Mark A Fogel

University of Pennsylvania, Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (214)1151.96 Total impact


  • No preview · Article · Feb 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with virtual angioscopy, we sought to evaluate coronary anatomy, myocardial injury, and left ventricular function in children with interarterial anomalous aortic origin of coronary artery before and after surgery. Methods: We prospectively enrolled children 5 to 19 years old with interarterial anomalous coronary artery. Cardiac MRI was performed with respiratory-navigated steady-state free-precession 3-dimensional data set acquisition. Virtual angioscopy was used to evaluate the coronary ostia directly. Surgery consisted of the modified unroofing procedure. Results: We enrolled 9 subjects between February 2009 and May 2015. Subjects were male, with an average age at surgery of 14.1 years. Anomalous coronary was right in 7 patients (77%) and left in 2. In all subjects, the proximal anomalous coronary arose tangential to the aorta with an elliptical, slitlike ostium. Before the operation, the proximal coronary artery was significantly smaller proximally than distally (2 vs 3.1 mm; P < .0001. After the operation, neo-orifices were round and patent in 7 subjects; however, 2 subjects still had narrowed neo-orifices. New postoperative MRI findings included flattened septal wall motion (N = 1), small region of midmyocardial partial-thickness scar (N = 1), and dyskinetic septal wall motion with mild aortic insufficiency (N = 1). Left ventricular function was normal both before and after surgery (P = .85). Conclusions: Cardiac MRI with virtual angioscopy is an important tool for evaluating anomalous coronary anatomy, myocardial function, and ischemia and should be considered for initial and postoperative assessment of children with anomalous coronary arteries.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Clinicians use branch pulmonary artery (BPA) blood flow distribution to help determine the need for intervention. Though phase contrast magnetic resonance (PCMR) flow measurements are accurate, this has never been shown in the vicinity of a BPA ferromagnetic stent (FS) which produces significant susceptibility artifact. We retrospectively reviewed 49 consecutive PCMR studies performed between 2005 and 2012 on patients with repaired conotruncal anomalies and either left (n=29) or right pulmonary artery (n=20) stents. Three methods of measuring the stented BPA flow were compared: 1) main pulmonary artery (MPA) minus non-stented BPA, 2) direct PCMR of stented BPA away from the artifact, and 3) pulmonary venous flows (ipsilateral to stented BPA as well as derived pulmonary blood flow ratio from bilateral pulmonary venous flows). Internal consistency was tested with Student’s t-test, linear regression, Bland-Altman analysis, and intra-class correlation (ICC). The mean age was 11.7±6.9 years with 5.8±4.2 years between stent placement and CMR. There was good agreement without significant difference between MPA-derived stented BPA flow (Method 1) and direct PCMR of stented BPA (Method 2) (41±19% vs. 39±19%, p=0.59; R2=0.84, p<0.001; ICC=0.96). There was also good agreement between Methods 1 and 2 compared to pulmonary venous flows, with the highest correlation occurring between Method 2 and ipsilateral pulmonary venous flow (R2=0.90, p<0.001; ICC=0.97 for MPA-derived stented BPA flow; R2=0.94, p<0.001; ICC=0.98 for direct PCMR of stented BPA). Eleven of the 49 patients (22%) underwent interventional catheterization after PCMR. In conclusion, in the vicinity of a BPA FS, accurate measurement of the net fractional pulmonary blood flow ratio is feasible. PCMR adjacent to the stent and ipsilateral pulmonary venous flows provide the most internally consistent data. These data underscore PCMR’s utility in managing patients with implanted FS.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Approximately 1% of children are born with a moderate to severe congenital heart defect, and half of them undergo one or more surgeries to fix it. SURGEM, a solid modeling environment, is used to improve surgical outcome by allowing the surgeon to design the geometry for several possible surgical options before the operation and to evaluate their relative merits using computational fluid simulation. We describe here the solid modeling and graphical user interface challenges that we have encountered while developing support for three surgeries: (1) repair of double-outlet right ventricle, which adds a graft wall within the cardiac chambers to split the solid model of the unique ventricle, (2) the Fontan procedure, which routes a graft tube to connect the inferior vena cava to the pulmonary arteries, and (3) stenosis repair, which adds a stent to expand a constricted artery. We describe several solutions that we have developed to address these challenges and to improve the performance, reliability, and usability of SURGEM for these tasks.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Computer-Aided Design
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with single ventricle can develop aortic-to-pulmonary collaterals (APCs). Along with systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunts, these structures represent a direct pathway from systemic to pulmonary circulations, and may limit cerebral blood flow (CBF). This study investigated the relationship between CBF and APC flow on room air and in hypercarbia, which increases CBF in patients with single ventricle. 106 consecutive patients with single ventricle underwent 118 cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) scans in this cross-sectional study; 34 prior to bidirectional Glenn (BDG) (0.50±0.30 years old), 50 prior to Fontan (3.19±1.03 years old) and 34 3-9 months after Fontan (3.98±1.39 years old). Velocity mapping measured flows in the aorta, cavae and jugular veins. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple linear regression were used. Significance was p<0.05. A strong inverse correlation was noted between CBF and APC/shunt both on room air and with hypercarbia whether CBF was indexed to aortic flow or body surface area, independent of age, cardiopulmonary bypass time, Po2 and Pco2 (R=-0.67--0.70 for all patients on room air, p<0.01 and R=-0.49--0.90 in hypercarbia, p<0.01). Correlations were not different between surgical stages. CBF was lower, and APCs/shunt flow was higher prior to BDG than in other stages. There is a strong inverse relationship between CBF and APC/shunt flow in patients with single ventricle throughout surgical reconstruction on room air and in hypercarbia independent of other factors. We speculate that APC/shunt flow may have a negative impact on cerebral development and neurodevelopmental outcome. Interventions on APC may modify CBF, holding out the prospect for improving neurodevelopmental trajectory. NCT02135081. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Heart (British Cardiac Society)
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the cardiovascular effects of obesity on patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair. Ventricular performance measures were compared between obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥95%), overweight (85% ≤BMI <95%), and normal weight subjects (BMI <85%) in a retrospective review of patients with TOF who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance from 2005-2010. Significance was P < .05. Of 260 consecutive patients with TOF, 32 were obese (12.3%), 48 were overweight (18.5%), and 180 were normal weight (69.2%). Biventricular mass was increased in obese compared with normal weight patients with right ventricular mass more affected than left ventricular mass. Obese patients demonstrated decreased biventricular end-diastolic volume (EDV) and stroke volume (SV) when indexed to body surface area (BSA) with an increased heart rate when compared with normal weight patients; cardiac index, ejection fraction, and pulmonary regurgitation fraction were similar. When indexed to ideal BSA, biventricular EDV and SV were similar. EDV and SV for overweight patients were nearly identical to normal weight patients with ventricular mass in between the other 2 groups. Approximately 12% of patients after TOF repair referred for cardiac magnetic resonance in a tertiary referral center are obese with increased biventricular mass. Obese patients and normal weight patients have similar cardiac indices, however, when indexed to actual BSA, obese patients demonstrate decreased EDV and SV with increased heart rate and similar cardiac indices. When indexed to ideal BSA, no differences in biventricular volumes were noted. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · The Journal of pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: Anomalous origin of a coronary artery from the contralateral sinus of Valsalva is associated with exercise-induced ischemia and sudden death. That is thought to be due to aortic enlargement in patients with an elliptical ostium. We hypothesize that virtual angioscopy can identify abnormal coronary ostial morphology in these patients. We retrospectively analyzed 55 consecutive pediatric coronary artery magnetic resonance imaging studies from January 2006 to January 2010 with the diagnosis of anomalous right (n = 20), or left (n = 7) coronary artery, or normal coronary origins (n = 28). One postmortem heart specimen with anomalous left coronary artery was imaged and analyzed to validate our technique. Virtual angioscopy analysis was used for visualization and measurement of the coronary ostia. Distinct aortic origins of the right and left coronaries were seen in all 55 studies. An elliptical orifice with a longer superior-inferior dimension was seen in all anomalous ostia, in contrast to a circular ostium in all normal origins. That was quantified in anomalous ostia with a long-axis to short-axis ratio of 2.5 ± 0.5 (right) and 2.4 ± 0.5 (left) compared with 1.1 ± 0.2 (right) and 1.0 ± 0.3 (left) in controls (p < 0.001 for right and left ostia comparisons). Ostial morphology was confirmed in all 9 patients who underwent operative repair and in 1 patient at autopsy. Virtual angioscopy identifies abnormal ostial morphology in anomalous coronary artery patients, which is important for characterizing the diagnosis of patients who may be at risk for sudden death. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
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    ABSTRACT: There is an established association between tetralogy of Fallot and partial anomalous pulmonary venous connections. This association is important because surgically repaired tetralogy patients have increased risk of right heart failure. We hypothesize that partial anomalous venous connections increase right ventricular volumes and worsen right ventricular failure. We reviewed cardiac MRI exams performed at a tertiary pediatric hospital from January 2005 to January 2014. We identified patients with repaired tetralogy and unrepaired partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection. We used age- and gender-matched repaired tetralogy patients without partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection as controls. We analyzed the MRI results and surgical course and performed comparative statistics to identify group differences. There were eight patients with repaired tetralogy and unrepaired partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection and 16 controls. In all cases, the partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection was not detected on preoperative echocardiography. There were no significant differences in surgical course and body surface area between the two groups. Repaired tetralogy patients with unrepaired partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection showed significantly higher indexed right ventricular end diastolic volume (149 ± 33 mL/m(2) vs. 118 ± 30 mL/m(2)), right ventricle to left ventricle size ratios (3.1 ± 1.3 vs. 1.9 ± 0.5) and a higher incidence of reduced right ventricular ejection fraction compared to controls (3/8 vs. 0/16). Repaired tetralogy of Fallot with unrepaired partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection is associated with reduced right ventricular ejection fraction and more significant right ventricular dilation.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Pediatric Radiology
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    ABSTRACT: In Bi-directional Glenn (BDG) physiology, the superior systemic circulation and pulmonary circulation are in series. Consequently, only blood from the superior vena cava is oxygenated in the lungs. Oxygenated blood then travels to the ventricle where it is mixed with blood returning from the lower body. Therefore, incremental changes in oxygen extraction ratio (OER) could compromise exercise tolerance. In this study, the effect of exercise on the hemodynamic and ventricular performance of BDG physiology was investigated using clinical patient data as inputs for a lumped parameter model coupled with oxygenation equations. Changes in cardiac index, Qp/Qs, systemic pressure, oxygen extraction ratio and ventricular/vascular coupling ratio were calculated for three different exercise levels. The patient cohort (n=29) was sub-grouped by age and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) at rest. It was observed that the changes in exercise tolerance are significant in both comparisons, but most significant when sub-grouped by PVR at rest. Results showed that patients over 2 years old with high PVR are above or close to the upper tolerable limit of OER (0.32) at baseline. Patients with high PVR at rest had very poor exercise tolerance while patients with low PVR at rest could tolerate low exercise conditions. In general, ventricular function of SV patients is too poor to increase CI and fulfill exercise requirements. The presented mathematical model provides a framework to estimate the hemodynamic performance of BDG patients at different exercise levels according to patient specific data. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of Biomechanics
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    ABSTRACT: Children with single ventricle heart disease are at risk for developing systemic to pulmonary arterial collateral vessels that adversely impact short-term outcomes, although the effect on long-term outcomes remains unclear. Collateral flow (CollF) can be quantified using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) flow quantification. The velocity-time integral (VTI), obtained from spectral Doppler tracings, has been used in "runoff" lesions like aortic regurgitation to quantify insufficiency. We hypothesized that the VTI ratio of the proximal descending aorta (DAo) after cavopulmonary anastomosis (CPA) would estimate CollF. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted. Patients who had a superior CPA or total CPA and underwent CMR between April 2008 and December 2012 were included. Those with greater than trivial semilunar valve insufficiency or aortic arch obstruction were excluded. In a subset (n = 88), spectral Doppler tracings of the DAo were analyzed to determine the VTI ratio. In another subset (n = 112), CMR was used to determine the ratio of retrograde to antegrade flow in the DAo. There was no linear correlation between VTI ratio and CollF (r (2) = .006, P = .46). There was a weakly positive correlation with CollF (r (2) = .07, P = .007) and the CMR measured ratio of retrograde to antegrade flow. Holodiastolic flow reversal by echo did not predict higher CollF (P = .40), but those with holodiastolic flow reversal by CMR had significantly higher CollF (P = .04). The ratio of reverse to forward flow in the DAo as determined by Doppler echo does not accurately reflect CollF in children with single ventricle after CPA. © The Author(s) 2014.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Hearth Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: The investigators recently validated a method of quantifying systemic-to-pulmonary arterial collateral flow using phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging velocity mapping. Cross-sectional data suggest decreased collateral flow in patients with total cavopulmonary connections (TCPCs) compared with those with superior cavopulmonary connections (SCPCs). However, no studies have examined serial changes in collateral flow from SCPCs to TCPCs in the same patients. The aim of this study was to examine differences in collateral flow between patients with SCPCs and those with TCPCs. Collateral flow was quantified by 2 independent measures from 250 single-ventricle studies in 219 different patients (115 SCPC and 135 TCPC studies, 31 patients with both) and 18 controls, during routine studies using through-plane phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. Collateral flow was indexed to body surface area, aortic flow, and pulmonary venous flow. Regardless of indexing method, SCPC patients had significantly higher collateral flow than TCPC patients (1.64 ± 0.8 vs 1.03 ± 0.8 L/min/m(2), p <0.001). In 31 patients who underwent serial examinations, collateral flow as a fraction of aortic flow increased early after TCPC completion. In TCPC patients, indexed collateral flow demonstrated a significant negative correlation with time from TCPC. In conclusion, SCPC and TCPC patients demonstrate substantial collateral flow, with SCPC patients having higher collateral flow than TCPC patients overall. On the basis of the paired subset analysis, collateral flow does not decrease in the short term after TCPC completion and trends toward an increase. In the long term, however, collateral flow decreases over time after TCPC completion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · The American journal of cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: The authors’ reply We read with interest the response1 to our study.2 The authors speculate: “What if indexed power loss (iPL) is dependent on body surface area (BSA)?” We wish to make the following points in response: The data extracted from our paper2 that includes 30 patients shows no statistically significant correlation (p=0.167) between iPL and BSA (see online supplementary figure). This clarifies the speculation and supports our conclusion: ‘iPL correlates with exercise capacity’. We believe this is not surprising given …
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Heart (British Cardiac Society)
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    Preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
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    Preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
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    Preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
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    Preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
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    ABSTRACT: Single ventricle lesions are associated with gradual attrition after surgical palliation with the total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC). Ventricular dysfunction is frequently noted, particularly impaired diastolic performance. This study seeks to relate TCPC hemodynamic energy losses to single ventricle volumes and filling characteristics. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) data were retrospectively analyzed for 30 single ventricle patients at an average age of 12.7 ± 4.8 years. Cine ventricular short-axis scans were semiautomatically segmented for all cardiac phases. Ventricular volumes, ejection fraction, peak filling rate, peak ejection rate, and time to peak filling were calculated. Corresponding patient-specific TCPC geometry was acquired from a stack of transverse CMR images; relevant flow rates were segmented from through-plane phase contrast CMR data at TCPC inlets and outlets. The TCPC indexed power loss was calculated from computational fluid dynamics simulations using a validated custom solver. Time-averaged flow conditions and rigid vessel walls were assumed in all cases. Pearson correlations were used to detect relationships between variables, with p less than 0.05 considered significant. Ventricular end-diastolic (R = -0.48) and stroke volumes (R = -0.37) had significant negative correlations with the natural logarithm of a flow-independent measure of power loss. This power loss measure also had a significant positive relationship to time to peak filling rate (normalized to cycle time; R = 0.67). Flow-independent TCPC power loss is inversely related with ventricular end-diastolic and stroke volumes. Elevated power losses may contribute to impaired diastolic filling and limited preload reserve in single ventricle patients. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · The Annals of Thoracic Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: -Patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) experience variable outcomes for reasons that are incompletely understood. We hypothesize that genetic variants contribute to this variability. We sought to investigate the association of 22q11.2 deletion status with clinical outcome in patients with repaired TOF. -We performed a cross sectional study of TOF subjects who were tested for 22q11.2 deletion, and underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), exercise stress test (EST) and review of medical history. We studied 165 subjects (12.3 ± 3.1 years), of which 30 (18%) had 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). Overall, by CMR the right ventricular (RV) ejection fraction was 60±8%, pulmonary regurgitant fraction 34±17%, and RV end-diastolic volume 114±39 cc/m(2). On EST, maximum oxygen consumption (mVO2) was 76±16% predicted. Despite comparable RV function and pulmonary regurgitant fraction, on EST the 22q11.2DS had significantly lower percent predicted: forced vital capacity (61.5 ± 16 vs. 80.5 ± 14, p< 0.0001); mVO2 (61±17 vs. 80±12, p<0.0001); and work (64±18 vs. 86±22, p=0.0002). Similarly, the 22q11.2DS experienced more hospitalizations (6.5 [5; 10] vs. 3 [2; 5], p<0.0001), saw more specialists (3.5 [2; 9] vs. 0 [0; 12], p<0.0001) and used one or more medications (67 vs. 34%, p <0.001). -22q11.2DS is associated with restrictive lung disease, worse aerobic capacity, and increased morbidity, and may explain some of the clinical variability seen in TOF. These findings may provide avenues for intervention to improve outcomes, and should be re-evaluated longitudinally as these associations may become more pronounced with time.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Circulation Cardiovascular Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Anomalous left coronary artery from the inappropriate aortic sinus with intraseptal course is generally benign but can be confused on imaging studies with the potentially lethal interarterial, intramural anomalous left coronary artery. The purpose of this study was to assess normal ostial morphologic features and intraseptal course using cardiac MRI and CT in pediatric patients with intraseptal anomalous left coronary artery. Materials and methods: A retrospective review was conducted of the medical records of 14 children with the diagnosis of intraseptal anomalous left coronary artery between November 2009 and March 2013. Coronary artery origin and course were evaluated with cardiac MRI or CT, and 3D assessment of coronary ostial morphologic features was performed with virtual angioscopy. Results: The patient ages ranged from 5 to 18 years at diagnosis; 10 (71.4%) were boys. The right and left coronary origins were the right sinus of Valsalva as a common origin (n = 9) or a single coronary artery (n = 5). Anomalous intraseptal left main coronary was found in 13 patients, and one patient had anomalous left anterior descending with retroaortic circumflex coronary artery. Anomalous coronary ostia were round and without stenosis in all studies. The anomalous vessel was identified with echocardiography, but the anomalous left coronary artery was not delineated, and a normal ostium was not adequately portrayed in any instance. Conclusion: By use of cardiac MRI and CT, the anomalous course of round coronary ostia was confirmed and visualized in a pediatric cohort with intraseptal anomalous left coronary artery. The data provide the basis for understanding the benign clinical course and showing that surgery is unnecessary for this coronary anomaly.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · American Journal of Roentgenology
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    ABSTRACT: Utilization of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is limited in young children because of the need for sedation or general anesthesia (GA). It has been previously shown that CMR can be performed without sedation or GA in young infants who are prone to fall asleep after being fed and swaddled. The purpose of this study was to prospectively prove the feasibility of the feed-and-sleep CMR technique in larger cohorts in the two institutions where the technique was initially developed. This was a prospective dual-center cohort study over a two-year period. All infants younger than 6 months old with complex congenital cardiovascular anomaly who required CMR were recruited for this study. The exclusion criteria included mechanical ventilation, oxygen dependence, feeding difficulties, and any contraindication to CMR. The feed-and-sleep study was performed by fasting the infant for a period of 4 h prior to the scan, placing the infant in a vacuum immobilizer, and feeding the infant just prior to the CMR. The CMR sequences were prioritized to target the area of most importance first. A study was considered complete and diagnostic if the clinical question was answered. A total of 60 infants (39 from center A and 21 from center B) were recruited for this study, 32 male and 28 female, ages ranging from 1 to 177 days (50 ± 54). The CMR studies were diagnostic and answered the clinical questions in all patients. All infants tolerated the procedure well, and no complications were noted in any of the patients. The CMR duration ranged between 4-132 minutes (45 ± 21). The feed-and-sleep approach in selected patients obviates the need of sedation or GA for CMR in infants younger than 6 months old. Therefore, CMR can be utilized whenever echocardiography fails to provide the complete information required for the patients' management.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Pediatric Cardiology

Publication Stats

3k Citations
1,151.96 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014-2016
    • University of Pennsylvania
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1995-2016
    • The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
      • • Division of Cardiology
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Department of Radiology
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2008-2015
    • William Penn University
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2011
    • Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2002-2011
    • Georgia Institute of Technology
      • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States