Sébastien Corde

École Polytechnique, Paliseau, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (43)239.89 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: An electron beam has gained a maximum energy of 9 GeV per particle in a 1.3 m-long electron beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator. The amount of charge accelerated in the spectral peak was 28.3 pC, and the root-mean-square energy spread was 5.0%. The mean accelerated charge and energy gain per particle of the 215 shot data set was 115 pC and 5.3 GeV, respectively, corresponding to an acceleration gradient of 4.0 GeV/m at the spectral peak. The mean energy spread of the data set was 5.1%. These results are consistent with the extrapolation of the previously reported energy gain results using a shorter, 36 cm-long plasma source to within 10%, evincing a non-evolving wake structure that can propagate distances of over a meter in length. Wake-loading effects were evident in the data through strong dependencies observed between various spectral properties and the amount of accelerated charge.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Ionization injection in a plasma wakefield accelerator was investigated experimentally using two lithium plasma sources of different lengths. The ionization of the helium gas, used to confine the lithium, injects electrons in the wake. After acceleration, these injected electrons were observed as a distinct group from the drive beam on the energy spectrometer. They typically have a charge of tens of pC, an energy spread of a few GeV, and a maximum energy of up to 30 GeV. The emittance of this group of electrons can be many times smaller than the initial emittance of the drive beam. The energy scaling for the trapped charge from one plasma length to the other is consistent with the blowout theory of the plasma wakefield.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Betatron x-ray source from laser plasma interaction combines high brightness, few femtosecond duration and broad band energy spectrum. However, despite these unique features the Betatron source has a crippling drawback preventing its use for applications. Its properties significantly vary shot-to-shot and none of the developments performed so far resolved this problem. In this letter we present a simple method that allows to produce stable and bright Betatron x-ray beams. In addition, we demonstrate that this scheme provides polarized and easily tunable radiation. Experimental results show that the pointing stability is better than 10% of the beam divergence, with flux fluctuation of the order of 20% and a polarization degree reaching up to 80%
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Electrical breakdown sets a limit on the kinetic energy that particles in a conventional radio-frequency accelerator can reach. New accelerator concepts must be developed to achieve higher energies and to make future particle colliders more compact and affordable. The plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) embodies one such concept, in which the electric field of a plasma wake excited by a bunch of charged particles (such as electrons) is used to accelerate a trailing bunch of particles. To apply plasma acceleration to electron-positron colliders, it is imperative that both the electrons and their antimatter counterpart, the positrons, are efficiently accelerated at high fields using plasmas. Although substantial progress has recently been reported on high-field, high-efficiency acceleration of electrons in a PWFA powered by an electron bunch, such an electron-driven wake is unsuitable for the acceleration and focusing of a positron bunch. Here we demonstrate a new regime of PWFAs where particles in the front of a single positron bunch transfer their energy to a substantial number of those in the rear of the same bunch by exciting a wakefield in the plasma. In the process, the accelerating field is altered--'self-loaded'--so that about a billion positrons gain five gigaelectronvolts of energy with a narrow energy spread over a distance of just 1.3 metres. They extract about 30 per cent of the wake's energy and form a spectrally distinct bunch with a root-mean-square energy spread as low as 1.8 per cent. This ability to transfer energy efficiently from the front to the rear within a single positron bunch makes the PWFA scheme very attractive as an energy booster to an electron-positron collider.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Nature
  • E. Adli · S.J. Gessner · Sébastien Corde · M.J. Hogan · H.H. Bjerke
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a beam profile monitor design based on Cherenkov light emitted from a charged particle beam in an air gap. The main components of the profile monitor are silicon wafers used to reflect Cherenkov light onto a camera lens system. The design allows for measuring large beam sizes, with large photon yield per beam charge and excellent signal linearity with beam charge. The profile monitor signal is independent of the particle energy for ultrarelativistic particles. Different design and parameter considerations are discussed. A Cherenkov light-based profile monitor has been installed at the FACET User Facility at SLAC. We report on the measured performance of this profile monitor.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment
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    ABSTRACT: High-efficiency acceleration of charged particle beams at high gradients of energy gain per unit length is necessary to achieve an affordable and compact high-energy collider. The plasma wakefield accelerator is one concept being developed for this purpose. In plasma wakefield acceleration, a charge-density wake with high accelerating fields is driven by the passage of an ultra-relativistic bunch of charged particles (the drive bunch) through a plasma. If a second bunch of relativistic electrons (the trailing bunch) with sufficient charge follows in the wake of the drive bunch at an appropriate distance, it can be efficiently accelerated to high energy. Previous experiments using just a single 42-gigaelectronvolt drive bunch have accelerated electrons with a continuous energy spectrum and a maximum energy of up to 85 gigaelectronvolts from the tail of the same bunch in less than a metre of plasma. However, the total charge of these accelerated electrons was insufficient to extract a substantial amount of energy from the wake. Here we report high-efficiency acceleration of a discrete trailing bunch of electrons that contains sufficient charge to extract a substantial amount of energy from the high-gradient, nonlinear plasma wakefield accelerator. Specifically, we show the acceleration of about 74 picocoulombs of charge contained in the core of the trailing bunch in an accelerating gradient of about 4.4 gigavolts per metre. These core particles gain about 1.6 gigaelectronvolts of energy per particle, with a final energy spread as low as 0.7 per cent (2.0 per cent on average), and an energy-transfer efficiency from the wake to the bunch that can exceed 30 per cent (17.7 per cent on average). This acceleration of a distinct bunch of electrons containing a substantial charge and having a small energy spread with both a high accelerating gradient and a high energy-transfer efficiency represents a milestone in the development of plasma wakefield acceleration into a compact and affordable accelerator technology.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Nature
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    ABSTRACT: In this article we review the prospects of laser wakefield accelerators as next generation light sources for applications. This work arose as a result of discussions held at the 2013 Laser Plasma Accelerators Workshop. X-ray phase contrast imaging, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and nuclear resonance fluorescence are highlighted as potential applications for laser–plasma based light sources. We discuss ongoing and future efforts to improve the properties of radiation from plasma betatron emission and Compton scattering using laser wakefield accelerators for these specific applications.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion
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    ABSTRACT: The Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests (FACET) at SLAC installed a 10-TW Ti : sapphire laser system for pre-ionized plasma wakefield acceleration experiments. High energy (500 mJ), short (50 fs) pulses of 800 nm laser light at 1 Hz are used at the FACET experimental area to produce a plasma column. The laser pulses are stretched to 250 fs before injection into a vapor cell, where the laser is focused by an axicon lens to form a plasma column that can be sustained over the desired radius and length. A 20 GeV electron bunch interacts with this preformed plasma to generate a non-linear wakefield, thus accelerating a trailing witness bunch with gradients on the order of several GV m−1. The experimental setup and the methods for producing the pre-ionized plasma for plasma wakefield acceleration experiments performed at FACET are described.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion
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    ABSTRACT: X-ray radiation emitted by electrons during their acceleration in a laser-plasma accelerator was used to evidence two distincts self-injection mechanisms (longitudinal and transverse) and to identify one source of angular-momentum growth in laser-plasma accelerators.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jun 2014
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    ABSTRACT: We show through experiments and supporting simulations that propagation of a highly relativistic and dense electron bunch through a plasma can lead to distributed injection of electrons, which depletes the accelerating field, i.e., beam loads the wake. The source of the injected electrons is ionization of the second electron of rubidium (Rb II) within the wake. This injection of excess charge is large enough to severely beam load the wake, and thereby reduce the transformer ratio T. The reduction of the average T with increasing beam loading is quantified for the first time by measuring the ratio of peak energy gain and loss of electrons while changing the beam emittance. Simulations show that beam loading by Rb II electrons contributes to the reduction of the peak accelerating field from its weakly loaded value of 43 GV/m to a strongly loaded value of 26 GV/m.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Physical Review Letters
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    ABSTRACT: Strategies for mitigating ionization-induced beam head erosion in an electron-beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) are explored when the plasma and the wake are both formed by the transverse electric field of the beam itself. Beam head erosion can occur in a preformed plasma because of a lack of focusing force from the wake at the rising edge (head) of the beam due to the finite inertia of the electrons. When the plasma is produced by field ionization from the space charge field of the beam, the head erosion is significantly exacerbated due to the gradual recession (in the beam frame) of the 100% ionization contour. Beam particles in front of the ionization front cannot be focused (guided) causing them to expand as in vacuum. When they expand, the location of the ionization front recedes such that even more beam particles are completely unguided. Eventually this process terminates the wake formation prematurely, i.e., well before the beam is depleted of its energy. Ionization-induced head erosion can be mitigated by controlling the beam parameters (emittance, charge, and energy) and/or the plasma conditions. In this paper we explore how the latter can be optimized so as to extend the beam propagation distance and thereby increase the energy gain. In particular we show that, by using a combination of the alkali atoms of the lowest practical ionization potential (Cs) for plasma formation and a precursor laser pulse to generate a narrow plasma filament in front of the beam, the head erosion rate can be dramatically reduced. Simulation results show that in the upcoming “two-bunch PWFA experiments” on the FACET facility at SLAC national accelerator laboratory the energy gain of the trailing beam can be up to 10 times larger for the given parameters when employing these techniques. Comparison of the effect of beam head erosion in preformed and ionization produced plasmas is also presented.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams
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    ABSTRACT: The transverse properties of an electron beam are characterized by two quantities, the emittance which indicates the electron beam extent in the phase space and the angular momentum which allows for nonplanar electron trajectories. Whereas the emittance of electron beams produced in a laser-plasma accelerator has been measured in several experiments, their angular momentum has been scarcely studied. It was demonstrated that electrons in a laser-plasma accelerator carry some angular momentum, but its origin was not established. Here we identify one source of angular-momentum growth and we present experimental results showing that the angular-momentum content evolves during the acceleration.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Physical Review Letters
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    ABSTRACT: While laser-plasma accelerators have demonstrated a strong potential in the acceleration of electrons up to giga-electronvolt energies, few experimental tools for studying the acceleration physics have been developed. In this paper, we demonstrate a method for probing the acceleration process. A second laser beam, propagating perpendicular to the main beam is focused in the gas jet few nanosecond before the main beam creates the accelerating plasma wave. This second beam is intense enough to ionize the gas and form a density depletion which will locally inhibit the acceleration. The position of the density depletion is scanned along the interaction length to probe the electron injection and acceleration, and the betatron X-ray emission. To illustrate the potential of the method, the variation of the injection position with the plasma density is studied.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Physics of Plasmas
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    ABSTRACT: Laser-plasma accelerators can produce high-quality electron beams, up to giga electronvolts in energy, from a centimetre scale device. The properties of the electron beams and the accelerator stability are largely determined by the injection stage of electrons into the accelerator. The simplest mechanism of injection is self-injection, in which the wakefield is strong enough to trap cold plasma electrons into the laser wake. The main drawback of this method is its lack of shot-to-shot stability. Here we present experimental and numerical results that demonstrate the existence of two different self-injection mechanisms. Transverse self-injection is shown to lead to low stability and poor-quality electron beams, because of a strong dependence on the intensity profile of the laser pulse. In contrast, longitudinal injection, which is unambiguously observed for the first time, is shown to lead to much more stable acceleration and higher-quality electron beams.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Nature Communications
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    ABSTRACT: Relativistic interaction of short-pulse lasers with underdense plasmas has recently led to the emergence of a novel generation of femtosecond x-ray sources. Based on radiation from electrons accelerated in plasma, these sources have the common properties to be compact and to deliver collimated, incoherent and femtosecond radiation. In this article we review, within a unified formalism, the betatron radiation of trapped and accelerated electrons in the so-called bubble regime, the synchrotron radiation of laser-accelerated electrons in usual meter-scale undulators, the nonlinear Thomson scattering from relativistic electrons oscillating in an intense laser field, and the Thomson backscattered radiation of a laser beam by laser-accelerated electrons. The underlying physics is presented using ideal models, the relevant parameters are defined, and analytical expressions providing the features of the sources are given. Numerical simulations and a summary of recent experimental results on the different mechanisms are also presented. Each section ends with the foreseen development of each scheme. Finally, one of the most promising applications of laser-plasma accelerators is discussed: the realization of a compact free-electron laser in the x-ray range of the spectrum. In the conclusion, the relevant parameters characterizing each sources are summarized. Considering typical laser-plasma interaction parameters obtained with currently available lasers, examples of the source features are given. The sources are then compared to each other in order to define their field of applications.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Review of Modern Physics
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    ABSTRACT: Betatron x-ray emission in laser-plasma accelerators is a promising compact source that may be an alternative to conventional x-ray sources, based on large scale machines. In addition to its potential as a source, precise measurements of betatron emission can reveal crucial information about relativistic laser-plasma interaction. We show that the emission length and the position of the x-ray emission can be obtained by placing an aperture mask close to the source, and by measuring the beam profile of the betatron x-ray radiation far from the aperture mask. The position of the x-ray emission gives information on plasma wave breaking and hence on the laser non-linear propagation. Moreover, the measurement of the longitudinal extension helps one to determine whether the acceleration is limited by pump depletion or dephasing effects. In the case of multiple injections, it is used to retrieve unambiguously the position in the plasma of each injection. This technique is also used to study how, in a capillary discharge, the variations of the delay between the discharge and the laser pulse affect the interaction. The study reveals that, for a delay appropriate for laser guiding, the x-ray emission only occurs in the second half of the capillary: no electrons are injected and accelerated in the first half.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion
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    ABSTRACT: Bright and high-energy femtosecond x-ray beams were produced from Betatron oscillations and Compton scattering in laser-plasma accelerators. Their use as a diagnostic for laser-plasma accelerators and for applications was demonstrated.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Oct 2012
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    ABSTRACT: Using a laser plasma accelerator, experiments with a 80 TW and 30 fs laser pulse demonstrated quasi-monoenergetic electron spectra with maximum energy over 0.4 GeV. This is achieved using a supersonic He gas jet and a sharp density ramp generated by a high intensity laser crossing pre-pulse focused 3 ns before the main laser pulse. By adjusting this crossing pre-pulse position inside the gas jet, among the laser shots with electron injection more than 40% can produce quasi-monoenergetic spectra. This could become a relatively straight forward technique to control laser wakefield electron beams parameters.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Applied Physics Letters
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the plasma wakefield experiments performed at the newly commissioned FACET facility at the SLAC National Laboratory. A beam of 2x10^10 20.5 GeV electrons was focused through a 20-40 cm long vapor column of lithium or rubidium produced in a heat-pipe oven. The electron beam tunnel-ionized the metal vapor and then drove a large amplitude plasma wake. The resulting interaction was investigated for different plasma densities and beam parameters. The primary diagnostic was the energy gain and loss features observed using an imaging magnetic spectrometer. Preliminary data and a comparison between acceleration in rubidium and lithium plasmas will be presented.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012
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    ABSTRACT: Recent PWFA experiments at FACET use Rb gas ionized by the beam as the plasma source. The Rb has a lower ionization threshold than the Li, which was used in earlier experiments, consequently a smaller peak current beam can still produce a field ionized plasma. But the Rb vapor is confined by Ar and as a result it is possible to ionize both the first electron of Ar (I.P. 14eV) as well as the second electron of Rb (I.P.24 eV). This secondary ionization can lead to a source of dark current in a PWFA. In this work QuickPIC simulation results are presented for studying the influence by the ``unwanted'' ionization. In the simulation, both Ar and Rb vapor profiles are initialized as measured in the laboratory. We use different beam parameters (including different focal position) in the simulation. The ion density of the gas is a useful diagnostic showing the ionization level of the neutral gas in the simulation. Other simulation results related FACET experiments are also presented.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012

Publication Stats

430 Citations
239.89 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011
    • École Polytechnique
      • Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquée (LOA)
      Paliseau, Île-de-France, France
  • 2007-2011
    • ENSTA Bretagne
      Brest, Brittany, France
  • 2009
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France