Alberto Schanaider

Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Are you Alberto Schanaider?

Claim your profile

Publications (68)193.89 Total impact

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: The biologic effects of variable ventilation may depend on the etiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome. We compared variable and conventional ventilation in experimental pulmonary and extrapulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome. Design: Prospective, randomized, controlled experimental study. Settings: University research laboratory. Subjects: Twenty-four Wistar rats. Interventions: Acute respiratory distress syndrome was induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide administered intratracheally (pulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome, n = 12) or intraperitoneally (extrapulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome, n = 12). After 24 hours, animals were randomly assigned to receive conventional (volume-controlled ventilation, n = 6) or variable ventilation (n = 6). Nonventilated animals (n = 4 per etiology) were used for comparison of diffuse alveolar damage, E-cadherin, and molecular biology variables. Variable ventilation was applied on a breath-to-breath basis as a sequence of randomly generated tidal volume values (n = 600; mean tidal volume = 6 mL/kg), with a 30% coefficient of variation (normal distribution). After randomization, animals were ventilated for 1 hour and lungs were removed for histology and molecular biology analysis. Measurements and main results: Variable ventilation improved oxygenation and reduced lung elastance compared with volume-controlled ventilation in both acute respiratory distress syndrome etiologies. In pulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome, but not in extrapulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome, variable ventilation 1) decreased total diffuse alveolar damage (median [interquartile range]: volume-controlled ventilation, 12 [11-17] vs variable ventilation, 9 [8-10]; p < 0.01), interleukin-6 expression (volume-controlled ventilation, 21.5 [18.3-23.3] vs variable ventilation, 5.6 [4.6-12.1]; p < 0.001), and angiopoietin-2/angiopoietin-1 ratio (volume-controlled ventilation, 2.0 [1.3-2.1] vs variable ventilation, 0.7 [0.6-1.4]; p < 0.05) and increased relative angiopoietin-1 expression (volume-controlled ventilation, 0.3 [0.2-0.5] vs variable ventilation, 0.8 [0.5-1.3]; p < 0.01). In extrapulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome, only volume-controlled ventilation increased vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 messenger RNA expression (volume-controlled ventilation, 7.7 [5.7-18.6] vs nonventilated, 0.9 [0.7-1.3]; p < 0.05). E-cadherin expression in lung tissue was reduced in volume-controlled ventilation compared with nonventilated regardless of acute respiratory distress syndrome etiology. In pulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome, E-cadherin expression was similar in volume-controlled ventilation and variable ventilation; in extrapulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome, however, it was higher in variable ventilation than in volume-controlled ventilation. Conclusions: Variable ventilation improved lung function in both pulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome and extrapulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome. Variable ventilation led to more pronounced beneficial effects in biologic marker expressions in pulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome compared with extrapulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome but preserved E-cadherin in lung tissue only in extrapulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome, thus suggesting lower damage to epithelial cells.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2016 · Critical Care Medicine
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intra-abdominal adhesions are major post-operative complications for which no effective means of prevention is available. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of exogenous pulmonary surfactant administration in the prevention of post-operative abdominal adhesions. Rats were randomly assigned to undergo laparotomy (L) or gastroenterostomy (GE) and then treated with surfactant (groups L-S and GE-S, respectively). Intra-abdominal adhesions, collagen fibre content, metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, expression of growth factors (TGF-β, KGF and VEGF), type III procollagen (PCIII) and pro-caspase 3, as well as isolectin B4 and ED1-positive cells expressing MMP-9, were evaluated. Groups treated with surfactant (GE-S and L-S) exhibited fewer adhesions. A significant reduction in collagen fibre content was observed in GE-S compared to GE animals (P < 0.001). In situ and gelatin zymography analysis showed higher MMP-9 expression and activity in the GE-S group compared to the GE group (P < 0.05). ED1-positive cell counts were significantly higher in the GE-S group (P < 0.001) than in the GE group. Virtually all cells positive for ED1 were MMP-9+. Double-labelling of MMP-9 with IB4 showed no significant differences between GE-S and GE groups. TGF-β, KGF, PCIII and pro-caspase-3 mRNA expression decreased significantly in GE-S compared to GE animals (P < 0.05). Surfactant administration also reduced apoptosis in the GE-S group. These findings suggest that surfactant reduces the intra-abdominal adhesions triggered by laparotomy and gastrointestinal anastomosis, thus preventing fibrosis formation at the peritoneal surfaces. This preclinical study suggests an innovative treatment strategy for intra-abdominal adhesions with surfactant and to endorse its putative mechanism of action.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016 · Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
  • Source
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective . To develop, validate, and patent a Restraining Device for Small Animal Imaging Exams (RDSAIE) that allows exams to be comfortably conducted without risks to animals and professionals. Methods . A RDSAIE with a mobile cover and shelf was built with transparent acrylic material. A total of six anesthetized rabbits were used to perform the following imaging exams of the skull: Cone Beam Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Scintigraphy. Results . The device showed great functionality and full visibility of the animal behavior, which remained fully stabilized and immobilized in either the horizontal or vertical position without the need for a person to remain in the test room to assist them. The procedures were performed without difficulty, and images of good resolution and without artifacts were obtained. Conclusion . The RDSAIE is comfortable, safe, efficient, and ergonomic. It allows the easy placement of animals in different body positions, including the vertical, the maintenance of postural stability, and full visibility. It may be constructed for animals heavier than 4 kg and it is adaptable for translational studies in anima nobile .
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · BioMed Research International
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Supporting patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), using a protective mechanical ventilation strategy characterized by low tidal volume and limitation of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is a standard practice in the intensive care unit. However, these strategies can promote lung de-recruitment, leading to the cyclic closing and reopening of collapsed alveoli and small airways. Recruitment maneuvers (RM) can be used to augment other methods, like positive end-expiratory pressure and positioning, to improve aerated lung volume. Clinical practice varies widely, and the optimal method and patient selection for recruitment maneuvers have not been determined, considerable uncertainty remaining regarding the appropriateness of RM. This review aims to discuss recent findings about the available types of RM, and compare the effectiveness, indications and adverse effects among them, as well as their impact on morbidity and mortality in ARDS patients. Recent developments include experimental and clinical evidence that a stepwise extended recruitment maneuver may cause an improvement in aerated lung volume and decrease the biological impact seen with the traditionally used sustained inflation, with less adverse effects. Prone positioning can reduce mortality in severe ARDS patients and may be an useful adjunct to recruitment maneuvers and advanced ventilatory strategies, such noisy ventilation and BIVENT, which have been useful in providing lung recruitment.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors detail the experimental development of a technique for the reconstruction of the ureter using a tubular shape, muscle flap of the abdominal wall. the preliminary results indicate the feasibility of this surgical technique.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disorder that can affect adjacent and/or remote organs. Some evidence indicates that the production of reactive oxygen species is able to induce AP. Protein carbonyl (PC) derivatives, which can also be generated through oxidative cleavage mechanisms, have been implicated in several diseases, but there is little or no information on this biomarker in AP. We investigated the association between some inflammatory mediators and PC, with the severity of ischemia-reperfusion AP. Wistar rats (n = 56) were randomly assigned in the following groups : control; sham, 15- or 180-min clamping of splenic artery, with 24 or 72 h of follow-up. The relationships between serum level of PC and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) to myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in tissue homogenates and to cytokines in culture supernatants of pancreatic samples were analyzed. MPO activity was related to the histology scores and increased in all clamping groups. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 were higher in the 180-min groups. Significant correlations were found between MPO activity and the concentrations of TNF-α and IL-1β. PC levels increased in the 15-min to 24-h group. TBARS levels were not altered substantially. MPO activity and TNF-α and IL-1β concentrations in pancreatic tissue are correlated with AP severity. Serum levels of PC appear to begin to rise early in the course of the ischemia-reperfusion AP and are no longer detected at later stages in the absence of severe pancreatitis. These data suggest that PC can be an efficient tool for the diagnosis of early stages of AP.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Clinical and Experimental Medicine
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction Mechanical ventilation with high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) has been used in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), but the role of PEEP in minimizing lung injury remains controversial. We hypothesized that in the presence of acute lung injury (ALI) with IAH: 1) higher PEEP levels improve pulmonary morphofunction and minimize lung injury; and 2) the biological effects of higher PEEP are more effective in extrapulmonary (exp) than pulmonary (p) ALI. Methods In 48 adult male Wistar rats, ALIp and ALIexp were induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide intratracheally and intraperitoneally, respectively. After 24 hours, animals were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated (tidal volume of 6 mL/kg). IAH (15 mmHg) was induced and rats randomly assigned to PEEP of 5 (PEEP5), 7 (PEEP7) or 10 (PEEP10) cmH2O for 1 hour. Results In both ALIp and ALIexp, higher PEEP levels improved oxygenation. PEEP10 increased alveolar hyperinflation and epithelial cell damage compared to PEEP5, independent of ALI etiology. In ALIp, PEEP7 and PEEP10 increased lung elastance compared to PEEP5 (4.3 ± 0.7 and 4.3 ± 0.9 versus 3.1 ± 0.3 cmH2O/mL, respectively, P <0.01), without changes in alveolar collapse, interleukin-6, caspase-3, type III procollagen, receptor for advanced glycation end-products, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expressions. Moreover, PEEP10 increased diaphragmatic injury compared to PEEP5. In ALIexp, PEEP7 decreased lung elastance and alveolar collapse compared to PEEP5 (2.3 ± 0.5 versus 3.6 ± 0.7 cmH2O/mL, P <0.02, and 27.2 (24.7 to 36.8) versus 44.2 (39.7 to 56.9)%, P <0.05, respectively), while PEEP7 and PEEP10 increased interleukin-6 and type III procollagen expressions, as well as type II epithelial cell damage compared to PEEP5. Conclusions In the current models of ALI with IAH, in contrast to our primary hypothesis, higher PEEP is more effective in ALIp than ALIexp as demonstrated by the activation of biological markers. Therefore, higher PEEP should be used cautiously in the presence of IAH and ALI, mainly in ALIexp.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Critical care (London, England)
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate the early bone response to a nanotextured dental implant treated with sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), using a rabbit model. Methods: Twelve animals were randomly divided into group 1 (Control) - machined implants and group 2 (Test) - nanotextured implants. Extra-oral incision was performed to provide access to intended surgical site where the dental implant was inserted immediately after the extraction of the mandibular first premolar. Implant surface characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy attached to energy dispersive spectroscopy and interferometry. Three weeks after surgery, the animals were induced to death and undecalcified sections of the samples were prepared for histological and histomorphometrical analysis. Results: Surface characterization of the implant demonstrated enhanced surface area of anodized group compared to Control group with 19.2% ± 6.2 versus 1.6 ± 0.7, respectively. Histological evaluation demonstrated new bone formation starting from the buccal and lingual cortical walls on both groups. After three weeks, significant higher bone contact of 27% (p<0.05) was observed to nanotextured compared to machined implants (Control group). Conclusion: The anodization with sodium sulfate nanostructures to the implant surface that resulted in faster osseointegration.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Acta cirurgica brasileira / Sociedade Brasileira para Desenvolvimento Pesquisa em Cirurgia
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A simple experimental protocol applying a quantitative ultrasound (QUS) pulse-echo technique was used to measure the acoustic parameters of healthy femoral diaphyses of Wistar rats in vivo. Five quantitative parameters [apparent integrated backscatter (AIB), frequency slope of apparent backscatter (FSAB), time slope of apparent backscatter (TSAB), integrated reflection coefficient (IRC), and frequency slope of integrated reflection (FSIR)] were calculated using the echoes from cortical and trabecular bone in the femurs of 14 Wistar rats. Signal acquisition was performed three times in each rat, with the ultrasound signal acquired along the femur's central region from three positions 1 mm apart from each other. The parameters estimated for the three positions were averaged to represent the femur diaphysis. The results showed that AIB, FSAB, TSAB, and IRC values were statistically similar, but the FSIR values from Experiments 1 and 3 were different. Furthermore, Pearson's correlation coefficient showed, in general, strong correlations among the parameters. The proposed protocol and calculated parameters demonstrated the potential to characterize the femur diaphysis of rats in vivo. The results are relevant because rats have a bone structure very similar to humans, and thus are an important step toward preclinical trials and subsequent application of QUS in humans.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ultrasound parameters were proposed to characterize femur in vitro from rats. Six quantitative parameters (Apparent Integrated Ultrasonic Backscatter -AIB, Frequency Slope of Apparent Backscatter – FSAB, Temporal Slope Apparent Backscatter -TSAB, Integrated Reflection Coefficient -IRC, Slope and Frequency Integrated Reflection -FSIR and Temporal Slope Reflection Coefficient -TSRC) were applied to the echo from the cortical and trabecular bone in twelve femur diaphyses in vitro from Wistar rats. The US signal is acquired from 5 previous chosen positions along the femur. The results showed that their values statistically belong to the same group. This is an indication that the proposed method (from acquisition protocol to parameter estimation) has potential to characterize bone tissue in animal models.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Jan 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low flows rates are common after TIP urethroplasty but their etiology remains unclear and may related to low urethral compliance, maybe due to abnormal collagen concentrations and/or less elastic fibers in the healed urethral plate. We also hypothesized that inserting a preputial mucosal graft over the dorsal raw area after the midline incision (TIPG) may avoid scarring and improve urethral compliance. Adult rabbits were submitted to TIP and TIPG operations according to a previously described protocol. Tissular concentrations of collagens I/III/IV/VI/VIII/XIII were measured. Histomorphometry was used to quantify elastic fibers in the urethra. TIP, TIPG and normal rabbits' urethras (controls) were compared. The mRNA concentrations for collagens I, II and XIII were similar between controls and operated rabbits. The proportions between collagen I and III were, respectively, 1.05, 1.21 and 0.87, in controls, TIP and TIPG animals. mRNA concentrations for collagen IV and for collagens VI/VIII tended to be higher and lower, respectively, in the operated urethras, despite showing statistical significance only for collagen VIII in TIPG animals versus controls (p=0.02). The operated animals did not show a lower number of elastic fibers in the urethral tissues, as compared to controls. Elastic fiber number and distribution was similar between TIP and controls, suggesting that lower concentrations of elastic fibers are not the explanation for low urethral compliances after TIP. The raw area determined by the dorsal urethral incision regenerated after TIP, while cicatrization with fibrosis occurred in correspondence to the grafted areas after TIPG surgery.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · The Journal of urology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to investigate whether mammalian or ascidian Styela plicata heparin enemas could diminish inflammation in experimental diversion colitis. Wistar-specific pathogen-free rats were submitted to a Hartmann's end colostomy and treated with enemas containing mammalian or Styela plicata heparin, or saline. Enemas were administered 3 times a week in the excluded colon segment from 4 to 8 weeks after operation. The effect of treatment was evaluated using video-endoscopic and histologic scores, measuring the cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and transforming growth factor-β production in organ cultures by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, quantifying T cells and macrophages, and investigating nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and external mitogen-activated protein kinase (pERK) activation. Treatment with either mammalian or Styela plicata heparins decreased colonoscopic and histologic scores (P < .02) and restored the densities of collagen fibers and the number of goblet cells (P < .03) in the diverted colon. Both heparin treatments decreased the accumulation of T cells and macrophages (P < .03), and the activation of NF-κB and pERK (P < .04) in the diverted colon. The high levels of cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 from the diversion colitis explants decreased (P < .05) to near normal values with heparin treatments. The improvement of experimental diversion colitis with heparin treatments indicates the anti-inflammatory effect of these compounds, even after topical administration. Further studies with the nonhemorrhagic heparin obtained from the invertebrate Styela plicata will be necessary to confirm its efficacy for the treatment of human diversion colitis and possibly other forms of colitis.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Surgery
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The P2X7 receptor (P2X7-R) is a non-selective ATP-gated cation channel present in epithelial and immune cells, and involved in inflammatory response. Extracellular nucleotides released in conditions of cell stress or inflammation may function as a danger signal alerting the immune system from inflammation. We investigated the therapeutic action of P2X7-R blockade in a model of inflammatory bowel disease. Rats with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis were treated with the P2X7-R antagonists A740003 or brilliant blue G (BBG) through intra-peritoneal (IP) or intra-colonic (IC) injection prior to colitis induction. Clinical and endoscopic follow-up, histological scores, myeloperoxidase activity, densities of collagen fibers and goblet cells were evaluated. P2X7-R expression, NF-kappa B and Erk activities, and densities of T-cells and macrophages were analyzed by immunoperoxidase. The inflammatory response was determined by measuring inflammatory cytokines in cultures of colon explants, by ELISA. Colonic apoptosis was determined by the TUNEL assay. IP-BBG significantly attenuated the severity of colitis, myeloperoxidase activity, collagen deposition, densities of lamina propria T-cells and macrophages, while maintaining goblet cells densities. IP-BBG inhibited the increase in P2X7-R expression in parallel with apoptotic rates. TNF-α and interleukin-1β stabilized in low levels, while TGF-β and interleukin-10 did not change following IP-BBG-therapy. Colonic NF-kappa-B and Erk activation were significantly lower in IP-BBG-treated animals. Prophylactic IP-A740003 also protected rats against the development of TNBS-colitis. Prophylactic systemic P2X7-R blockade is effective in the prevention of experimental colitis, probably due to a systemic anti-inflammatory action, interfering with a stress-inflammation amplification loop mediated by P2X7-R.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the use of a new spherical particle of polyvinyl alcohol and polyvinyl acetate (PVA-PVAc) for uterine artery embolization in patients with myoma with surgical indication. twelve patients underwent uterine myoma embolization with PVA-PVAc particles. Three to nine months later, they were submitted to laparotomy with myomectomy. We analyzed the following parameters: volume of the uterus and of the bigger myoma; concentrations of follicle stimulating hormone and hemoglobin; menstrual bleeding (number of days and used absorbents), signs and symptoms before treatment, after embolization and after myomectomy. The mean age was 37 years and mean uterine volume prior to treatment, 939.3 cc. Three years after embolization, there was reduction in uterine volume (p = 0.0005), increase in hemoglobin concentration after embolization (p = 0.0004), without variation after the myomectomy. There was no significant variation of the follicle stimulating hormone (p = 0.17). There was no case of ovarian failure, but one of the patients had endometrial atrophy. Two patients became pregnant, with good obstetric indicators. Signs and symptoms improved after embolization, and remained after myomectomy. Arterial embolization with spherical PVA-PVAc particles is promising in the preparation for myoma surgery, since it was associated with a reduction in uterine volume, decrease in intraoperative bleeding and made possible the use of smaller incisions, increasing the chance of preserving the uterus.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) imaging of the colon is an important diagnostic tool for early neoplasia, although usually restricted to the rectum in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study aimed to evaluate the ability of an endoluminal ultrasound biomicroscopic (eUBM) system to detect and characterize lesions simulating Crohn's disease in the colon of rats in vivo. Colitis was induced with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid instillated in the distal colon. Eighteen Wistar rats were submitted to eUBM in three time points: week 1 group (18 animals examined on day 3 after colitis induction), week 2 group (12 animals on days 3 and 10), and week 3 group (7 animals on days 3, 10, and 17). This design yielded distinct inflammation intensities. Three untreated rats were used for acquisition of control images. Scores were used for comparison with histology. Scores for eUBM and histology in the different moments of examination achieved a Spearman's rank correlation coefficient of 0.87 (p < 0.001). Findings of wall thickening presented positive predictive value (PPV) and sensitivity of 94 and of 100 %, respectively. Superficial and deep ulcers presented a PPV of 89 and 80 %, respectively, and negative predictive values of 100 and 85 %, respectively. Accurate detection and analysis of the lesions was achieved. The model is essential for the clinical development of the technique and a reproducible method for the evaluation of experimental colitis. eUBM might be applicable in different segments of the gut, developing into a novel adjunct method for IBD evaluation.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · International Journal of Colorectal Disease
  • No preview · Article · May 2013 · Gastroenterology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Abnormal uroflowmetries are common after tubularized incised plate urethroplasties (TIP), perhaps due to low compliance. We hypothesized that (1) abnormal uroflowmetries after TIP might be caused by segmental lower compliance; (2) by adding a graft to the raw area in the incised plate (TIPG), compliance might be improved by preventing secondary intention healing of the dorsal incision. Methods: A standardized penectomy was performed in 27 adult male rabbits: 9 normal non-operated controls (G1), 6 weeks after TIP (G2: n = 9) or TIPG (G3: n = 9). A standardized isolated segment (including the whole urethroplasty in G1 and G2) was progressively distended with air (1, 2 and 3 ml) in the 3 groups. The respective intraluminal pressures were measured with a tensiometer. Results: Pressure measurements were feasible and reproducible for this model. Mean pressures tended to be higher in the experimental groups (G1: 59.7 mmHg vs. G2: 79.6 mmHg vs. G3: 100.1 mmHg for 1 ml injections; G1: 233.1 mmHg vs. G2: 241 mmHg vs. G3: 308.4 mmHg for 2 ml injections and G1: 457.3 mmHg vs. G2: 429 mmHg vs. G3: 520 mmHg for 3 ml injections) without reaching the statistical significance. Conclusion: In this model, the elasticity of the TIP or TIPG neourethras tended to be reduced when compared to controls. The placement of an inlay graft on the dorsal incised area did not increase the compliance. This model allows the measurement of segmental intraluminal urethral pressures generated by controlled air distension and may be a useful tool to evaluate the experimental urethroplasty models.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · World Journal of Urology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate, in large abdominal wall defects surgically shaped in rats, if a synthetic polypropylene nonwoven prosthesis could be used as a therapeutic option to conventional polypropylene mesh. Twenty four (24) Wistar rats were enrolled into three groups. Group 1 (Simulation group) with an abdominal wall defect of 3 X 3 left untreated and Groups 2 and 3, respectively treated with a conventional polypropylene mesh and a polypropylene nonwoven (NWV) prosthesis to cover the breach. At the 45th postoperatively day, adhesion (area and strength) and vascularization of Groups 2 and 3 were evaluated. The histological preparations with Hematoxylin-Eosin, Tricromium of Masson, Pricrosirius red and polarization with birefringence, and also the structural analysis of the prostheses carried on by Thermogravimetry and Differential Scanning Calorimetry were also assessed. There were no significant differences between the Groups 2 and 3. In rats, the polypropylene nonwoven prosthesis showed to be safe and has to be considered as an alternative to conventional mesh manufactured by weaving in the treatment of great defects of the abdominal wall.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Acta cirurgica brasileira / Sociedade Brasileira para Desenvolvimento Pesquisa em Cirurgia
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether butyrate or glutamine enemas could diminish inflammation in experimental diversion colitis. Wistar specific pathogen-free rats were submitted to a Hartmann's end colostomy and treated with enemas containing glutamine, butyrate, or saline. Enemas were administered twice a week in the excluded segment of the colon from 4 to 12 wk after the surgical procedure. Follow-up colonoscopy was performed every 4 wk for 12 wk. The effect of treatment was evaluated using video-endoscopic and histologic scores and measuring interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and transforming growth factor beta production in organ cultures by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Colonoscopies of the diverted segment showed mucosa with hyperemia, increased number of vessels, bleeding and mucus discharge. Treatment with either glutamine or butyrate induced significant reductions in both colonoscopic (P < 0.02) and histological scores (P < 0.01) and restored the densities of collagen fibers in tissue (P = 0.015; P = 0.001), the number of goblet cells (P = 0.021; P = 0.029), and the rate of apoptosis within the epithelium (P = 0.043; P = 0.011) to normal values. The high levels of cytokines in colon explants from rats with diversion colitis significantly decreased to normal values after treatment with butyrate or glutamine. The improvement of experimental diversion colitis following glutamine or butyrate enemas highlights the importance of specific luminal nutrients in the homeostasis of the colonic mucosa and supports their utilization for the treatment of human diversion colitis.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · World Journal of Gastroenterology