David M. Powell

George Washington University, Washington, Washington, D.C., United States

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Publications (8)12.01 Total impact

  • Jeffrey R Lukish · David M Powell
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    ABSTRACT: To minimize the risk of exsanguinating hemorrhage, the authors describe a technique of laparoscopic ligation of the median sacral artery before posterior sagittal resection of type I sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT). Two female infants with antenatally diagnosed SCT underwent postnatal evaluation and preoperative imaging and were taken to the operating room. In both patients, pneumoperitoneum was established via an epigastic 5-mm trocar. Two additional trocars were inserted in the right and left lower quadrants. The peritoneal reflection was opened to the right of the sigmoid colon, and the presacral space was explored. A large median sacral artery was identified easily, isolated, and divided. The children then were placed in a prone position, and the tumors underwent en bloc resection via a Chevron incision with minimal blood loss. The laparoscopic portion of the procedure was performed in an average of 15 minutes. This is the first report of laparoscopic ligation of the median sacral artery before posterior resection of a sacrococcygeal tumor in an infant. This technique can be performed easily with minimal morbidity. Division of this artery is a logical preventative measure and may reduce the risk of hemorrhage during operative resection.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2004 · Journal of Pediatric Surgery
  • Todd A. Ponsky · Chris Coppola · Gary E. Hartman · David M. Powell
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    ABSTRACT: Infection with the acid-fast bacilli Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare, collectively referred to as the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is a substantial diagnostic and clinical problem in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Because blood cultures in patients with M. avium infection (MAI) are frequently negative, tissue biopsy and culture are often required to confirm the diagnosis or rule out malignancy. The use of laparoscopic mesenteric lymph node biopsy in three children presenting with clinical symptoms and radiographic findings (abdominal lymphadenopathy) consistent with MAC infection is described here. Three ports were utilized and positioned dependent upon CT findings. Adequate specimens for diagnosis were obtained without morbidity in all three children. This experience supports the use of laparoscopy as the preferred method of confirming intra-abdominal MAC infection in HIV infected children.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2004 · Pediatric Endosurgery & Innovative Techniques
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    ABSTRACT: Previous clinical practice has included evaluation for the presence of tethered cord in those children who have imperforate anus with a high lesion. To define the incidence in children with low lesions, the authors reviewed their experience with a protocol employing routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), regardless of the level of the lesion, to determine the presence of a tethered cord in all children with imperforate anus. A retrospective review of children with imperforate anus was conducted over the last 13 years at our institution. Lesions were categorized as high versus low based on the supralevator or infralevator position of the fistula. Sixty-three patients completed evaluation for a tethered cord. Twenty-two (34.9%) of these 63 patients had a tethered cord: 11 of 41 (26.8%) patients with high lesions and 11 of 22 (50.0%) of those with low lesions. Of those children with a low lesion, 83% of the boys had a tethered cord, whereas 38% of the girls had a tethered cord. Forty-five percent of the patients with low lesions and a tethered cord did not have any other lumbosacral anomalies. All 22 children with a tethered cord underwent surgical release. The incidence of tethered cord in children with low lesions of imperforate anus is not lower than those with high lesions. The authors advocate early evaluation of all children with imperforate anus for a tethered cord.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2002 · Journal of Pediatric Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: To optimize burn care for children, the authors introduced a protocol incorporating the use of a bioactive skin substitute, TransCyte (Advanced Tissue Sciences, La Jolla, CA). This study was designed to determine whether this management plan was safe, efficacious, and decreased hospital inpatient length of stay (LOS) compared with conventional burn management in children. All pediatric burns greater than 7% total body surface area (TBSA) that occurred after October 1999 underwent wound closure with TransCyte (n = 20). These cases were compared with the previous 20 consecutive burn cases greater than 7% TBSA that received standard therapy. Standard therapy consisted of application of antimicrobial ointments and hydrodebridement. The following information was obtained: burn mechanism, age, size of burn, requirement of autograft, and LOS. Data were analyzed using the student's t test. Data for age, percent TBSA burn and LOS are reported as means +/- SEM. The children who received standard therapy were 2.99 +/- 0.7 years compared with those receiving TransCyte were 3.1 +/- 0.8 years. There was no difference between the treatment groups with regard to percent TBSA burn: standard therapy, 14.3 +/- 1.4% TBSA versus TransCyte, 12.7 +/- 1.3% TBSA. There was no difference in the type of burns in each group, the majority were liquid scald type, 70% in the standard therapy group versus 90% in the TransCyte group. Only 1 child in the TransCyte group required autografting (5%) compared with 7 children in the standard therapy group (35%). Children treated with TransCyte had a statistically 6 significant decreaed LOS compared with those receiving standard therapy, 5.9 +/- 0.9 days versus 13.8 +/- 2.2 days, respectively (P =.002). This is the first study using TransCyte in children. The authors found that this protocol of burn care was safe, effective, and significantly reduced the LOS. This new approach to pediatric burn care is effective and improves the quality of care for children with burns.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2001 · Journal of Pediatric Surgery
  • Kurt D Newman · David M Powell · George W Holcomb
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    ABSTRACT: Although laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the procedure of choice for gallbladder removal in children, the treatment of children who have choledocholithiasis remains unclear. For adults who have suspected choledocholithiasis, preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a well-described and effective approach, however, its use for common bile duct stones in children has not been defined. The authors reviewed the records of 131 consecutive children undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy on two surgical services to define the efficacy of ERCP followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy in managing choledocholithiasis in children. Fourteen children were suspected of having common duct stones noted on preoperative ultrasound scan and laboratory data. At ERCP, six children had no stones visualized; eight had stones and underwent stone extraction and sphincter dilation or sphincterotomy. All 14 underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy a mean of 3.8 days after ERCP. None of the 14 had evidence of retained stones. Only one of 117 children undergoing primary laparoscopic cholecystectomy had unsuspected common bile duct stones and was treated with laparoscopic common bile duct exploration and stone removal. A management plan incorporating ERCP followed by early laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a safe and effective strategy for children who have choledocholithiasis.
    No preview · Article · Aug 1997 · Journal of Pediatric Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) may complement open thoracotomy in children with osteosarcoma requiring pulmonary metastasectomy. The records of children with metastatic pulmonary osteosarcoma considered for initial VATS intervention (n = 9) were reviewed. Two children did not have VATS exploration: one child with multiple bilateral nodules and another child with a deep parenchymal nodule. VATS provided diagnostic biopsy material in all cases when used (n = 7). Two children had benign inflammatory lesions; four children had VATS-directed wedge resections of solitary malignant lesions; and one child had VATS biopsy of diffuse parenchymal and pleural pulmonary disease not amenable to resection. The mean operative time and hospital length of stay were 1.78 +/- 0.54 h and 3.5 +/- 1.8 days, respectively. There were two complications of VATS: bleeding in a child, requiring a transfusion, and a latent pneumothorax in a patient after removal of the chest tube. VATS is safe, serves as an excellent diagnostic modality, complements the open thoracotomy, and may enable the surgeon to avoid more extensive procedures in selected cases.
    No preview · Article · Dec 1996 · Annals of Surgical Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, increasing numbers of patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) have been offered extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) preoperatively if they can not physiologically tolerate early surgical repair. These infants are sicker and more unstable than those repaired pre-ECMO and, in most cases, have not had a "honeymoon" period (i.e., PaO2 >100 mm Hg at some point). ECMO before surgical repair was offered to 27 CDH patients in our institution; of the 16 (59%) survivors, 11 are now 2 years of age or older. To determine the outcome risk for this critical population, we compared 11 infants placed on ECMO pre-CDH repair (Group A) with our previous series of 22 survivors who had their surgery prior to ECMO (Group B). Both groups were similar in birth weight, gestational age, and Apgar scores. In Group A, a greater number were females (73% vs 23%), had right-sided hernia (64% vs 23%), and required patch repairs (82% vs 23%). The mean time on ECMO, time to extubation, and mean length of hospitalization were longer in group A. In both groups combined, the frequency of reherniation was higher in the patch-repair infants compared with those with a primary closure. Incidence of reflux was high in both groups, with increasing frequency of Nissen fundoplication in Group A patients (45% vs 6%). Both groups demonstrated similar delayed growth at 1 year of age. Although infants placed on ECMO presurgery are sicker, with more post-ECMO morbidity, their growth failure is similar to the less sick infants repaired pre-ECMO. Therefore, we recommend close followup of all CDH infants treated with ECMO in multidisciplinary follow-up clinics.
    No preview · Article · Sep 1995 · Clinical Pediatrics
  • David M Powell · Kurt D Newman · Judson Randolph
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    ABSTRACT: A classification of vaginal anomalies has been derived, which permits logical operative decisions. This tool allows the assignment of increasingly involved reconstructive operations to progressively more complex vaginal anatomies. The outcome of this approach in 49 vaginal reconstructions performed in 36 patients over a 25-year period has been analyzed. The cause was found to be congenital adrenal hyperplasia in 21 patients, gonadal dysgenesis in four, and cloaca in two; nine children had other causes. Based on the following anatomic classification and the authors' clinical experience, the following approaches to reconstruction can be recommended. Eight infants with labial fusion (type I) underwent simple introitoplasty. Fourteen patients with distal urogenital sinus (type II) underwent flap vaginoplasty using labioscrotal tissue and/or a posteriorly based flap. Pull-through vaginoplasty was used in 10 children with distal vaginal atresia and proximal urethrovaginal fistula (type III). Four patients with absence of the vagina (type IV) required segmental colon vaginoplasty. Thirteen revisions have been required in nine patients thus far. The follow-up period is 1 to 17 years, and despite the need for reoperation, all but two patients have excellent or satisfactory results based on anatomic and functional considerations. The choice for and timing of vaginal reconstruction rests on precise anatomic evaluation. The complexity of vaginal reconstruction in the growing child and the essentiality of psychosocial adjustment to appropriate sexual identity and function mandate long-term comprehensive follow-up. Optimal care for each patient requires experience and continuity to take the child through diagnosis, surgical reconstruction, stressful adolescence, and into adulthood with full attention to anatomic, physiological, and psychological support.
    No preview · Article · Mar 1995 · Journal of Pediatric Surgery

Publication Stats

174 Citations
12.01 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997-2004
    • George Washington University
      • Department of Surgery
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1995-2004
    • Children's National Medical Center
      • Division of Pediatric Surgery
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States