[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Various materials have been used for cranioplasty; however, these materials frequently produce artifacts that appear when examined with conventional radiography. Computed tomography (CT), in particular, detects high density artifacts near artificial bones, which is manipulated by increased noise, and limits diagnostic performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent and shape of the artifacts due to artificial cranial bones and to consider CT imaging parameters necessary for accurate recognition of structures under the materials. Four different artificial bone materials were evaluated in this study: hydroxyapatite with 1) 40% or 2) 50% porosity, 3) titanium plate, and 4) hydroxyapatite-polymethylmethacrylate composite (HA-PMMA). CT scanning was performed with standard clinical settings. Sample specimens were placed on the right side, under the artificial bones, and CT was performed to evaluate specimen visibility. We compared the artifacts created by the four bone types listed above, and measured the CT values of those materials. With ordinary scan settings, all the artificial bones revealed high-density artifact surrounding the materials, including the inability to accurately measure specimen thickness. The upper part of the specimen in contact with the artificial bones could not be distinguished from the artifact. The CT value in the medial aspect of the artificial bones increased more than the actual CT values. Of the four artificial bone materials studied, HA-PMMA produced the fewest artifacts. Description of the structures under the artificial bones can be improved by extending the window width to approximately twice that of normal settings.
Article · Jul 2008 · No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: We investigated the osteoconductivity and biocompatibility in vivo of a new hydroxyapatite-polymethylmethacrylate (HA-PMMA) composite developed for use as an implant material for cranioplasty, which is expected to have the good osteoconductivity of HA together with the strength and ease of handling of PMMA. The HA-PMMA composites were implanted in eight full-grown beagles and then 6, 12, 24 weeks and 1 year after implantation, the animals were sacrificed and the implanted materials removed along with the surrounding tissues. Extirpated specimens were studied using an optical microscope and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Fibrous connective tissue was prominent in the interface of the composite at 6 weeks. New bone formation was seen around the implant, 12 and 24 weeks after operation. At 1 year, new bone filled in the interface of the HA-PMMA composite and adhered to the surrounding autogenous bone. Mixing HA and PMMA did not interfere with the osteoconductivity of the HA component. In micro-CT findings, the new bone growing on the HA-PMMA composite could be seen attaching preferentially to HA particles exposed at the composite surface, rather than the PMMA. This study demonstrated that this HA-PMMA composite is a good candidate for cranial bone implants due to its good osteoconductivity and biocompatibility.