[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thrombate III(®) is a highly purified antithrombin concentrate that has been used by clinicians worldwide for more than two decades for the treatment of hereditary antithrombin deficiency. The manufacturing process is based on heparin-affinity chromatography and pasteurization. To modernize the process and to further enhance the pathogen safety profile of the final product, despite the absence of infectious disease transmission, a nanofiltration step was added. The biochemical characterization and pathogen safety evaluation of Thrombate III(®) manufactured using the modernized process are presented. Bioanalytical data demonstrate that the incorporation of nanofiltration has no impact on the antithrombin content, potency, and purity of the product. Scaledown models of the manufacturing process were used to assess virus and prion clearance under manufacturing setpoint conditions. Additionally, robustness of virus clearance was evaluated at or slightly outside the manufacturing operating limits. The results demonstrate that pasteurization inactivated both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses. The addition of nanofiltration substantially increased clearance capacities for both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses by approximately 4-6 log10. In addition, the process achieves 6.0 log10 ID50 prion infectivity clearance. Thus, the introduction of nanofiltration increased the pathogen safety margin of the manufacturing process without impacting the key biochemical characteristics of the product.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An important consideration in the manufacture of products derived from animal or human sources is the virus reduction capacity of the manufacturing process as estimated using validated bench-scale models of relevant manufacturing steps. In these studies, manufacturing process intermediates are spiked with virus and processed using the bench-scale model and the resulting viral titres of input and output samples are typically determined using cell-based infectivity assays. In these assays, the Spearman-Kärber (SK) method is commonly used to estimate titres when there is one or more positive observation (i.e., the presence of any viral cytopathic effect). The SK method is most accurate when the proportion of positive observations ranges from <0.1 to >0.9 across dilutions but can be biased otherwise. Maximum likelihood (ML) based on a single-hit Poisson model is an alternative widely used estimation method. We compared SK with ML and found the methods to have similar properties except for situations in which the concentration of virus is low but measurable. In this case, the SK method produces upwardly biased estimates of titres. Based on our results, we recommend the use of either ML or SK at most virus concentrations; however, at low virus concentrations ML is preferred.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human plasma is the source of a wide variety of therapeutic proteins, yet it is also a potential source of viral contamination. Recent outbreaks of emergent viral pathogens, such as West Nile virus, and the use of live vaccinia virus as a vaccine have prompted a reassessment of the viral safety of plasma-derived products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of current viral inactivation methods for West Nile and vaccinia viruses and to reassess the use of model viruses to predict inactivation of similar viral pathogens.
Virus-spiked product intermediates were processed using a downscaled representation of various manufacturing procedures. Virus infectivity was measured before and after processing to determine virus inactivation.
The results demonstrated effective inactivation of West Nile virus, vaccinia virus and a model virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, during pasteurization, solvent/detergent treatment and caprylate treatment. Caprylate provided rapid and effective inactivation of West Nile virus, vaccinia virus, duck hepatitis B virus and Sindbis virus. Inactivation of West Nile virus was similar to that of bovine viral diarrhoea virus.
This study demonstrates that procedures used to inactivate enveloped viruses in manufacturing processes can achieve inactivation of West Nile virus and vaccinia virus. In addition, the data support the use of model viruses to predict the inactivation of similar emergent viral pathogens.