[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effectiveness of oral N-acetylcysteine (NAC) co-treatment in preventing amphotericin B (AmB)-induced nephrotoxicity (AIN), including creatinine clearance and biomarkers of renal function (cystatin C [Cys C] and kidney injury molecule-1 [KIM-1]).
Either placebo or 600 mg oral NAC was given twice daily during the treatment course of AmB. Renal function test, serum as well as urinary level of Cys C and urinary KIM-1 were determined.
Among the study population (n = 54), 23 (42.59%) patients developed AmB nephrotoxicity during their treatment course. NAC co-treatment was significantly associated with mitigating AmB nephrotoxicity (OR = 0.286, 95% CI: 0.082 - 0.993; p = 0.049). No statistically significant difference regarding accuracy of measured biomarkers including serum creatinine, serum and urine Cys C and urine KIM-1 at days 0 and 7 of treatment in predicting and detecting AmB nephrotoxicity was identified. The changes in mean serum and urine Cys C and urine KIM during AmB treatment within and between treatment groups were not statistically significant.
Co-treatment with 600 mg oral NAC twice a day during AmB treatment, after adjusting for multiple variables, was associated with prevention of AIN. However, significantly higher adverse reactions developed in the patients who were treated with NAC.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malnutrition, inflammation and poor quality of life are prevalent among hemodialysis (HD) patients. Health-related quality of life is an important determinant of hospitalization and mortality in HD patients.
The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between quality of life and malnutrition-inflammation status according to subjective global assessment (SGA) and malnutrition-inflammation scores (MIS) in HD patients.
We randomly selected 87 of 180 stable HD patients from two HD centers. Those on hemodialysis for at least three months and with malnutrition according to the SGA scores were included in this study. They were divided into two groups of mild to moderate malnutrition (n = 39) and severe malnutrition (n = 49) based on the SGA scores. Serum levels of transferrin, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, kt/v, body mass index and malnutrition-inflammation scores were measured in all patients. Health-related quality of life was assessed by validated short form-12 (SF-12) questionnaire for each patient. These values were compared between the two groups of patients by independent sample t-test and Mann-Whitney U test. The correlations of nutritional variables with SGA and MIS scores were determined by Pearson and Spearman correlation tests.
There were no differences in measured parameters between the two groups except for MIS scores. Those with severe malnutrition showed higher MIS scores. All quality of life aspects and total scores (PCS, MCS) (rather than social functioning (SF) aspect) were significantly different between the two groups, which showed lower physical and mental scores in severely-malnourished patients. Physical functioning (PF), role limitations due to physical heath (RP), general health (GH), mental health (MH), SF, role limitation due to emotional health (RE), vitality (VT) aspects and total scores (PCS and MCS) had negative significant correlations with MIS and SGA scores (All P values < 0.05). No correlation was found between MIS and SGA scores and other measured variables.
This study focused on important effects of malnutrition and inflammation on health-related quality of life aspects, both physically and mentally in HD patients. SGA and MIS are highly correlated with quality of life in HD patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Consultation and guidance is a process of learning which is done through the relationship between two individuals. In this mutual relationship, the ounsellor, through his scientific and occupational skills and qualification, tries to help the students using the methods corresponding to their needs. The main objective of this study was to provide a framework for the management of the advisors' plans in the university based on the analysis of different schools.
This research is a cross-sectional and descriptive-analytic study. Data were collected both qualitatively (centralized groups at the presence of advisors in universities) and quantitatively (self-assessment of teachers and students' evaluation). Sampling was done randomly from all students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. All the teachers who were advisor took part in this study.
This study was conducted in eight schools of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences simultaneously and 974 students and 125 teachers took part in it. At the time of data collection, 25.5 percent of the students declared that the advisors have provided allocated time to them and 45.4 percent believed that the advisors helped the students to understand the importance of the courses.
The emergence of weaknesses and strengths of the academic advising program and the guidance through teacher's self assessment, not only may be the sign of realization of programmed objectives, but also may be the starting point for qualitative improvement of the situation. Moreover, in order to improve the advisory services and guidance, it is necessary to regard consultation as a scientific subject which needs training.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nutritional barriers may contribute to malnutrition in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Higher rates of morbidity and mortality rates have been reported in malnourished HD patients. These patients are faced with different challenges affecting their nutritional status.
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify most important barriers responsible for malnutrition in HD patients.
We randomly selected 255 of 800 stable HD patients from three HD centers with an age range of 18-85 years, who had been on hemodialysis for at least three months without any acute illness. Each patient was interviewed to evaluate malnutrition [subjective global assessment (SGA), malnutrition inflammation score (MIS)], and potential medical, behavioral and socioeconomic barriers. Body composition of patients was checked through bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Routine clinical markers of malnutrition such as serum albumin and total protein were measured using standard automated techniques. Binary logistic regression model was used to find the association between nutritional markers and potential barriers.
Patients with higher SGA had lower knowledge about general nutrition [odds ratio (OR), 1.3], potassium (OR, 1.89), difficulty chewing (OR, 1.16), and shopping (OR, 1.16). Those with greater MIS scores had poor appetite (OR, 1.3), depression (OR, 1.21), and difficulty with cooking (OR, 1.15). Lower BCM (body cell mass) was associated with poor appetite (OR, 0.92) and needed help for cooking (OR, 0.88). Patients with higher BFMI (body fat mass index) had insufficient general nutrition (OR, 1.15), and protein (OR, 1.27) knowledge, and needed help for shopping (OR, 1.14). Moreover, patients with higher SGA scores were those with older age and longer duration of HD.
Three medical barriers (poor appetite, depression and difficulty chewing), one behavioral barrier (poor total nutrition, protein, and potassium knowledge), and one socioeconomic barrier (needing help for shopping and cooking) were independently associated with nutritional markers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been found that the decision-making process in medicine is affected, to a large extent, by one's experience, individual mentality, previous models, and common habitual approaches, in addition to scientific principles. Evidence-based medicine is an approach attempting to reinforce scientific, systematic and critical thinking in physicians and provide the ground for optimal decision making. In this connection, the purpose of the present study is to find out to what extent the education of evidence based medicine affects clinical decision making.
The present quasi-experimental study was carried out on 110 clinical residents, who started their education in September, 2012 and finally 62 residents filled out the questionnaires. The instrument used was a researcher-made questionnaire containing items on four decision-making approaches. The questionnaire was used both as a pre-test and a post-test to assess the residents' viewpoints on decision making approaches. The validity of the questionnaire was determined using medical education and clinical professionals' viewpoints, and the reliability was calculated through Chronbach alpha; it was found to be 0.93. The results were analyzed by paired t-test using SPSS, version 14.
The results demonstrated that evidence-based medicine workshop significantly affected the residents' decision-making approaches (p<0.001). The pre-test showed that principles-based, reference-based and routine model-based approaches were more preferred before the program (p<0.001). However, after the implementation of the program, the dominant approaches used by the residents in their decision making were evidence-based ones.
To develop the evidence-based approach, it is necessary for educational programs to continue steadily and goal-orientedly. In addition, the equipment infrastructure such as the Internet, access to data bases, scientific data, and clinical guides should develop more in the medical departments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to find an appropriate method to inform senior high school students to correctly select their academic field of study and their intentions.
This is a descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study. A verified questionnaire was given to a total of 2600 students selected by stratified random sampling method (ten different colleges and entrance year from the 1(st) to 4(th) are considered as the strata). The position of the present field of study (major) among the list of the fields in the entrance exam was asked. The students' methods of familiarity with different fields of study in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS), the reasons for their selection, the students' motivation and insistence on studying in the same field and university were asked in the questionnaire. Data were analyzed using independent two samples t-test, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Chi-Square test.
The most significant references for university field selection were high school teachers, the students' parents and the adjacency of university to one's living place. Also, the results revealed the good reputation of SUMS in the first year and its downward trend during the following years. 59.4% of the 1(st) year students were satisfied with their field of study and SUMS. 31.8% were satisfied with the university but not with their fields of study. 6.4% were dissatisfied with the university but not with their fields of study. 2% of the students were dissatisfied with both their fields of study and university. Dissatisfaction with SUMS and field of study increased little by little so that the results obtained among the students who had entered the university earlier (in the 4(th) year of their study) showed nearly 16.3% dissatisfaction with both the university and the study fields.
The methods for introducing the university are recommended to be revised.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum creatinine as a classic marker of renal function has several limitations in the detection of renal dysfunction.
This study assessed the validity of serum cystatin C as a marker of renal function in critically ill patients with normal serum creatinine.
Eighty adult patients referred to intensive care units with serum creatinine levels < 1.5 mg/dL and without hemodynamic instability were chosen and their serum creatinine and cystatin C levels were measured. A 24-hour urine sample was collected to calculate creatinine clearance (Ccr). Renal dysfunction was defined as Ccr < 80 mL/min/1.73 m(2).
There were significant correlations between measured Ccr and 1/serum creatinine (R = 0.51, P < 0.001) and 1/serum cystatin C (R = 0.25, P = 0.028). The difference between false negative rates of serum creatinine (93.33%) and cystatin C (80%) in the detection of renal dysfunction was significant (P = 0.032). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis illustrated that area under the curve of serum creatinine and cystatin C for detecting renal dysfunction were 0.711 and 0.607, respectively; however, this difference was not significant (P = 0.222).
Our data demonstrated that serum cystatin C is not superior to serum creatinine in the early detection of renal dysfunction in critically ill patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Chronic renal failure produces physical and psychological problems in patients who are receiving hemodialysis, because of reducing the life standards. Selenium deficiency is common in hemodialysis patients. Selenium has antioxidant and cardio-protective effects, which can raise the quality of life in hemodialysis patients. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of selenium supplement on quality of life in hemodialysis patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Levamisole as an immunomodulator drug has been demonstrated to improve the immune response to hepatitis B virus vaccination in haemodialysis patients. The aim of this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was to evaluate the effect of levamisole supplementation on tetanus-diphtheria (Td) vaccine response rates in haemodialysis patients. Forty haemodialysis patients who had not received tetanus vaccination in a year before investigation and had unprotective anti-tetanus immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels (<0.1 international unit/mL) were enrolled and randomized into two equal groups to receive one dose of intramuscular Td vaccine supplemented with either levamisole (100 mg) or placebo daily, for 6 days before and 6 days after vaccination. The anti-tetanus IgG levels were measured 1 and 6 months after vaccination. One month post-vaccination, four patients were excluded from the levamisole group and two from the placebo group because of either death or renal transplantation. At 1 month, 13 out of 16 (81%) patients in the levamisole group as compared with six out of 18 (33%) patients in the placebo group developed protective anti-tetanus IgG levels (relative risk = 2.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.21, 4.88). From 1 to 6 months post-vaccination, one more patient in the levamisole group and two more patients in the placebo group were excluded because of renal transplantation. At 6 months, 11 out of 15 (73%) patients in the levamisole group as compared with four out of 16 (25%) patients in the placebo group still had protective anti-tetanus IgG levels (relative risk = 2.93, 95% CI = 1.19, 7.23). Supplementation of Td vaccination with levamisole may enhance seroconversion against tetanus in haemodialysis patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the health status and quality of life (QOL) of paid unrelated versus related living kidney donors postdonation at Shiraz Transplant Center in Iran. We invited all donors (n = 580, 347 paid unrelated, 233 related) who underwent donor nephrectomy at our center from 2004 to 2010 to participate in a health survey and physical examination. Of 580 donors, 144 consented to participate; participation of paid unrelated donors was significantly lower than related (52/347 vs. 92/233; p < 0.001). Participants underwent a complete physical examination, QOL assessment (using a 36-item short form health survey [SF-36] questionnaire) and laboratory work-up. The paid unrelated donors compared with related donors were younger (34.2 ± 7.2 vs. 40.7 ± 9.7 years, p < 0.001), had shorter time since donation (2.9 ± 1.6 vs. 3.8 ± 2 years, p = 0.004), had higher estimated GFR (72.6 ± 22 vs. 63.8 ± 15.3 mL/min/1.73 m(2) , p = 0.006) and had a higher percentage of patients with microalbuminuria (35% vs. 0%, p < 0.001). Additionally, general health and social functioning scores among paid unrelated donors were significantly lower (p < 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively) than related donors. Other SF-36 scores, although lower in paid unrelated donors, did not reach statistical significance. Iranian paid unrelated donors have lower QOL and higher incidence of microalbuminuria compared with related donors.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · American Journal of Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Iminoral is the generic microemulsion of cyclosporine. We performed a randomized double-blind multicenter trial to evaluate its efficacy and safety compared with the innovator medication Neoral for preventing acute rejection episodes in adult patients during the first year after renal transplant.
We used 221 de novo renal transplant recipients from 6 transplant centers in Iran enrolled between April 2008, and January 2010. They were randomized to receive either Iminoral or Neoral as the calcineurin inhibitor component of the immunosuppressive regimen in addition to mycophenolate mofetil and oral corticosteroids. They were followed-up for 1 year. The primary endpoint was the rate of acute allograft rejection. Secondary endpoints consisted of 1-year graft survival rates, daily dosages of cyclosporine, trough and C2 cyclosporine blood level, serum creatinine levels, patient death rates, discontinuing the study drug, tolerability, and adverse events.
The risk of acute rejection episode during the first month after transplant was 9% for Iminoral and 10% for Neoral; these declined to 4% and 2% during next 11 months. One-year graft survival rate was 0.86 for both groups. Renal function stabilized during the first month. Declination of the creatinine levels was similar between the 2 groups and reached a stable value of 114.9 μmol/L five months after the transplant. The frequency of clinical complications was similar between the groups.
Iminoral is safe and effective when used in de novo kidney transplant patients as an immunosuppressive medication.
Graft rejection, Iran, Calcineurin inhibitors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Protein-energy malnutrition and inflammation are common and overlapping conditions in hemodialysis patients, which are associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Adiponectin is an adipocytokine exclusively produced by adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to further elucidate the association between serum adiponectin levels and the nutritional status of hemodialysis patients.
Materials and methods:
Seventy-three patients on hemodialysis for at least 3 months, three times weekly, without any acute illness, were divided into 2 groups of well-nourished (n = 25) and malnourished (n = 48) based on their nutritional status, measured by the subjective global assessment. Serum levels of adiponectin, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine; body mass index; and the malnutrition-inflammation score were measured in all patients. These values were compared between well-nourished and malnourished patients. The correlations of nutritional variables with serum levels of adiponectin were determined, as well.
Except for the malnutrition-inflammation score, which was significantly higher in the malnourished patients compared to the well-nourished ones (11.1 +/- 3.6 versus 4.2 +/- 2.0, P < .001), no other significant differences were found between the two groups. A weak but significant positive correlation was found between the serum levels of adiponectin and subjective global assessment scores (r = 0.25, P = .03).
The results of our study point to potential utility of serum adiponectin level as an indicator of nutritional status in hemodialysis patients. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of adiponectin in the pathogenesis of malnutrition in hemodialysis patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: End-stage renal disease patients on chronic hemodialysis are among high risk groups for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection for whom routine HCV screening is recommended. Anti-HCV antibody (ab) testing may not be reliable to detect all infected cases because of the blunted ab response due to depressed immune state in these patients. Using a more reliable, cost-effective and non-complex HCV screening test may be necessary in this group of patients for case finding and management, and also for prevention of infection spread.
The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of HCV infection in HCV ab negative hemodialysis patients by Real time PCR and total HCV core antigen (ag) test and comparing the results of the two tests.
From a single hemodialysis center, 181 anti- HCV ab negative patients were screened by total HCV core ag using an ELISA kit. Real time PCR was used for determination of the virus and viral load quantity.
Among the 181 anti-HCV ab negative patients, 13 (7.2%) were positive for HCV core ag and 11 (6%) had detectable HCV RNA with a range of 40-336543 IU/ml by PCR. The two tests had a high measurement agreement (Kappa=0.82, P<0.001). Of the 13 patients with positive HCV core ag test results, 3 were negative for HCV RNA. Considering real time PCR for HCV RNA as the gold standard for HCV infection determination in this patient population, HCV core ag assay yielded a sensitivity of 90.9%, specificity of 98.2%, positive predictive value of 76.9% and negative predictive value of 99.4%.
The rate of HCV infection among HCV ab negative hemodialysis patients was high. HCV core ag testing could be used as a sensitive method for HCV infection screening in this group of patients.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Hepatitis Monthly
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
To collect available clinical data to define the role of diuretics and lipid formulations in the prevention of amphotericin B (AmB)-induced nephrotoxicity (AIN) in human populations.
A literature search was performed in the following databases: Scopus, Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.
Results and conclusion:
Co-administration of mannitol failed to show any clinically significant benefit in preventing AIN. Potassium-sparing diuretics, such as amiloride and spironolactone, have been shown to have beneficial effects as an alternative or adjunct to oral/parenteral potassium supplements in preventing hypokalemia due to AmB. Lipid-based formulations of AmB are clinically effective and safe in preventing AIN. However, due to their high cost and limited accessibility, these formulations are generally used as second-line antifungal therapy in cases of conventional AmB refractoriness and/or intolerance or pre-existing renal dysfunction. The potential effects of other nephroprotective agents, such as N-acetylcysteine, AIN merit further considerations and investigations.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The threat of explosive attacks has become a worldwide problem. Bombing is the preferred method of attacks. These attacks result in specific physical and psychiatric trauma. In this paper, we present an epidemiologic description of the physical injuries of patients who survived the explosive attack in Seyed Al Shohada mosque April 2008 Shiraz, Iran.
All medical records of the patients admitted at Shiraz Hospitals on April 2008 due to Seyed Al Shohada mosque bombing attacks, Shiraz, Iran, were reviewed.
A total of 202 patients were referred to the hospitals over 24 h following the terrorist attack. One hundred sixty-four patients were admitted for short periods of observation (<24 h). Thirty-eight patients needed more than 1 day of hospitalization. The mean age of the patients was 26.2 (range 2 to 51) years. One hundred thirty-five (66.8%) patients were males. Twenty-six (12.8%) were children. Burn was the most prevalent cause of admission. Five (13.5%) patients needed chest tube insertion and eight (21%) needed skin grafts due to burn. Overall, 12 patients expired (5%). Three (25%) of them were children (2 and 6, and 11 years old). Mortality rate was significantly higher among the children than adults (P value <0.05). The most important cause of death was head trauma which was seen in five (41.6%) of the expired patients followed by burn (including air way burn) in four (33%), and internal bleeding in three (25%). Patients with head trauma had significantly a higher rate of mortality than other patients (P value <0.05).
Following a bombing attack, numerous victims were brought to the emergency unit suffering from a combination of multi-organ injuries caused by the blast, penetrating injuries caused by shrapnel and other debris, and burns. It is important for a physician to be familiar with the clinical features and treatments of explosive attacks victims. Early management of patients at the scene and hospital may save their life.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Journal of Emergencies Trauma and Shock
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: A large proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have diabetic nephropathy. Despite current therapies including renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, diabetic nephropathy progresses to end-stage renal disease in most of these patients. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find new treatments for such patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of silymarin, an herbal drug with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, in preventing the progression of diabetic nephropathy. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-arm parallel trial. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 60 patients with type 2 diabetes with macroalbuminuria (urinary albumin excretion >300 mg/24 h) despite treatment with the maximum dose of a renin-angiotensin system inhibitor for more than 6 months and estimated glomerular filtration rate >30 mL/min/1.73 m(2). INTERVENTION: Patients were randomly assigned to 2 equal groups to receive three 140-mg tablets of silymarin or 3 tablets of placebo daily for 3 months. OUTCOMES: The primary outcome was absolute change in urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) from baseline to the end of the treatment phase. MEASUREMENTS: UACR and urinary and serum levels of TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor α; an inflammatory marker), malondialdehyde (MDA; an oxidative stress marker), and TGFβ (transforming growth factor β; a marker of fibrosis) at baseline and the end of the treatment phase. RESULTS: Although UACR decreased in both groups, this decrement was significantly higher in the silymarin compared with the placebo group; mean difference in change in UACR between the 2 groups was -347 (95% CI, -690 to -4) mg/g. Urinary levels of TNF-α and urinary and serum levels of MDA also decreased significantly in the silymarin compared with the placebo group. LIMITATIONS: Small sample size and short duration of the treatment phase. CONCLUSIONS: Silymarin reduces urinary excretion of albumin, TNF-α, and MDA in patients with diabetic nephropathy and may be considered as a novel addition to the anti-diabetic nephropathy armamentarium.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · American Journal of Kidney Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malnutrition is highly prevalent in hemodialysis (HD) patients. These patients have high levels of oxidative stress and inflammation which can subsequently induce malnutrition. Selenium levels have been found to be decreased in HD patients. As selenium deficiency leads to oxidative stress and inflammatory response, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of selenium supplementation on oxidative and inflammatory markers and the nutritional status of HD patients. In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 80 patients on stable HD for at least 3 months without any acute illness or active infections were randomly allocated to two equal groups to receive one selenium (200 g) or placebo capsule daily for 12 weeks. Serum levels of lipoproteins, malondialdehyde (MDA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HSCRP), homocysteine, ferritin and transferrin as well as the subjective global assessment (SGA) score, malnutritioninflammation score (MIS) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels were measured at the baseline and at the end of the treatment phase. The primary outcome was a change in the nutritional status measured by the SGA score from the baseline towards the end of the treatment phase of the study. The SGA score and MIS decreased significantly in the selenium group compared to the placebo group (P 0.001 for both). Moreover, serum levels of MDA decreased significantly in the selenium group compared with increasing levels in the placebo group (P 0.001). Selenium supplementation also hindered an increase in IL-6 levels compared with the placebo group (P 0.016). There were no significant differences between the selenium and placebo groups in terms of changes in serum levels of lipoproteins, HSCRP, homocysteine, ferritin and transferrin or Hb levels. This study shows that selenium may be an effective complementary supplement for reducing the severity of malnutrition in HD patients through alleviating oxidative stress and inflammation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a rare complication after snake bite. Herein, we report A 63 year old lady with generalized tonic colonic convulsion due to Subarachnoid hemorrhage after Echis Carinatus bite.
Preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Shiraz E Medical Journal