Camille Schmidt

University of Strasbourg, Strasburg, Alsace, France

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Publications (3)6.08 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Leptin has been shown to modulate gastrointestinal functions including nutrient absorption, growth, inflammation and to display complex effects on gut motility. Leptin receptors have also been identified within the enteric nervous system (ENS), which plays a crucial role in digestive functions. Although leptin has recently been shown to activate neurons in the ENS, the precise mechanisms involved are so far unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of leptin on rat proximal colon smooth muscle and enteric neurons activities. The effects of exogenous leptin on tone and on responses to transmural nerve stimulation (TNS) of isolated circular smooth muscle of proximal colon in rats were investigated using an organ bath technique. The effects of a physiological concentration (0.1μM) of leptin were also studied on tone and TNS-induced relaxation in the presence of atropine, hexamethonium, L-N(G)-Nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and capsazepine. Leptin caused a slight but significant decrease in tone, TNS-induced relaxation and contraction in a concentration-dependent manner in colonic preparations. Cholinergic antagonists abolished the effects of 0.1μM leptin on TNS-induced relaxation. This concentration of leptin had no further effect on relaxation in the presence of L-NAME. In the presence of capsazepine, leptin had no further effect either on tone or relaxation compared to the drug alone. In conclusion, leptin modulates the activity of enteric inhibitory and excitatory neurons in proximal colon. These effects may be mediated through nitrergic neurons. Intrinsic primary afferent neurons may be involved.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Regulatory Peptides
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that kaolinite slowed down gastric emptying and intestinal transit and induced changes in enteric mechanical activities. As gastric emptying and intestinal transit have been shown to be regulated by nitric oxide (NO), the effect of an imposed ingestion of kaolinite on enteric nitrergic innervation was determined. Kaolinite has also been shown to increase plasmatic levels of leptin. Therefore, the responses of enteric neurons in the presence of leptin after kaolinite ingestion were determined, and a possible role of nitrergic neurons was evaluated in rats using organ bath technique. Our results showed that kaolinite modulates activities of enteric nerves at 14 days of ingestion. Exogenous l-NNA produced a decrease in nerve stimulation (NS)-induced relaxation in both jejunum and colon of control groups. At 14 days of kaolinite ingestion, this effect of l-NNA was significantly reduced only in the jejunum. Although l-NNA did not affect NS-induced contraction in jejunum and colon of control animals, it increased the amplitude of the NS-induced contraction in the colon of rats at 14 days of kaolinite ingestion. Leptin inhibitory effects on ENS in the jejunum were also altered at 14 days of ingestion. These differences were masked in the presence of l-NNA. Our data give evidence that changes in mechanical activities induced by kaolinite might be due to alterations in inhibitory (nitrergic and/or other) innervation at 14 days of kaolinite ingestion and to modifications of leptin effects on the responses to intramural nerve stimulation.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Geophagia is found in various animal species and in humans. We have previously shown that spontaneously ingested kaolinite interacts with the intestinal mucosa modifies nutrient absorption and slows down gastric emptying and intestinal transit in rats in vivo. However, the precise mechanisms involved are not elucidated. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of controlled kaolinite ingestion on food intake, gut morphology and in vitro motility in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed with 5% kaolinite in standard food pellets during 7, 14 and 28 days. Body mass and food consumption were measured daily. Intestinal morphological and proteomic analyses were conducted. The length of mucosal lacteals was evaluated. Plasmatic levels of leptin and adiponectin were determined. Finally, organ bath studies were conducted to evaluate smooth muscle contractility. Food consumption was significantly increased during the first two weeks of kaolinite ingestion without any mass gain compared to controls. Kaolinite induced weak variations in proteins that are involved in various biological processes. Compared to control animals, the length of intestinal lacteals was significantly reduced in kaolinite group whatever the duration of the experiment. Leptin and adiponectin plasmatic levels were significantly increased after 14 days of kaolinite consumption. Changes in spontaneous motility and responses to electrical nerve stimulation of the jejunum and proximal colon were observed at day 14. Altogether, the present data give evidence for a modulation by kaolinite-controlled ingestion on satiety and anorexigenic signals as well as on intestinal and colonic motility.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology