[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To explore the completeness of tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) staging for colon and rectal cancer in the Danish Cancer Registry.
Material and methods
From the Danish Cancer Registry, we retrieved data on TNM stage, year of diagnosis, sex, and age for 15,976 and 8292 patients, respectively, with first diagnoses of colon or rectal cancer during the 2004–2009 period. From the Danish National Patient Register, we retrieved data on comorbidity (computed as Charlson Comorbidity Index scores). We calculated the completeness of TNM staging overall, by each stage component, and according to a stage algorithm allowing some missing stage components. Analyses were stratified by sex, age, year of diagnosis, and Charlson Comorbidity Index score.
For colon and rectal cancer, overall TNM completeness was 67.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 67.0%–68.5%) and 68.1% (95% CI: 67.0%–69.1%), respectively. For both cancers, completeness decreased with increasing age and level of comorbidity, whereas differences between the sexes were minor. Over the study period, TNM completeness for colon cancer decreased from 71.3% (95% CI: 69.5%–73.0%) to 64.8% (95% CI: 63.0%–66.6%), whereas the completeness for rectal cancer remained stable over time. When using the stage algorithm, the completeness rose markedly, to 81.1% for colon cancer and 79.0% for rectal cancer.
One-third of colon and rectal cancer cases in the Danish Cancer Registry had missing TNM stage information, which varied with age and level of comorbidity. Cancer cases with unknown staging warrant serious consideration of the methodological implications in future epidemiological studies monitoring cancer incidence and outcomes.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Clinical Epidemiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prognosis for colon and rectal cancer has improved in Denmark over the past decades but is still poor compared with that in our neighboring countries. We conducted this population-based study to monitor recent trends in colon and rectal cancer survival in the central and northern regions of Denmark.
Using the Danish National Registry of Patients, we identified 9412 patients with an incident diagnosis of colon cancer and 5685 patients diagnosed with rectal cancer between 1998 and 2009. We determined survival, and used Cox proportional hazard regression analysis to compare mortality over time, adjusting for age and gender. Among surgically treated patients, we computed 30-day mortality and corresponding mortality rate ratios (MRRs).
The annual numbers of colon and rectal cancer increased from 1998 through 2009. For colon cancer, 1-year survival improved from 65% to 70%, and 5-year survival improved from 37% to 43%. For rectal cancer, 1-year survival improved from 73% to 78%, and 5-year survival improved from 39% to 47%. Men aged 80+ showed most pronounced improvements. The 1- and 5-year adjusted MRRs decreased: for colon cancer 0.83 (95% confidence interval CI: 0.76-0.92) and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.78-0.90) respectively; for rectal cancer 0.79 (95% CI: 0.68-0.91) and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.73-0.89) respectively. The 30-day postoperative mortality after resection also declined over the study period. Compared with 1998-2000 the 30-day MRRs in 2007-2009 were 0.68 (95% CI: 0.53-0.87) for colon cancer and 0.59 (95% CI: 0.37-0.96) for rectal cancer.
The survival after colon and rectal cancer has improved in central and northern Denmark during the 1998-2009 period, as well as the 30-day postoperative mortality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Denmark, the strategy for treatment of cancer with metastases to the liver has changed dramatically during the period 1998 to 2009, when multidisciplinary care and a number of new treatments were introduced. We therefore examined the changes in survival in Danish patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC) or other solid tumors (non-CRC) who had liver metastases at time of diagnosis.
We included patients diagnosed with liver metastases synchronous with a primary cancer (ie, a solid cancer diagnosed at the same date or within 60 days after liver metastasis diagnosis) during the period 1998 to 2009 identified through the Danish National Registry of Patients. We followed those who survived for more than 60 days in a survival analysis (n = 1021). Survival and mortality rate ratio (MRR) at 1, 3, and 5 years stratified by year of diagnosis were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis.
In the total study population of 1021 patients, 541 patients had a primary CRC and 480 patients non-CRC. Overall, the 5-year survival improved from 3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1%-6%) in 1998-2000 to 10% (95% CI: 6%-14%) in 2007 to 2009 (predicted value). The 5-year survival for CRC-patients improved from 1% (95% CI: 0%-5%) to 11% (95% CI: 6%-18%) whereas survival for non-CRC patients only increased from 5% (95% CI: 1%-10%) to 8% (95% CI: 4%-14%).
We observed improved survival in patients with liver metastases in a time period characterized by introduction of a structured multidisciplinary care and improved treatment options. The survival gain was most prominent for CRC-patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective The prognosis for colorectal cancer (CRC) is less favourable in Denmark than in neighbouring countries. To improve cancer treatment in Denmark, a National Cancer Plan was proposed in 2000. We conducted this population-based study to monitor recent trends in CRC survival and mortality in four Danish counties.
Method We used hospital discharge registry data for the period January 1985–March 2004 in the counties of north Jutland, Ringkjøbing, Viborg and Aarhus. We computed crude survival and used Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to compare mortality over time, adjusted for age and gender. A total of 19 515 CRC patients were identified and linked with the Central Office of Civil Registration to ascertain survival through January 2005.
Results From 1985 to 2004, 1-year and 5-year survival improved both for patients with colon and rectal cancer. From 1995–1999 to 2000–2004, overall 1-year survival of 65% for colon cancer did not improve, and some age groups experienced a decreasing 1-year survival probability. For rectal cancer, overall 1-year survival increased from 71% in 1995–1999 to 74% in 2000–2004. Using 1985–1989 as reference period, 30-day mortality did not decrease after implementation of the National Cancer Plan in 2000, neither for patients with colon nor rectal cancer. However, 1-year mortality for patients with rectal cancer did decline after its implementation.
Conclusion Survival and mortality from colon and rectal cancer improved before the National Cancer Plan was proposed; after its implementation, however, improvement has been observed for rectal cancer only.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2007 · Colorectal Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer and familial adenomatus polyposis are autosomal dominant diseases accounting for 5-7% of all colorectal cancer cases. Inheritance of mutations associated with both syndromes in the same individual has, so far, only been observed in a few cases. This report outlines the findings in a proband of a HNPCC family, who presented with colorectal cancer and with multiple adenomas at the age of 18. He was shown to be compound heterozygous for MSH6 mutations: a nonsense mutation in exon 4 (c.1836 C>A, p.S612X); and a missense mutation in exon 5 (c.3226 C>T, p.R1076C). In addition, an APC missense mutation was revealed (c.7504 G>A, p.G2502S). Immunohisto-chemical analysis showed lack of expression of MSH6 in tumour tissue, as well as accumulation of betacatenin in the nuclei of the tumour cells. We suggest that the presence of mutations in both alleles of one gene and mutations in different genes, may influence the phenotype in hereditary colorectal cancer. Biallelic and/or polygenic mutations should be suspected when facing unusual severe variants of "classic monogenic phenotypes", such as HNPCC.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2007 · International Journal of Colorectal Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Major surgery is often followed by fatigue and reduced physical function. We wished to study if postoperative physical training reduced fatigue and improved physical function.
Randomised, placebo-controlled, single-blinded study. Participants were unselected patients > or = 60 years undergoing elective colorectal surgery without disseminated cancer or inflammatory bowel disease. Group A trained muscular strength and work capacity. Group B performed relaxation exercises and received hot wrappings and massage. Main outcome measures were: fatigue (visual analogue scale), muscular strength, walking speed, physical performance test, and physical function questions (SF-36).
Preoperatively the two groups were similar except that A was more fatigued than B. By postoperative day seven fatigue had increased compared to preoperatively, more in B than A, but by day 30 and 90 there were no significant differences between groups. All indices of physical function decreased postoperative day seven and were at the preoperative level day 90 with no significant differences between groups in change in function. Day seven the change in knee extension strength tended to be lower in B than A but by day 30 changes were similar in both groups.
Postoperative training did not improve physical function, but reduced fatigue in hospital.
No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Scandinavian journal of surgery: SJS: official organ for the Finnish Surgical Society and the Scandinavian Surgical Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adjuvant radiotherapy in the treatment of rectal cancer has been shown to increase long-term morbidity causing severe anorectal dysfunction with physiologic changes whose interaction remains poorly understood. This study examines long-term anorectal morbidity from adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy.
In a prospective study, patients with Dukes B or C rectal carcinoma were randomized to postoperative radiotherapy or no adjuvant treatment after anterior resection. The long-term effect of radiotherapy on anorectal function in a subset of surviving patients was assessed from a questionnaire on subjective symptoms and from physiology laboratory evaluation and flexible sigmoidoscopy.
Twelve of 15 patients (80 percent) treated with radiotherapy had increased bowel frequency compared with 3 of the 13 patients (23 percent) who did not have radiation therapy (P = 0.003). The former group had loose or liquid stool more often (60 vs. 23 percent, P = 0.05), had fecal incontinence more often (60 vs. 8 percent, P = 0.004), and wore pad more often (47 vs. 0 percent, P = 0.004). They also experienced fecal urgency and were unable to differentiate stool from gas more often. Endoscopy revealed a pale and atrophied mucosa and telangiectasias in the irradiated patients. Anorectal physiology showed a reduced rectal capacity (146 vs. 215 ml, P = 0.03) and maximum squeeze pressure (59 vs. 93 cm H2O, P = 0.003) in the radiotherapy group. Impedance planimetry demonstrated a reduced rectal distensibility in these patients (P < 0.0001).
Adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy after anterior resection causes severe long-term anorectal dysfunction, which is mainly the result of a weakened, less sensitive anal sphincter and an undistensible rectum with reduced capacity.
No preview · Article · Jul 2005 · Diseases of the Colon & Rectum
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic constipation (CC) often occurs after spinal cord injury (SCI). Prucalopride is a novel, highly selective, specific serotonin4 receptor agonist with enterokinetic properties. We evaluate the tolerability and pilot efficacy of prucalopride in the treatment of CC due to SCL.
Double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot, phase 11, dose-escalation study. After 4 weeks' run in, patients received prucalopride 1 mg (n = 8) or placebo (n = 4); 11 new patients were randomized to prucalopride 2 mg (n = 8) or placebo (n = 3) once daily for 4 weeks. Patients recorded bowel function (diary) and assessed constipation severity and treatment efficacy (visual analogue scale (VAS) 0-100 mm). Colonic transit times were determined.
Compared with run in. mean changes in constipation severity (VAS) increased with placebo, but decreased with prucalopride 1 and 2 mg. The VAS score for treatment efficacy showed a clear dose response (medians 4, 52 and 73 for placebo, 1 and 2 mg, respectively). Diary data showed an improvement in average weekly frequency of all bowel movements over 4 weeks within the 2 mg group (median 0.6; 95% CI 0.2; 1.2). There was a significant reduction in median colonic transit time with 2 mg (n = 4; -38.5 h (95% CI -80; -5)). Four patients (2 mg) reported moderate/severe abdominal pain, and two of these discontinued treatment. There were no clinically relevant effects on any of the safety parameters.
This pilot study indicates that prucalopride can play an important role in the management of patients with CC due to SCI.
No preview · Article · May 2002 · Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology