[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Cancer Genome Atlas profiled 279 head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) to provide a comprehensive landscape of somatic genomic alterations. Here we show that human-papillomavirus-associated tumours are dominated by helical domain mutations of the oncogene PIK3CA, novel alterations involving loss of TRAF3, and amplification of the cell cycle gene E2F1. Smoking-related HNSCCs demonstrate near universal loss-of-function TP53 mutations and CDKN2A inactivation with frequent copy number alterations including amplification of 3q26/28 and 11q13/22. A subgroup of oral cavity tumours with favourable clinical outcomes displayed infrequent copy number alterations in conjunction with activating mutations of HRAS or PIK3CA, coupled with inactivating mutations of CASP8, NOTCH1 and TP53. Other distinct subgroups contained loss-of-function alterations of the chromatin modifier NSD1, WNT pathway genes AJUBA and FAT1, and activation of oxidative stress factor NFE2L2, mainly in laryngeal tumours. Therapeutic candidate alterations were identified in most HNSCCs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the safety and feasibility of auditory brainstem implantation in children younger than 5 years.
Patients younger than 5 years who were not candidates for cochlear implantation because of anatomic considerations were included in the analyses.
Auditory brainstem implantation via retrosigmoid craniotomy.
Audiologic, speech, quality of life, and safety outcomes were assessed.
Auditory brainstem implantation was performed in a 16-month-old male infant with bilateral cochlear hypoplasia and cochlear nerve hypoplasia after a prior aborted attempt at cochlear implantation. Intraoperatively, multiphasic evoked auditory brainstem responses (EABRs) characteristic of synchronized responses of central auditory pathways were obtained on multiple electrodes. There were no complications in the immediate postoperative period, and the child was discharged home on Postoperative Day 4. Audiologic testing 2 and 4 months after activation indicated sound detection between 45 and 70 dB HL for warble tones, improvements in Infant Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale scores, and subjective gains in sound awareness, as well as quality of life measures. There were no major or minor complications of the procedure.
Based on our experience in combination with the work of others internationally, auditory brainstem implantation is feasible and safe in children younger than 5 years.
No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Otology & Neurotology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Although the presence of genetic heterogeneity within the tumors of individual patients is established, it is unclear whether greater heterogeneity predicts a worse outcome. A quantitative measure of genetic heterogeneity based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) data, mutant-allele tumor heterogeneity (MATH), was previously developed and applied to a data set on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Whether this measure correlates with clinical outcome was not previously assessed.
The authors examined the association between MATH and clinical, pathologic, and overall survival data for 74 patients with HNSCC for whom exome sequencing was completed.
High MATH (a MATH value above the median) was found to be significantly associated with shorter overall survival (hazards ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-4.8). MATH was similarly found to be associated with adverse outcomes in clinically high-risk patients with an advanced stage of disease, and in those with tumors classified as high risk on the basis of validated biomarkers including those that were negative for human papillomavirus or having disruptive tumor protein p53 mutations. In patients who received chemotherapy, the hazards ratio for high MATH was 4.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.6-10.2).
This novel measure of tumor genetic heterogeneity is significantly associated with tumor progression and adverse treatment outcomes, thereby supporting the hypothesis that higher genetic heterogeneity portends a worse clinical outcome in patients with HNSCC. The prognostic value of some known biomarkers may be the result of their association with high genetic heterogeneity. MATH provides a useful measure of that heterogeneity to be prospectively validated as NGS data from homogeneously treated patient cohorts become available.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a common, morbid, and frequently lethal malignancy. To uncover its mutational
spectrum, we analyzed whole-exome sequencing data from 74 tumor-normal pairs. The majority exhibited a mutational profile
consistent with tobacco exposure; human papillomavirus was detectable by sequencing DNA from infected tumors. In addition
to identifying previously known HNSCC genes (TP53, CDKN2A, PTEN, PIK3CA, and HRAS), our analysis revealed many genes not previously implicated in this malignancy. At least 30% of cases harbored mutations
in genes that regulate squamous differentiation (for example, NOTCH1, IRF6, and TP63), implicating its dysregulation as a major driver of HNSCC carcinogenesis. More generally, the results indicate the ability
of large-scale sequencing to reveal fundamental tumorigenic mechanisms.