[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Clinical observations have demonstrated that high levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) are associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D), whereas low serum IGFBP-1 levels are associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recently, we reported that increased DNA methylation levels in the IGFBP1 gene were associated with T2D. In the present study, we evaluated the epigenetic changes of IGFBP1 in T1D and diabetic nephropathy (DN).
In total, 778 Swedish individuals, including T1D patients with or without DN and subjects with the normal glucose tolerance (NGT), were involved in the study. IGFBP1 methylation levels in genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood were analyzed with bisulfite pyrosequencing. Serum IGFBP-1 levels were measured with radioimmunoassay. We found that DNA methylation levels in the IGFBP1 gene were decreased (15.6% versus 16.9%; P < 0.001), whereas serum IGFBP-1 levels were increased (31 versus 24 μg/L, P = 0.003) in T1D patients compared with NGT subjects. Furthermore, T1D patients with DN had increased circulating IGFBP-1 concentration compared with the patients without DN (52 versus 28 μg/L; P = 0.006). However, no difference of the IGFBP1 DNA methylation levels between T1D patients with and without DN was observed.
This study shows for the first time that T1D patients had decreased DNA methylation levels in the IGFBP1 gene and further implies that increased circulating IGFBP-1 levels are associated with T1D and DN.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Clinical Epigenetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prospective studies have shown that low levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) are associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we investigated DNA methylation in the IGFBP1 gene to evaluate its changes in relation to serum IGFBP-1 levels in type 2 diabetes.
A total of 406 Swedish men, including age-matched normal glucose tolerance subjects and type 2 diabetes patients either newly diagnosed or undergoing treatment, were selected from the Stockholm Diabetes Prevention Program. IGFBP1 methylation levels in genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood were analysed by bisulfite pyrosequencing. Serum IGFBP-1 levels were measured by radio-immunoassay. We found that IGFBP1 DNA methylation levels were higher in both newly diagnosed and treated type 2 diabetes patients with a mean diabetes duration of 3 years compared with subjects with normal glucose tolerance (19.8% and 20.2% vs. 16.9%, P < 0.001 for both). Serum levels of IGFBP-1 in newly diagnosed and in treated type 2 diabetes patients were lower compared with healthy individuals (18 mug/l both vs. 24 mug/l, P = 0.011, P < 0.001). IGFBP1 methylation levels but not serum IGFBP-1 levels in type 2 diabetes patients were independent of body mass index. Newly diagnosed patients with a family history of diabetes (FHD) had higher IGFBP1 methylation levels than those without FHD (20.3% vs. 18.6%, P = 0.017).
This study provides the first evidence that changes in DNA methylation of the IGFBP1 gene are associated with type 2 diabetes in Swedish men and suggests that increased IGFBP1 DNA methylation and decreased IGFBP-1 serum levels are features of type 2 diabetes with a short duration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP-7) is able to interact with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) as well as insulin. Previous studies have suggested that serum IGFBP-7 levels may be associated with insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study aimed to evaluate IGFBP-7 serum protein and IGFBP7 DNA methylation levels in the subjects with and without T2D.
A total of 340 Swedish subjects including 100 newly diagnosed T2D patients (50 women/50 men), 100 age-matched nondiabetic control subjects (50/50) and 140 treated T2D patients (54/86) were studied. Serum IGFBP-7 levels were measured with a novel ELISA. IGF1, IGFBP-1, and insulin were determined by in-house radioimmunoassays. DNA methylation levels in the IGFBP7 gene were analyzed with a bisulfite-pyrosequencing technique. Serum IGFBP-7 protein levels were similar among nondiabetic subjects, newly diagnosed, and treated T2D patients and were not correlated with IGFBP7 DNA methylation. However, IGFBP7 DNA methylation was increased in men with newly diagnosed T2D compared with nondiabetic controls (17.6% vs. 12.5%, P < 0.01). Serum IGFBP-7 levels correlated (r = 0.331, P = 0.019) with serum IGFBP-1 levels, a marker of insulin production, in men but not women with newly diagnosed T2D.
This study demonstrates for the first time that IGFBP7 DNA methylation levels are increased in Swedish men with newly diagnosed T2D. The correlation between IGFBP-7 and IGFBP-1 suggests that low IGFBP-7 may be associated with insulin resistance in T2D.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE
Hypoxia plays a major pathogenic role in diabetic nephropathy (DN). We have investigated in this study the effect of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 α subunit (HIF1A) genetic polymorphisms on the development of DN.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
In 1,165 American type 1 diabetic patients with and without DN selected from the Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes (GoKinD) study, the HIF1A genetic polymorphisms were genotyped with TaqMan allelic discrimination. The regulation of HIF-1α in the kidneys of diabetic mice was appreciated by immunohistochemistry, and the effect HIF1A Pro582Ser polymorphism on HIF-1α sensitivity to glucose was evaluated in vitro.RESULTSWe identified a protective association between HIF1A Pro582Ser polymorphism and DN in male subjects. We also provided mechanistic insights that HIF-1α is repressed in the medulla of diabetic mice despite hypoxia and that Pro582Ser polymorphism confers less sensitivity to the inhibitory effect of glucose during a hypoxic challenge.CONCLUSIONS
The current study demonstrates for the first time that HIF1A Pro582Ser polymorphism has an effect on DN, possibly by conferring a relative resistance to the repressive effect of glucose on HIF-1α.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetic kidney disease, or diabetic nephropathy (DN), is a major complication of diabetes and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) that requires dialysis treatment or kidney transplantation. In addition to the decrease in the quality of life, DN accounts for a large proportion of the excess mortality associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Whereas the degree of glycemia plays a pivotal role in DN, a subset of individuals with poorly controlled T1D do not develop DN. Furthermore, strong familial aggregation supports genetic susceptibility to DN. However, the genes and the molecular mechanisms behind the disease remain poorly understood, and current therapeutic strategies rarely result in reversal of DN. In the GEnetics of Nephropathy: an International Effort (GENIE) consortium, we have undertaken a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of T1D DN comprising ∼2.4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) imputed in 6,691 individuals. After additional genotyping of 41 top ranked SNPs representing 24 independent signals in 5,873 individuals, combined meta-analysis revealed association of two SNPs with ESRD: rs7583877 in the AFF3 gene (P = 1.2×10(-8)) and an intergenic SNP on chromosome 15q26 between the genes RGMA and MCTP2, rs12437854 (P = 2.0×10(-9)). Functional data suggest that AFF3 influences renal tubule fibrosis via the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1) pathway. The strongest association with DN as a primary phenotype was seen for an intronic SNP in the ERBB4 gene (rs7588550, P = 2.1×10(-7)), a gene with type 2 diabetes DN differential expression and in the same intron as a variant with cis-eQTL expression of ERBB4. All these detected associations represent new signals in the pathogenesis of DN.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenylyl cyclase 3 (AC3) is expressed in pancreatic islets of the Goto-Kakizaki(GK) rat, a spontaneous animal model of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and also exerts genetic effects on the regulation of body weight in man. In addition to pancreatic islets, the central nervous system (CNS) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of T2D and obesity by regulating feeding behavior, body weight and glucose metabolism. In the present study, we have investigated AC3 expression in pancreatic islets, striatum and hypothalamus of GK rats to evaluate its role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. GK and Wistar rats at the age of 2.5 mo were used. A group of GK rats were implanted with sustained insulin release chips for 15 d. Plasma glucose and serum insulin levels were measured. AC3 gene expression levels in pancreatic islets, striatum and hypothalamus were determined by using real-time RT-PCR. Results indicated that plasma glucose levels in Wistar rats were found to be similar to insulin-treated GK rats, and significantly lower compared with non-treated GK rats. AC3 expression levels in pancreatic islets, striatum and hypothalamus of GK rats were higher compared with Wistar rats, while the levels were intermediate in insulin-treated GK rats. The AC3 expression display patterns between pancreatic islets and striatum-hypothalamus were similar. The present study thus provides the first evidence that AC3 is overexpressed in the regions of striatum and hypothalamus of brain, and similarly in pancreatic islets of GK rats suggesting that AC3 plays a role in regulation of glucose homeostasis via CNS and insulin secretion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The IGF2BP2 gene is located on chromosome 3q27.2 within a region linked to type 1 diabetes (T1D), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and diabetic nephropathy (DN). Its protein functionally binds to 5'-UTR of the imprinting IGF2 gene. The present study aims to evaluate the IGF2BP2-IGF2 genetic effects in diabetes and DN.
Three cohorts including T1D with and without DN (n=1139) of European descents from the GoKinD study, Swedish T1D with and without DN (n=303) and Czech control subjects without diabetes, T1D, T2D with and without DN (n=1418) were enrolled in TaqMan genotyping experiments for IGF2BP2 rs4402960 and IGF2 rs10770125. Igf2bp2 gene expression in kidney tissues of db/db and control mice at the ages of 5 and 26weeks was examined with real time RT-PCR and Western blot.
An association of IGF2BP2 rs4402960 with T2D in the Czech population was replicated. This IGF2BP2 polymorphism (P=0.037, OR=0.69 95% CI 0.49-0.98) was found to be associated with DN in male not in female patients with T1D selected from the GoKinD study. In the analyses of combined the GoKinD, Czech and Swedish populations, the association between IGF2BP2 polymorphism and DN in male patients with T1D was still significant (P=0.030, OR=0.73, 95% CI 0.54-0.97). IGF2 rs10770125 was also associated with DN in male T1D patients of the GoKinD population (P=0.038, OR=0.67 95% CI 0.46-0.98). There might be a genetic interaction between IGF2BP2 and IGF2 (P=0.05). The Igf2bp2 gene expression levels were increased in the kidneys of db/db mice compared to controls at the age of 5weeks but not at 26weeks.
The present study has replicated the association of IGF2BP2 rs4402960 with T2D in the Czech population and provided data suggesting that IGF2BP2 may have genetic interaction with IGF2 with a protective effect against DN in male patients with T1D.
No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Journal of diabetes and its complications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vasopeptidase as an agent inhibits membrane metalloendopeptidase (MME, also known as neutral endopeptidase). MME is widely distributed in the body and particularly abundant in the kidney. The MME gene is located on chromosome 3q25.1 within a linkage region for diabetic nephropathy (DN). The present study aims to evaluate the genetic and functional effects of MME in the development of DN.
A case-control genetic study of the MME gene in type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients with and without DN (n = 578/599) was performed. All subjects were selected from the Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes study. Genotyping was performed with TagMan allelic discrimination. Mme mRNA and protein expression levels in kidney tissues of db/db mice at the ages of 5, 12 and 26 weeks were analyzed with TaqMan real-time RT-PCR and Western blot.
The haplotype A-C constructed with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs3796268A/G and rs3773885C/T in the MME gene was found to be associated with DN (p = 0.015, OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.05-1.68) in female T1D patients. Further analyses of renal traits in T1D patients with DN and end-stage renal disease according to the genotypes of SNP rs3773885 indicated that the C allele carriers had higher serum creatinine levels compared to the subjects carrying T allele in both females and males. Mme expression at mRNA and protein levels was upregulated in kidneys of db/db mice at the ages of 12 and 26 weeks (p = 0.017 and <0.001) but not at the age of 5 weeks compared to the controls.
The present study provides the first evidence that MME has genetic and biological effects on the development of DN, and suggests that the inhibition of MME expression in the kidney with the agent of vasopeptidase may be a useful therapeutic approach for this disease.
No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · American Journal of Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sox2 is a transcription factor, which plays an important role in the induction of pluripotent stem cells from somatic cells. The Sox2 gene is located in chromosome 3q26.33 and resides in a linkage region of diabetes. In the present study, we attempted to evaluate the genetic effect of Sox2 in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). A total of 1598 Swedish subjects of T2D, pre-diabetes and non-diabetic control subjects were enrolled in the present study. Genotyping experiments for allelic discrimination of SNP rs11915160 were performed with TaqMan allelic discrimination. Sox2 mRNA expression levels in pancreatic islets of T2D patients (n=16) and control subjects (n=8) were detected by using real time RT-PCR. Among the non-diabetic control subjects with and without family history of diabetes (FHD, i.e. at least one first degree relative with diabetes or at least two second degree relatives with diabetes), the A allele frequency in Sox2 rs11915160 were 12.3% and 12.9%. This allele frequency was increased to 13.4% in T2D patients with FHD selected from SDPP and 17.9% in the patients with FHD from Kronan study, while the patients without FHD had the allele frequency at 12.4%. The difference of mRNA expression levels of the Sox2 gene in pancreatic islets between T2D patients and controls was not statistically significant. The present study thus suggests that Sox2 is unlikely to exert the genetic effect on the development of T2D.