantibodies. SF-36 mental component scores were lower in patients with headache compared with those without headache (mean ± SD 42.5 ± 12.2 versus 47.8 ± 11.3; P < 0.001), and similar differences in physical component scores were seen (38.0 ± 11.0 in those with headache versus 42.6 ± 11.4 in those without headache; P < 0.001). In 56.1% of patients, the headaches resolved over followup. Headache is frequent in SLE, but overall, it is not associated with global disease activity or specific autoantibodies. Although headaches are associated with a lower HRQOL, the majority of headaches resolve over time, independent of lupus-specific therapies.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Arthritis & Rheumatology
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The aim of this study was to describe the frequency, attribution, outcome and predictors of seizures in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics, or SLICC, performed a prospective inception cohort study. Demographic variables, global SLE disease activity (SLE Disease Activity Index 2000), cumulative organ damage (SLICC/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index (SDI)) and neuropsychiatric events were recorded at enrolment and annually. Lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin, anti-β2 glycoprotein-I, antiribosomal P and anti-NR2 glutamate receptor antibodies were measured at enrolment. Physician outcomes of seizures were recorded. Patient outcomes were derived from the SF-36 (36-Item Short Form Health Survey) mental component summary and physical component summary scores. Statistical analyses included Cox and linear regressions. Results The cohort was 89.4% female with a mean follow-up of 3.5±2.9 years. Of 1631 patients, 75 (4.6%) had ≥1 seizure, the majority around the time of SLE diagnosis. Multivariate analysis indicated a higher risk of seizures with African race/ethnicity (HR (CI): 1.97 (1.07 to 3.63); p=0.03) and lower education status (1.97 (1.21 to 3.19); p<0.01). Higher damage scores (without neuropsychiatric variables) were associated with an increased risk of subsequent seizures (SDI=1:3.93 (1.46 to 10.55); SDI=2 or 3:1.57 (0.32 to 7.65); SDI≥4:7.86 (0.89 to 69.06); p=0.03). There was an association with disease activity but not with autoantibodies. Seizures attributed to SLE frequently resolved (59/78 (76%)) in the absence of antiseizure drugs. There was no significant impact on the mental component summary or physical component summary scores. Antimalarial drugs in the absence of immunosuppressive agents were associated with reduced seizure risk (0.07 (0.01 to 0.66); p=0.03). Conclusion Seizures occurred close to SLE diagnosis, in patients with African race/ethnicity, lower educational status and cumulative organ damage. Most seizures resolved without a negative impact on health-related quality of life. Antimalarial drugs were associated with a protective effect.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Annals of the rheumatic diseases
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    ABSTRACT: This population-based study of women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer aimed to (i) determine the current utilization pattern of multigated acquisition (MUGA) scans before adjuvant chemotherapy (AdjC) treatment, and (ii) examine the impact of MUGA scan results on AdjC decision making. All women who underwent curative-intent surgery for stage I-III breast cancer between October 2005 and September 2006 in Nova Scotia, Canada, were identified through the provincial cancer registry. A retrospective chart review was performed to abstract all relevant clinical-pathologic variables, including baseline cardiac risk factors. The association between MUGA scan utilization and clinical-pathologic variables, as well as receipt and type of AdjC, was examined through univariate and multivariate analyses. The study included 593 women, of whom 238 (40%) received AdjC (94% anthracycline vs. 6% nonanthracycline) and 198 (33%) underwent baseline MUGA scans. Of those received AdjC, 80% underwent MUGA scans. MUGA scan utilization was associated with AdjC treatment (yes vs. no; P < .0001), Her-2/neu status (positive vs. negative vs. not tested; P < .0001), and AdjC regimen (anthracycline vs. nonanthracycline; P < .0001). Abnormal MUGA results were observed in 5 (2.5%) of 198; all were smokers, and 4 were >65 years of age. In the 1 patient <50 years old, subsequent echocardiograms indicated normal cardiac function. Routine baseline MUGA scans before AdjC were abnormal and changed the AdjC treatment decision in only 2.5% and 2.0% of patients, respectively. Routine MUGA scans before anthracycline-based AdjC without trastuzumab, however, did not influence AdjC decisions for younger patients <65 years of age without underlying cardiac risk factors.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Clinical Breast Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Neuropsychiatric events occur unpredictably in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and most biomarker associations remain to be prospectively validated. This study examined a disease inception cohort of 1047 SLE patients to determine which autoantibodies at enrolment predicted subsequent neuropsychiatric events. Patients with a recent SLE diagnosis were assessed prospectively for up to 10 years for neuropsychiatric events using the American College of Rheumatology case definitions. Decision rules of graded stringency determined whether neuropsychiatric events were attributable to SLE. Associations between the first neuropsychiatric event and baseline autoantibodies (lupus anticoagulant (LA), anticardiolipin, anti-β(2) glycoprotein-I, anti-ribosomal P and anti-NR2 glutamate receptor) were tested by Cox proportional hazards regression. Disease duration at enrolment was 5.4 ± 4.2 months, follow-up was 3.6 ± 2.6 years. Patients were 89.1% female with mean (±SD) age 35.2 ± 13.7 years. 495/1047 (47.3%) developed one or more neuropsychiatric event (total 917 events). Neuropsychiatric events attributed to SLE were 15.4% (model A) and 28.2% (model B). At enrolment 21.9% of patients had LA, 13.4% anticardiolipin, 15.1% anti-β(2) glycoprotein-I, 9.2% anti-ribosomal P and 13.7% anti-NR2 antibodies. LA at baseline was associated with subsequent intracranial thrombosis (total n=22) attributed to SLE (model B) (HR 2.54, 95% CI 1.08 to 5.94). Anti-ribosomal P antibody was associated with subsequent psychosis (total n=14) attributed to SLE (model B) (HR 3.92, 95% CI 1.23 to 12.5, p=0.02). Other autoantibodies did not predict neuropsychiatric events. In a prospective study of 1047 recently diagnosed SLE patients, LA and anti-ribosomal P antibodies are associated with an increased future risk of intracranial thrombosis and lupus psychosis, respectively.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Annals of the rheumatic diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Autoantibodies are central to the diagnosis and assessment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A recent technique for the measurement of autoantibodies utilizes addressable laser bead immunoassay technology (BioPlex 2200) which permits the simultaneous detection of multiple autoantibodies and improved efficiency due to the shorter time to perform the assay and low volume of test samples and reagents. In the current study we have compared this technique to more traditional measures of autoantibody detection. The clinical and laboratory data and stored serum samples from the enrollment visit into a long-term lupus registry at a single academic medical center were used. Sera were examined for a panel of autoantibodies using the BioPlex ANA screen. The results were compared to the historical data on autoantibody profiles using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and ELISA. The association with global and organ specific SLE disease activity (nephritis) was also examined. The study consisted of 192 patients who were predominantly female (87%) and Caucasian (91%) with mean disease duration of 8.8 years. The frequency of ANA and anti-dsDNA by IIF and ELISA was 81.3% and 46.6% respectively and was higher than that found with BioPlex (75.5% and 31.8%). The latter detected a higher proportion of patients with autoantibodies to Sm (7.5% vs 16.7%), RNP (21.8% vs 24.0%), Ro (37.4% vs 41.7) and La (13.9% vs 23.4%). Overall agreement between assays varied between 71.4% and 92.5%. Additional autoantibodies identified by BioPlex were anti-chromatin antibodies which were similar in frequency to anti-dsDNA antibodies (33.9% and 31.8% respectively). There was a low frequency of anti-ribosomal P (6.8%), anti-Scl-70 (5.2%), anti-centromere B (3.7%) and anti-Jo-1 (0.5%). Several autoantibodies revealed significant associations with SLEDAI scores but in a multivariate analysis the only autoantibodies that approached statistical significance were anti-Sm (p=0.094) measured by ELISA and anti-dsDNA (p=0.082) measured by BioPlex. There was no association between any of the autoantibodies regardless of the method of detection and cumulative organ damage scores. Fifty-three patients (27.6%) had lupus nephritis of which 17 (32%) had active nephritis at the time of autoantibody determination. There was no significant association between a positive ANA (IIF) and any autoantibodies detected by ELISA with either the cumulative occurrence of lupus nephritis or active nephritis. In contrast, there was an association between BioPlex detected anti-dsDNA with the cumulative occurrence of nephritis (p=0.074) which reached statistical significance with active nephritis at the time of antibody testing (p=0.012). This was confirmed by multivariate analysis (p=0.047). These results suggest reasonable agreement between the detection of lupus autoantibodies by ELISA and BioPlex. The latter demonstrated a better correlation with lupus nephritis.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Journal of immunological methods