[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vitro activity of doripenem and comparator antimicrobial agents was evaluated against Gram-negative bacilli recently isolated from Brazilian private hospitals that were enrolled in the INVITA-A-DORI Brazilian Study. A total of 805 unique Gram-negative bacilli were collected from patients hospitalized at 18 medical centers between May/08 and March/09. Each hospital was asked to submit 50 single Gram-negative bacilli isolated from blood, lower respiratory tract or intraabdominal secretions. Bacterial identification was confirmed and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) microdilution method at a central laboratory. CLSI M100-S21 (2011) or US-FDA package insert criteria (tigecycline) was used for interpretation of the antimicrobial susceptibility results. Doripenem was as active as meropenem and more active than imipenem against E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates. A total of 50.0% of Enterobacter spp. isolates were resistant to ceftazidime but 85.7% of them were inhibited at doripenem MICs < 1 µg/mL. Polymyxin B was the only agent to show potent activity against Acinetobacter spp. (MIC50/90, < 0.5/1 µg/mL) and P. aeruginosa (MIC50/90, 1/2 µg/mL). Although high rates of imipenem (53.1%) and meropenem (44.5%) resistance were detected among P. aeruginosa, doripenem showed MIC50 of 16 µg/mL against imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa and inhibited a greater number of imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa (10.5%) at MIC values of < 4 µg/mL than did meropenem (0.0%). In this study, doripenem showed similar in vitro activity to that of meropenem and retained some activity against imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolated from Brazilian medical centers.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · The Brazilian journal of infectious diseases: an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ceftobiprole is a broad-spectrum cephalosporin with potent activity against staphylococci, including those resistant to oxacillin, as well as against most gram-negative bacilli including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this study, the in vitro activity of ceftobiprole and comparator agents was tested against bacterial isolates recently collected from Brazilian private hospitals. A total of 336 unique bacterial isolates were collected from hospitalized patients between February 2008 and August 2009. Each hospital was asked to submit 100 single bacterial isolates responsible for causing blood, lower respiratory tract or skin and soft tissue infections. Bacterial identification was confirmed and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using CLSI microdilution method at a central laboratory. The CLSI M100-S21 (2011) was used for interpretation of the antimicrobial susceptibility results. Among the 336 pathogens collected, 255 (75.9%) were gram-negative bacilli and 81 (24.1%) were gram-positive cocci. Although ceftobiprole MIC50 values for oxacillin resistant strains were two-fold higher than for methicillin susceptible S. aureus, ceftobiprole inhibited 100% of tested S. aureus at MICs < 4 µg/mL. Polymyxin B was the only agent to show potent activity against Acinetobacter spp. (MIC50/90, 0.5/1 µg/mL), and P. aeruginosa (MIC50/90, 1/2 µg/mL). Resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins varied from 55.3-68.5% and 14.3-28.5% among E. coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates, respectively; with ceftobiprole MIC50 > 6 µg/mL for both species. Our results showed that ceftobiprole has potent activity against staphylococci and E. faecalis, which was superior to that of vancomycin. Our data also indicates that ceftobiprole demonstrated potency comparable to that of cefepime and ceftazidime against key gram-negative species.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · The Brazilian journal of infectious diseases: an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases