[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD), or histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, is a rare entity of unknown etiology in young adults that is typically characterized by cervical lymphadenopathy and persistent fever. The pathogenesis of KFD has been suggested to be an abnormal immune response, and infections or autoimmune diseases are considered to be involved in KFD. However, KFD associated with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) has not been reported.
A 35-year-old male was admitted due to high fever, diffuse air-space consolidation in the right lung with ipsilateral pleural effusion and massive mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy without cervical lesions. On clinical suspicion of malignant lymphoma complicated with pneumonia, we performed a video-assisted thoracoscopic lymph node biopsy, and the diagnosis of KFD was established. Complete cure of the intrathoratic lesions was observed by administration of β-lactam antibiotics alone without steroid therapy.
Discussion and evaluation
Previous large case series have identified no pathogenic relationship between KFD and pneumonia. The hilar adenopathy could have caused airway compression leading to pneumonia.
KFD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of massive mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy, even when there are no superficial lesions. In addition, we need to bear in mind that unexpected disorders occasionally coexist with common diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A case of primary gingival tuberculosis in a 71-year-old Japanese woman is herein presented. A serous saliva culture was positive for tuberculosis, and we recognized that the origin of the tuberculosis infection was the gingiva based on the genetic identification in gingival biopsy tissue. The definitive diagnosis was facilitated by the genetic identification, a useful modern tool for diagnosing infectious diseases. The location and clinical presentation of this lesion were unusual, which underlines the importance of considering tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of oral lesions that affect the gingiva.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare bidirectional malignant neoplasm with epithelial and mesenchymal differentiation. The epithelial component is mainly high-grade urothelial carcinoma, and the mesenchymal component includes rhabdomyosarcoma. However, proper differential diagnosis of adult rhabdomyosarcomatous tumors of the bladder can be a challenge. Moreover, low-grade urothelial carcinoma as the epithelial component of sarcomatoid carcinoma has not been reported.
A 64-year-old Asian man with a history of transurethral resection of low-grade urothelial carcinoma of the bladder visited our department with complaints of frequent urination and macroscopic hematuria. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a large mass located in the anterior wall of the bladder. Pathological diagnosis of transurethral biopsy was low-grade, non-invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma, and tumor tissue was removed by total cystectomy. Immunohistochemical studies and fluorescence in situ hybridization assay of the resected neoplastic tissue revealed extensive rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation causing the formation of a large pedunculated polyp with a papillary appearance of recurrent low-grade urothelial carcinoma. No evidence of recurrence was detected during 2 years of follow-up without further treatment.
Urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder with extensive rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation is rare, but it should be considered in the differential diagnosis even when urothelial carcinoma coexisting with a rhabdomyosarcomatous component is low-grade and non-invasive.
Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Medical Case Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Central airway obstruction (CAO) may be caused by various etiologies. However, conventional chest X-rays are rarely diagnostic for patients with CAO.
We here described a 64-year-old asymptomatic female with tracheal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma discovered on spirometric findings during a complete physical examination. The plateau of forced expiratory flow was consistent with CAO. A decreased peak expiratory flow rate was noted at least 3 years before the diagnosis, and was attributed to an insufficient effort by the patient. Impulse oscillometric measurements, which were taken during quiet breathing and were effort-independent, suggested elevated respiratory resistance. These abnormalities completely disappeared after radiation therapy.
The addition of impulse oscillometry to spirometry may be useful for screening CAO in routine health examinations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although cigarette smoking has been recognized as a risk factor for the development of several interstitial lung diseases, the relationship between smoking and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) has not yet been fully elucidated. We here present a case of fibrotic NSIP with mild emphysema in an elderly male with normal pulmonary function, whose symptoms, serum KL-6 level, and high-resolution computed tomography findings of interstitial changes markedly improved without medication following the cessation of smoking. Our case suggests that smoking may be an etiological factor in some patients with NSIP and that early smoking cessation before a clinically detectable decline in pulmonary function may be critical for smokers with idiopathic NSIP.
Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) occur more frequently in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients treated with immunosuppressive agents than in the non-RA population. However, the various forms of disease progression have not yet been elucidated in detail. We encountered a case of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-positive atypical polymorphous LPD in the cervical and intraabdominal lymph nodes with hepatosplenomegaly in an 88-year-old female with RA who had taken infliximab and methotrexate (MTX) for six years. Although spontaneous remission occurred following the withdrawal of infliximab and MTX, reversible LPD evolved into hepatosplenic Hodgkin lymphoma without lymphadenopathy presenting as a cholestatic febrile illness. Our findings suggest that the recurrent lesions of MTX-associated LPDs may not always coincide with the primary lesion and may present unexplained findings based on various extranodal diseases.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Modern Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pneumonitis is a rare complication of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunotherapy seen in patients with urothelial cancer following the repeated administration of BCG. However, no case of BCG-induced pleurisy has been reported.
We here report the first case of pneumonitis with lymphocytic pleurisy following bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunotherapy. Although marked T helper cell alveolitis was found by bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsies, no acid-fast bacillus could be identified in recovered BALF or pleural effusion. The lymphocyte stimulation test of BCG was strongly positive. However, levels of serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid KL-6, a useful marker for hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), were within normal ranges.
We speculate that the pathogenesis of our case may be a hypersensitive reaction to the proteic component of BCG entering the lung and pleural space, which is different from the etiology of the common type of HP.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · BMC Pulmonary Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a potentially fatal complication of lung cancer resection surgery that occurs during the healing process of the bronchial stump. However, the vulnerability of the healed surgical wound to overlapping acquired airway destruction has not yet been determined in detail. We herein present a case of fatal BPF following Mycobacterium abscessus (M. abscessus) infection, which occurred 11 years after right upper lobectomy for lung cancer. The findings of the present study suggest that patients with M. abscessus pulmonary disease in which airway destruction is progressing towards the bronchial stump of previous lobectomy should be considered for early completion pneumonectomy to prevent fatal BPF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The pathogenesis of primary tuberculous pleurisy is a delayed-type hypersensitivity immunogenic reaction to a few mycobacterial antigens entering the pleural space rather than direct tissue destruction by mycobacterial proliferation. Although it has been shown that pulmonary tuberculosis induces 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in active lesions, little is known about the application of FDG positron emission/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) to the management of primary tuberculous pleurisy.
We report a case of asymptomatic primary tuberculous pleurisy presenting with diffuse nodular pleural thickening without distinct pleural effusion and parenchymal lung lesions mimicking malignant mesothelioma. An initial FDG PET/CT scan demonstrated multiple lesions of intense FDG uptake in the right pleura and thoracoscopic biopsy of pleural tissue revealed caseous granulomatous inflammation. The patient received antituberculous therapy for 6 months, with clearly decreased positive signals on a repeated FDG PET/CT scan.
FDG PET/CT imaging may be useful for evaluating disease activity in tuberculous pleurisy patients with an unknown time of onset.
Preview · Article · Jan 2013 · BMC Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An 83-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with abdominal pain. Examination revealed mediastinal lymphoadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and infiltration of abnormal cells into the bone marrow with hemophagocytosis, and CD5-positive diffuse large B cell lymphoma was diagnosed. Chemotherapy was administered and progressive weakness of the limbs, resembling a Guillain-Barré-like syndrome, subsequently appeared. Cerebrospinal fluid examination indicated lymphoma cell infiltration. Although immune globulin and steroid therapies were not effective, intrathecal injection of methotrexate, predonisolone, and cytarabine improved these symptoms. Subsequent to chemotherapy, cell surface antigen changes were observed in the cerebrospinal fluid relative to those in bone marrow. [J Clin Exp Hematopathol 52(3) : 199-204, 2012].
No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hematopathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As operations for lung cancer become more common, more anomalies of various pulmonary arteries and veins are being encountered. Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is caused by abnormal development of the sinus venosus in early fetal life. In cases of PLSVC with left lung cancer, particular care must be exercised during the excision of the pulmonary vein, focusing on the region into which the PLSVC flows. In such anomalous cases, proper excision of the pulmonary artery and vein and lymph node dissection require a firm grasp of anatomic detail using preoperative computed tomographic scanning.
No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Complete situs inversus is a rare abnormality of autosomal recessive inheritance; it requires particular care during surgery, because the viscus anatomy is a mirror image of the normal anatomy. Reports of surgery for lung cancer in cases of complete situs inversus are very rare. Here, we report a case of lobectomy for lung cancer of the right lower lobe performed using video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) in a patient with complete situs inversus. We emphasize the importance of careful examination of the relationship between the bronchus, pulmonary artery, and pulmonary vein in the hilum of the lung in cases of complete situs inversus requiring lung resection for cancer; this is even more necessary when VATS is performed.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extragonadal germ cell tumors are relatively rare tumors, which usually occur in the mediastinum or retroperitoneum. In this report, we present a case of primary seminoma arising in the pelvic cavity. A 58-year-old man with urinary retention and abdominal distension was admitted to our hospital. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a large mass in the pelvic cavity. Histological examination of the specimens obtained by open biopsy revealed seminomatous malignant cells. Immunohistochemical studies detected vimentin, placental alkaline phosphatase and c-kit. Taking these results together with the patient's other clinical manifestations, this case was diagnosed as extragonadal seminoma without c-kit-activating mutations, and chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy was successful. Primary seminoma in the pelvic cavity is extremely rare, but should be considered a cause of pelvic mass formation.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of fibrous dysplasia (FD) is not frequent in the case of benign bone tumors of the chest wall, and differential diagnosis between FD and the malignancy on the basis of imaging findings is difficult. We report a case of a painful FD lesion (size, 9×8 cm) that originated from the 5th rib of a 52-year-old man and was surgically resected. His symptoms improved after the operation. Painful and large FD lesions should be resected because of a difficulty in differential diagnosis from malignant tumors.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 47-year-old woman was transported to our hospital because of vomiting and syncope after breakfast. Physical examination revealed icterus and anemia of bulbar conjunctivas, and abnormal neurological findings were detected. Laboratory data indicated marked anemia and thrombocytopenia (Hb 5.2 g/dl, Plt. 0.6×10(4)/μl), but no leukocyte abnormalities were found. Transaminase was slightly elevated, and serum indirect bilirubin in was also elevated. Based on these data, we initially suspected Evan's syndrome, which involves idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura with autoimmune hemolytic anemia. So we transfused red blood cells, performed platelet transfusion, and administered steroids, but there was no response to these therapies. On the 4th day of admission, she developed a stroke followed by coma. After the stroke, we diagnosed the case as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) because laboratory findings showed diminished activity of ADAMTS 13 (a disintegrin-like metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 motifs 13) and ADAMTS 13 antigen. It is important to suspect TTP when hemolytic anemia with thrombocytopenia is observed, and to check the activity and antigen of ADAMTS13 immediately for the diagnosis. Platelet transfusion should be done cautiously in these cases.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · [Rinshō ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Miliary tuberculosis is defined as the wide dissemination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis throughout the body(involving more than two organs) and characterized by small millet-sized (it is better to indicate size as mm) lesions.Here we present a case of miliary tuberculosis with pancytopenia, diagnosed by cultures of sputum, blood and bone marrow. An 83-year-old woman was admitted to a general hospital with malaise, appetite loss and fever. However,antibiotics could not improve her condition. Because pancytopenia and diffuse small nodules in the bilateral lung field on chest X-ray film progressed, she was transferred to our hospital for further examination. Mycobacterial cultures and PCR examination of sputum, blood and bone marrow proved to be positive. Histopathologi-cal findings of bone marrow indicated granuloma and hemophagocytic lesions, and laboratory findings indicated disseminated intracoagulopathy as a complication. Therefore, this case was diagnosed as having tuberculosis and secondary hemophagocytic syndrome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 65-year-old woman whose rheumatoid arthritis was treated with tocilizumab (TCZ) was found in chest radiography to have a new consolidation in the right lower lung field. Positive Mycobacterium intracellulare and Mycobacterium avium cultures in sputum and bronchial secretions yielded a diagnosis of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteriosis. The most common adverse TCZ effect is infection. This case highlights the fact that those treated with TCZ should be considered at elevated risk for developing nontuberculous mycobacteriosis.
No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Kansenshogaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We encountered 2 cases of drug-induced intrathoracic lesions caused by allergic reactions to mesalazine in patients with ulcerative colitis. Case 1: A 26-year-old man had a fever, cough and exertional dyspnea after 1 month of mesalazine treatment. He was hospitalized because of bilateral pulmonary infiltrates on a chest X-ray film. Case 2: A 27-year-old woman complained of fever and left back pain that exacerbated after 2 weeks of mesalazine treatment. She was hospitalized because of bilateral pulmonary effusions on chest CT. Both patients showed a positive reaction to a drug lymphocyte stimulation tests (DLST) for mesalazine. The first case was given a diagnosis of eosinophilic pneumonia by bronchoscopic examination, and responded to steroid therapy after discontinuation of mesalazine. The second case was given a diagnosis of pleuritis and improved on cessation of Mesalazine treatment.