[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although steady improvements to chemotherapeutic treatments has helped cure 80% of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cases, chemotherapy has proven to be less effective in treating the majority of adult patients, leaving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) as the primary adult treatment option. Nevertheless relapse are the leading cause of death following allo-HSCT. The genetic pathogenesis of relapse following allo-HSCT in Philadelphia chromosome- negative ALL (Ph- ALL) remains unexplored. We performed longitudinal whole-exome sequencing analysis in three adult patients with Ph- B-cell ALL (Ph- B-ALL) on samples collected from diagnosis to relapse after allo-HSCT. Based on these data, we performed target gene sequencing on 23 selected genes in 58 adult patients undergoing allo-HSCT with Ph- B-ALL. Our results revealed a significant enrichment of mutations in epigenetic regulators from relapsed samples, with recurrent somatic mutations in SETD2, CREBBP, KDM6A and NR3C1. The relapsed samples were also enriched in signaling factor mutations, including KRAS, PTPN21, MYC and USP54. Furthermore, we are the first to reveal the clonal evolution patterns during leukemia relapse after allo-HSCT. Cells present in relapsed specimens were genetically related to the diagnosed tumor, these cells therefore arose from either an existing subclone that was not eradicated by allo-HSCT therapy, or from the same progenitor that acquired new mutations. In some cases, however, it is possible that leukemia recurrence following allo-HSCT could result from a secondary malignancy with a distinct set of mutations. We identified novel genetic causes of leukemia relapse after allo-HSCT using the largest generated data set to date from adult patients with Ph- B-ALL.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is one of the first line agents in differentiation therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, drug resistance is a major problem influencing the efficacy of ATRA. Identification of mechanisms of ATRA resistance are urgenly needed. In the present study, we found that expression of C/EBPα, an important transcription factor for myeloid differentiation, was significantly suppressed in ATRA resistant APL cell line NB4-R1 compared with ATRA sensitive NB4 cells. Moreover, two forms of C/EBPα were unequally suppressed in NB4-R1 cells. Suppression of the full-length form P42 was more pronounced than the truncated form P30. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway was also observed in NB4-R1 cells. Moreover, C/EBPα expression was reduced by PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and mTOR inhibitor RAD001 in NB4 cells, suggesting that inactivation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway was responsible for C/EBPα suppression in APL cells. We restored C/EBPα P42 and P30 by lentivirus vectors in NB4-R1 cells, respectively, and found C/EBPα P42, but not P30, could increase CD11b, CD14, G-CSFR and GM-CSFR expression, which indicated the occurrence of myeloid differentiation. Further upregulating of CD11b expression and differential morphological changes were found in NB4-R1 cells with restored C/EBPα P42 after ATRA treatment. However, CD11b expression and differential morphological changes could not be induced by ATRA in NB4-R1 cells infected with P30 expressing or control vector. Thus, we inferred that ATRA sensitivity of NB4-R1 cells was enhanced by restoration of C/EBPα P42. In addition, we used histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin (TSA) to restore C/EBPα expression in NB4-R1 cells. Similar enhancement of myeloid differentiation and cell growth arrest were detected. Together, the present study demonstrated that suppression of C/EBPα P42 induced by PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibition impaired the differentiation and ATRA sensitivity of APL cells. Restoring C/EBPα P42 is an attractive approach for differentiation therapy in ATRA resistant APL.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · International Journal of Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Protein tyrosine kinases and protein tyrosine phosphatases play pivotal roles in regulation of cellular phosphorylation and signal transduction with opposite functions. Accumulating evidences have uncovered the relevance of genetic alterations in these two family members to hematologic malignancies. This review underlines progress in understanding the pathogenesis of these genetic alterations including mutations and aberrant expression and the evolving protein tyrosine kinases and protein tyrosine phosphatases targeted therapeutic strategies in hematologic neoplasms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent developments and re-emergence of interferon α (IFN-α) have renewed interest in the therapy for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Related molecular mechanism may be the direct effect of IFN-α on CML stem cells. Human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) are important to protect CML stem cells, and IFN-α was described as a potential inhibitor of hMSCs. However, the exact mechanism remains obscure. PML as a known tumor suppressor locates downstream of the IFN-α pathway, and little is known about the PML gene regulation in hMSCs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of IFN-α on hMSCs and defined the role of PML involved in this process. Our results suggested that hMSCs incurred senescence upon IFN-α stimulation, while PML levels were observed significant increased. The recombinant lentiviral vector, which encodes shRNA against PML or full-length PML cDNA, was constructed. By knocking-down and overexpressing PML, we found that PML was indispensable to IFN-α mediated hMSC senescence. The molecular mechanism underlying this process may be an increased co-localization of PML and p53 induced by IFN-α. Our data demonstrated that IFN-α can induce cellular senescence of hMSCs and PML plays a key role in this process. These findings provided novel insight into the effect of IFN-α on hMSCs.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · International Journal of Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) mutations were considered to be independently associated with unfavorable prognosis in adults with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML), however, there are still debates on this topic. Here, we aim to further investigate the association between DNMT3A mutations and prognosis of patients with AML.
Eligible studies were identified from several data bases including PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials and the Cochrane Library (up to June 2013). The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS), while relapse-free survival (RFS) and event-free survival (EFS) were chosen as secondary endpoints. If possible, we would pool estimate effects (hazard ratio [HR] with 95% confidence interval[CI]) of outcomes in random and fixed effects models respectively.
That twelve cohort studies with 6377 patients exploring the potential significance of DNMT3A mutations on prognosis were included. Patients with DNMT3A mutations had slightly shorter OS (HR = 1.60; 95% CI, 1.31–1.95; P<0.001), as compared to wild-type carriers. Among the patients younger than 60 years of age, DNMT3A mutations predicted a worse OS (HR = 1.84; 95% CI, 1.36–2.50; P<0.001). In addition, mutant DNMT3A predicted inferior OS (HR = 2.30; 95% CI, 1.78–2.97; P = 0.862) in patients with unfavorable genotype abnormalities. Similar results were also found in some other subgroups. However, no significant prognostic value was found on OS (HR = 1.40; 95% CI, 0.98–1.99; P = 0.798) in the favorable genotype subgroup. Similar results were found on RFS and EFS under different conditions.
DNMT3A mutations have slightly but significantly poor prognostic impact on OS, RFS and EFS of adults with de novo AML in total population and some specific subgroups.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) gene, as an important tumor-suppressor, has been proven to regulate stem cell function in multiple tissues; however its role in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) remains unclear. In the present study, the effect of PML on regulating the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs was explored. New downstream genes that may be responsible for the regulation of PML were found, and possible mechanisms were analyzed. The lentiviral vector which encodes full-length human PML cDNA or shRNA against PML was transfected into hMSCs. RT-PCR and western blotting were used to detect mRNA and protein expression. Flow cytometry was used to analyze apoptosis and the cell cycle distribution. Osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs was induced by osteo-inductive medium for 7 to 14 days. cDNA microarray was used to scan the gene expression profile and to identify significant changes in gene expression. In the present study, we found that PML was stably expressed in hMSCs, and the expression was increased time-dependently along with cell osteogenic differentiation. Overexpression of PML inhibited hMSC proliferation by inducing apoptosis and arresting the cell cycle. However, PML enhanced the osteoblast differentiation potential of hMSCs. PML-overexpressing hMSCs had a significant increase in mineralized matrix production and ALP activity on day 7 under osteogenic or non-osteogenic differentiation conditions. Upregulation of integrin-binding sialoprotein (IBSP, bone sialoprotein) induced by PML overexpression was found. Our data indicate that PML regulates hMSCs as an inhibitor of cell proliferation but a promoter of osteogenic differentiation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALLs) are clonal lymphoid malignancies with poor prognosis, and still lack of effective treatment. Here we examined the interactions between the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin and idarubicin (IDA) in series of human T-ALL cell lines Molt-4, Jurkat, CCRF-CEM, and CEM/C1. Co-exposure of cells to rapamycin and IDA synergistically induced T-ALL cells growth inhibiton and apoptosis mediated by caspase activation via intrinsic mitochondrial pathway and extrinsic pathway, Combined treatment with rapamycin and IDA down-regulate Bcl-2 and Mcl-1, inhibit the activation of PI3K/ mTOR and extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK). They also played synergistic pro-apoptotic roles in the drug-resistant microenvironment simulated by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a feeder layer. In addition, MSCs protect T-ALL cells from IDA cytotoxicity by up-regulating ERK phosphorylation, while rapamycin efficiently reversed this protective effect. Taken together, we confirm the synergistic antitumor effects of rapamycin and IDA, and provide an insight into the potential future clinical applications of combined rapamycin-IDA regimens for treating T-cell malignancies.
No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Leukemia & lymphoma
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The efficient commitment of a specialized cell type from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) without contamination from unknown substances is crucial to their use in clinical applications. Here, we propose that CD34+ progenitor cells, which retain hematopoietic and endothelial cell potential, could be efficiently obtained from iPSCs derived from human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSC-iPSCs) with defined factors. By treatment with a cocktail containing mesodermal, hematopoietic, and endothelial inducers (BMP4, SCF, and VEGF, respectively) for 5 days, hBMMSC-iPSCs expressed the mesodermal transcription factors Brachyury and GATA-2 at higher levels than untreated groups (P<0.05). After culturing with another hematopoietic and endothelial inducer cocktail, including SCF, Flt3L, VEGF and IL-3, for an additional 7-9 days, CD34+ progenitor cells, which were undetectable in the initial iPSC cultures, reached nearly 20% of the total culture. This was greater than the relative number of progenitor cells produced from human-skin-fibroblast-derived iPSCs (hFib-iPSCs) or from the spontaneous differentiation groups (P<0.05), as assessed by flow cytometry analysis. These induced cells expressed hematopoietic transcription factors TAL-1 and SCL. They developed into various hematopoietic colonies when exposed to semisolid media with hematopoietic cytokines such as EPO and G-CSF. Hematopoietic cell lineages were identified by phenotype analysis with Wright-Giemsa staining. The endothelial potential of the cells was also verified by the confirmation of the formation of vascular tube-like structures and the expression of endothelial-specific markers CD31 and VE-CADHERIN. Efficient induction of CD34+ progenitor cells, which retain hematopoietic and endothelial cell potential with defined factors, provides an opportunity to obtain patient-specific cells for iPSC therapy and a useful model for the study of the mechanisms of hematopoiesis and drug screening.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Recently, several important polymorphisms have been identified in T-cell activation and effector pathway genes and have been reported to be associated with inter-patient variability in alloimmune responses. The present study was designed to assess the impact of these genetic variations on the outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Design and methods:
We first investigated ten single nucleotide polymorphisms in six genes, CD28, inducible co-stimulator, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4, granzyme B, Fas and Fas ligand, in 138 pairs of patients and their unrelated donors and a second cohort of 102 pairs of patients and their HLA-identical sibling donors.
We observed that patients receiving stem cells from a donor with the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 gene CT60 variant allele (AA genotype) had a reduced incidence of grades II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease; however, they experienced early cytomegalovirus infection and relapsed more frequently, which suggested an interaction between the donor cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 gene CT60 AA genotype and reduced T-cell alloreactivity. Furthermore, an unrelated donor with the granzyme B +55 variant genotype (AA) was an independent risk factor for development of grades II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (P=0.024, RR=1.811). Among patients with acute myelogenous leukemia, those with the Fas -670 TT genotype were at higher risk of relapse (P=0.003, RR=3.823). The presence of these susceptible alleles in the donor and/or patient resulted in worse overall survival (54.9% versus 69.5%, P=0.029).
Our data suggest that genotype analysis of T-cell activation and effector pathway genes can be used for risk assessment for patients with hematologic malignancies before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a common complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Much of our knowledge regarding GVHD comes from experiments on the mouse hematopoietic system due to ethical and technical constraints. Thus, in vivo GVHD models of the human immune system are required. In this study, we report an effective and reliable protocol for xenogeneic GVHD (xeno-GVHD) model induction using NOD/SCID mice, in which mice underwent a conditioning regimen consisting of intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide and anti-CD122, followed by transfusion of phytohemagglutinin-activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells containing 1 × 10(7) T cells, which has not been reported previously. The present model can be utilized to study human immune cell function in vivo and elucidate the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of human GVHD. In addition, this model system can help researchers to rapidly determine whether proposed therapeutic strategies for GVHD are efficient in vivo and will elucidate the underlying mechanisms of drugs and cells to be investigated. Furthermore, such a protocol will undoubtedly be very helpful to laboratories that have no available sources of irradiation.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Annals of Hematology