[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3); ATO, TRISENOX®) is used to treat patients with refractory or relapsed acute promyelocytic leukaemia while its application for treatment of solid cancers like glioblastoma is still under evaluation. In the present study, we investigated the interaction of arsenic trioxide with metallothionein (MT) isoforms as a possible (protective response) resistance of glioblastoma cells to arsenic-induced cytotoxicity. Special attention was focused on MT3, the isoform expressed mainly in the brain. MT3 has low metal inducibility, fast metal binding/releasing properties and outstanding neuronal inhibitory activity. The human astrocytoma (glioblastoma) cell line U87 MG was treated with 0.6, 2 and 6-7 μM arsenic (equivalent to 0.3, 1 and 3-3.5 μM As(2)O(3)) for 12, 24 or 48 h and gene expression for different MT isoforms, namely MT2A, MT1A, MT1F, MT1X, MT1E and MT3, was measured by real time qPCR using SYBR Green I and Taqman® gene expression assays. TfR, 18S rRNA, GAPDH and AB were tested as reference genes, and the last two evaluated to be appropriate in conditions of low (GAPDH) and high (AB) arsenic exposure. The gene expression of MT3 gene was additionally tested and confirmed by restriction enzyme analysis with PvuII. In the given conditions the mRNAs of six MT isoforms were identified in human glioblastoma cell line U87 MG. Depending on arsenic exposure conditions, an increase or decrease of MT gene expression was observed for each isoform, with the highest increase for isoforms MT1X, MT1F and MT2A mRNA (up to 13-fold) and more persistent decreases for MT1A, MT1E and MT3 mRNA. Despite the common assumption of the noninducibility of MT3, the evident MT3 mRNA increase was observed during high As exposure (up to 4-fold). In conclusion, our results clearly demonstrate the influence of As on MT isoform gene expression. The MT1X, MT1F and MT2A increase could represent brain tumour acquired resistance to As cytotoxicity while the MT3 increase is more enigmatic, with its possible involvement in arsenic-related induction of type II cell death.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Biological trace element research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability of As(2)O(3) to induce apoptosis in various malignant cell lines has made it a potential treatment agent for several malignancies. In this study the chemical stability of As(2)O(3) (As(III)) in cell-free growth media with various compositions was studied (MEM with different amount of amino acids and DMEM). Special attention was given to evaluate the influence of serum (FBS; fetal bovine serum) absence and vitamin C addition on the oxidation of As(III) to As(V) in cell-free growth media. FBS is an important source of antioxidants and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is acting as a prooxidant in millimolar concentrations. Media were incubated with As(III) (0.6, 2 and 7 μmol l(-1)) up to 72 h. Experiments were performed at 37°C in light or/and in the dark, with or without added serum (10%) or vitamin C (1.4, 0.14 mM). Metabolites were followed with high-performance liquid chromatography directly coupled to a hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry system. After 72 h up to 30% of As(III) was transformed into As(V) in MEMs and up to 35% in DMEM when exposed in dark. Light had no influence on transformations in MEMs, but changed the situation dramatically in DMEM where almost all As(III) was oxidized to As(V) after 72 h when exposed to light. Except for some faster oxidation rate the absence of FBS had little effect on the transformation rate in all media. The most visible impact on As(III) oxidation was observed by addition of vitamin C. Addition of vitamin C (1.4 mM) transformed almost all As(III) to As(V) within 72 h. In lower concentrations (0.14 mM) a pro-oxidative effect was still observed reaching approximately 60% oxidation of As(III) during 72 h. All oxidation processes could be explained by pseudo first order reaction kinetics, yielding reaction rates increasing with initial As(III) concentration and vitamin C concentration whereas the FBS content additionally increased the As(III) oxidation rate in the DMEM (light). The temporal oxidation of As(III) to As(V) in various cell-free growth media necessitates routine checking of the valence state of arsenic during cell culture experiments and the results of biological effects attributed to As(III) should be interpreted with caution. Special attention is needed particularly in cases with vitamin C which was acting pro-oxidatively in all conditions examined.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Biology of Metals