[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of oral administration of a prebiotic (cellooligosaccharide [CE]) and a combination of a probiotic (a commercial Clostridium butyricum strain) and prebiotics (referred to as symbiotics [SB]) on performance and intestinal ecology in Holstein calves fed milk replacer (MR) or whole milk were evaluated. Forty female calves (experiment 1) and 14 male and female calves (experiment 2) were used in this study. Calves were fed MR (experiment 1) or whole milk (experiment 2) necessary for daily weight gain of 0.3 kg based on birth weight in two daily feedings and weaned at 46 days. Calves were divided into a CE feeding group, SB feeding group (only in experiment 1), and control group. The CE and SB groups were fed CE at 5 g/day before weaning and 10 g/day postweaning. Only the SB group received 108 colony-forming units (CFU) of C. butyricum culture per day. Commercial calf starter was offered for ad libitum intake. Health and feed intake of the animals were monitored daily, and body weight was measured weekly. Fecal samples were analyzed for determination of bacterial community composition by an RNA-based method (sequence-specific SSU rRNA cleavage method) and for organic acid profiling. In 49-day experiments, feed intake, daily gain, and occurrence of diarrhea of the calves were unaffected by either CE supplementation or SB supplementation, and all calves were healthy during each experiment. The fecal bacterial community compositions and the organic acid profiles were not different among groups in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the level of the Clostridium coccoides–Eubacterium rectale group was higher in the feces of CE group than controls at 4 weeks of age and fecal butyric acid concentration was higher (8.0 vs. 12.2 [mmol/kg feces], P<0.05) at that time. There were no differences in prebiotic bacteria (the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium) between groups at this time point. These results suggested that CE and C. butyricum supplementation have less effect on the performance of healthy calves fed MR. However, prebiotic supplementation seems effective for modulation of the intestinal bacterial community of calves when administered with whole milk.
No preview · Article · May 2013 · Livestock Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To decrease the age at first calving in Holsteins, the effects of average daily body weight gain (ADG) and crude protein (CP) level until first insemination on growth performance and milk production were examined. The MM group had a target ADG of 0.75 kg and received a diet with a CP level of 14%. The HM and HH groups had a target ADG of 1 kg; both these groups received a diet with CP levels 14% and 16%, respectively. The ADG in the HM and HH groups was 1.1 kg, whereas in the MM group it was 0.97 kg (P < 0.01). The HM and HH groups showed no differences in withers height at body weight 350 kg. The ages at first calving in MM, HM and HH groups were 23.1, 21.0 and 21.8 months, respectively. The HM and HH groups had lower milk yield at day 305 than the MM group (P < 0.01). These results suggest that growth performance until first insemination should be maintained at an ADG of 0.97 kg or less with a CP level of approximately 14%, to shorten time until first insemination and prevent the decrease of milk yield.
No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Animal Science Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the effect of cellooligosaccharide (CE) or a combination of dextran and Lactobacillus casei ssp. casei strain JCM1134(T) (synbiotic; SB) feeding on growth performance, fecal condition and hormone concentrations in Holstein calves. Fifty-two female Holstein calves were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: CE feeding group (n = 16), SB feeding group (n = 18), and control group (n = 18). Body weight at 90 days of age, as well as daily body weight gain (DG) and feed efficiency after weaning to 90 days of age were greater (P < 0.05) in the CE feeding group than in the control group. The total fecal score tended to be lower (P < 0.1) in the SB feeding group than in the control group. Plasma insulin concentration was higher (P < 0.05) in the CE feeding group than in the control group at 90 days of age. Our results indicate that CE feeding improved DG and feed efficiency in calves. On the other hand, there was less effect on growth performance and fecal Escherichia coli counts in calves fed SB.
No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Animal Science Journal