[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Recent investigations have linked elevated gastrin levels to the improvement of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) are effective treatments for T2DM, but it is not known if this is related to postoperative alterations of gastrin secretion.
Twenty women previously operated with RYGB or SG and 13 female controls were enrolled and evaluated for body mass index, lipids, C-peptide, HbA1c, and anti-H. pylori IgG. Glucose, gastrin, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) concentrations were measured before and 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after ingestion of a protein-rich mixed meal.
Six participants primarily selected were excluded due to usage of proton pump inhibitors, positive H.pylori IgG, or history of T2DM, yielding the following groups: RYGB (n = 9), SG (n = 8), and controls (n = 10). There were no differences in age, body mass index, HbA1c, or C-peptide levels between groups. RYGB had significantly lower area under the curve (AUC) for glucose during the test compared to controls (p = 0.013). RYGB showed lower serum gastrin levels compared to SG and controls (p < 0.05 for all). There was a non-significant increased gastrin release in SG compared to controls (p = 0.091). For SG and controls, there was a negative correlation between glucose and gastrin response (p = 0.0043).
Gastrin secretion is diminished after RYGB. Hypergastrinemia was not present after SG, but a tendency of enhanced gastrin secretion was observed. These findings require further investigation in prospective studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nordic research on physiology and pathophysiology of the upper gastrointestinal tract has flourished during the last 50 years. Swedish surgeons and physiologists were in the frontline of research on the regulation of gastric acid secretion. This research finally led to the development of omeprazole, the first proton pump inhibitor. When Swedish physiologists developed methods allowing the assessment of acid secretion in isolated oxyntic glands and isolated parietal cells, the understanding of mechanisms by which gastric acid secretion is regulated took a great step forward. Similarly, in Trondheim, Norway, the acid producing isolated rat stomach model combined with a sensitive and specific method for determination of histamine made it possible to evaluate this regulation qualitatively as well as quantitatively. In Lund, Sweden, the identification of the enterochromaffin-like cell as the cell taking part in the regulation of acid secretion by producing and releasing histamine was of fundamental importance both physiologically and clinically. Jorpes and Mutt established a center at Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm for the purification of gastrointestinal hormones in the 1960s, and Danes followed up this work by excelling in the field of determination and assessment of biological role of gastrointestinal hormones. A Finnish group was for a long period in the forefront of research on gastritis, and the authors' own studies on the classification of gastric cancer and the role of gastrin in the development of gastric neoplasia are of importance. It can, accordingly, be concluded that Nordic researchers have been central in the research on area of the upper gastrointestinal physiology and diseases.
No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The etiology of the inflammatory bowel diseases is unknown, although genetic factors play a role, and tobacco smoking has opposite effect on the two entities. Inflammation is central in the pathogenesis, and treatment is aiming to suppress it. The active part of salazopyrin, the oldest drug in use in the treatment of ulcerative colitis, is 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). In the present paper, we wanted to discuss the etiology and pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis in relation to the beneficial effects of 5-ASA and particularly whether this compound has a specific effect on ulcerative colitis.
5-ASA seems to have a selective positive effect on ulcerative colitis in inducing remission, preventing relapse and possibly reducing the risk of cancer. In contrast to other agents used in the treatment of ulcerative colitis, 5-ASA does not have any known anti-inflammatory effect on other organs or other colonic inflammatory diseases like diverticulitis. Moreover, the effect on experimental colitis in rodents is not convincing.
5-ASA seems to have a specific effect on the inflammation in ulcerative colitis. Research on the mechanism of its action may give information on the etiology of ulcerative colitis. 5-ASA is a first-line treatment that should be given once daily in high doses and for long term to reduce the possibility of recurrence and risk of colonic cancer. Side effects with 5-ASA are rare, and every patient with ulcerative colitis who tolerate this drug, should be treated with 5-ASA.
No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastric cancer occurs almost exclusively in patients with gastritis. Since Helicobacter pylori (Hp) was proved to cause gastritis, Hp was also expected to play a role in gastric carcinogenesis. Despite extensive studies, the mechanisms by which Hp cause gastric cancer are still poorly understood. However, there is evidence that the anatomical site of Hp infection is of major importance. Infection confined to the antral mucosa protects against gastric cancer but predisposes to duodenal ulcer, whereas Hp infection of the oxyntic mucosa increases the risk of gastric cancer. Hp infection does not predispose to cancers in the gastric cardia. In patients with atrophic gastritis of the oxyntic mucosa, the intragastric pH is elevated and the concentration of microorganisms in the stomach is increased. This does not lead to increased risk of gastric cancer at all anatomical sites. The site specificity of Hp infection in relation to cancer risk indicates that neither Hp nor the changes in gastric microflora due to gastric hypoacidity are carcinogenic per se. However, reduced gastric acidity also leads to hypergastrinemia, which stimulates the function and proliferation of enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells located in the oxyntic mucosa. The ECL cell may be more important in human gastric carcinogenesis than previously realized, as every condition causing long-term hypergastrinemia in animals results in the development of neoplasia in the oxyntic mucosa. Patients with hypergastrinemia will far more often develop carcinomas in the gastric corpus. In conclusion, hypergastrinemia may explain the carcinogenic effect of Hp.
No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Digestive Diseases and Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Vagotomy causes inhibition of basal and post-prandial acid secretion in humans, but the knowledge about the trophic effect of the vagal nerves is limited. Vagotomy is known to induce hypergastrinemia and we aimed to study the long-term effects of proximal gastric vagotomy (PGV) on the oxyntic mucosa and the enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell density in particular.
Material and methods:
Eleven patients operated with PGV because of duodenal ulcer and age- and sex-matched controls were examined 26 to 29 years postoperatively by gastroscopy with biopsies from the antrum and oxyntic mucosa. Neuroendocrine cell volume densities were calculated after immunohistochemical labeling of gastrin, the general neuroendocrine cell marker chromogranin A (CgA) and the ECL cell marker vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2). Gastritis was graded and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) status was determined by polymerase chain reaction of gastric biopsies. Fasting serum gastrin and CgA were measured.
Serum gastrin was higher in the PGV group compared to controls (median 21.0 [interquartile range (IQR) = 22.0] pmol/L vs 13.0 [IQR = 4.0] pmol/L, p = 0.04). However, there was neither a significant difference in serum CgA or in CgA (neuroendocrine) nor VMAT2 (ECL cell) immunoreactive cell volume density in the oxyntic mucosa. There was significantly more inflammation and atrophy in H. pylori-positive patients, but PGV did not influence the grade of gastritis.
Despite higher serum gastrin concentrations, patients operated with PGV did not have higher ECL cell mass or serum CgA. Vagotomy may prevent the development of ECL cell hyperplasia caused by a moderate hypergastrinemia.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB)/interleukin (IL-6) pathway links chronic inflammation to colitis associated cancer (CAC). In this study, we examined the dynamic temporal changes of the NF-κB/IL-6 pathway during the procession of experimental CAC mouse model. Mice were sacrificed after induction for 14, 16, 18, and 22 weeks for the examination of tumor burden, inflammation degree, and protein level of NF-κB and IL-6 in bowel tissues. The results showed that tumor burden and inflammation severity in the bowels were gradually increased over the observed time-points. The expressions of IL-6 and NF-κB proteins were gradually increased after induction of dysplastic lesions over times. These data provide new information on the dynamic temporal changes of NF-κB/IL-6 pathway in relation to CAC development that may be relevant in the design of future investigations of therapeutic interventions to effectively target CAC processes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
To assess the exocrine and neuroendocrine properties of tumour cells in diffuse gastric cancer with signet ring cell differentiation.
Material and methods
Mucin mRNA and protein expressions (MUC1, 2, 3, 4, 5 AC, 6 and MUC13) were assessed by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. The neuroendocrine properties were evaluated by protein and mRNA expression of the general neuroendocrine markers chromogranin A and synaptophysin.
No MUC expression was observed in signet ring tumour cells including the amorphous substance in any of the nine cases. All cases showed immunoreactivity to synaptophysin, and seven out of nine cases immunoreactivity to chromogranin A in signet ring and non-signet ring tumour cells. Chromogranin A mRNA expression was observed in tumour cells in all samples with retained mRNA.
The lack of MUC protein and mRNA in signet ring tumour cells suggests the amorphous substance is not mucin. The lack of MUC mRNA expression in non-signet ring tumour cells questions exocrine differentiation in this tumour group. The abundant protein expression of the general neuroendocrine markers CgA and synaptophysin, and mRNA expression in tumour cells strengthens the hypothesis that this tumour group may be of neuroendocrine origin.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Experimental and Molecular Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
E-cadherin plays a crucial role in the adhesion between epithelial cells and thus epithelial integrity. Moreover, germline mutations in the E-cadherin gene (CDH1) causing loss of E-cadherin function (adhesion) leads to hereditary gastric cancer of the diffuse type, according to Laurén. Even sporadic gastric carcinomas of the diffuse type often lose E-cadherin expression due to mutations. Lack of E-cadherin has been recorded at an early phase in such carcinomas. For 25 years, we have provided evidence for neuroendocrine (NE) cell origin of gastric carcinomas of diffuse type. The present study was, therefore, done to examine whether normal NE cells in the gastrointestinal tract express E-cadherin or not.
During upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, biopsies were taken from normal oxyntic mucosa, gastric carcinoids, gastric carcinomas, and from normal duodenal mucosa. Tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using antibodies toward chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and E-cadherin. Isolated mucosal cells were prepared from biopsies of normal mucosa and examined by antibodies against the same markers by immunofluorescence.
Normal gastrointestinal NE cells did not express E-cadherin as assessed by IHC or immunocytochemistry. No expression of E-cadherin was found on tumor cells from gastric carcinoids or cancer of diffuse type examined by IHC.
Our findings, which are in contrast to some previous studies, may explain why there is a discrepancy between lack of atypia and malignant biological behavior of such tumors. Since they normally lack the adhesion molecule E-cadherin, reflected in their spread occurrence, only minor changes may result in malignant behavior.
No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
Serotonin (5-HT) most likely plays an important role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We aimed to test if venous plasma 5-HT is a potential biomarker of PAH. We also measured venous blood β-thromboglobulin (β-TG) in all participants to ensure that any increase in serotonin levels measured is due to platelet release.
Blood samples from patients (n = 9) with pulmonary arterial hypertension (Group 1 of the World Health Organization classification of pulmonary hypertension) as well as healthy volunteers (n = 9) were analyzed. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure venous platelet-poor plasma 5-HT and β-TG in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and in age-matched normal controls.
Venous platelet-free plasma 5-HT and β-TG were almost similar in patients with PAH and healthy controls with only a slight trend toward increased 5-HT levels in patients with PAH. No correlation was found between venous platelet-poor plasma 5-HT and disease severity. There was no association between venous plasma 5-HT and the mean pulmonary artery pressure.
Our data suggest that 5-HT is not significantly elevated in venous platelet-free plasma in patients with PAH and may accordingly not be a useful biomarker in this condition.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Scandinavian cardiovascular journal: SCJ
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this review, based upon 40 years of research, is to clear old controversies. The gastric juice is a strong acid with active enzymes (pepsin and lipase); ideal for killing swallowed microorganisms.
Totally isolated rat stomach and histamine determination. Human gastric carcinomas were examined for ECL cell differentiation since tumours found in rodents after dosing with inhibitors of acid secretion were reclassified to be of ECL cell origin.
The gastrin receptor is localized to the ECL cell only, where gastrin stimulates the function and growth. Drug induced hypoacidity induces hypergastrinemia and ECL cell hyperplasia responsible for rebound acid hypersecretion. Every condition with long-term hypergastrinemia disposes to ECL cell neoplasia. In man both atrophic gastritis and gastrinoma lead to ECL cell carcinoids. Proton pump inhibitors induce hypergastrinemia with ECL cell hyperplasia and ECL cell carcinoids that disappear when stopping treatment. The gastrin antagonist netazepide induces regression of ECL cell carcinoids due to atrophic gastritis. Human gastric carcinomas of diffuse type, particularly the signet ring subtype, show ECL cell differentiation, suggesting involvement of gastrin in the carcinogenesis. Helicobacter pylori (Hp) causes gastritis and peptic ulcer and when infecting the antrum only, gives a slight hypergastrinemia with acid hypersecretion predisposing to duodenal ulcer, but protecting from gastric cancer. When Hp infection spreads to oxyntic mucosa, it induces atrophy, reduced acid secretion, marked hypergastrinemia and cancer.
It is remarkable that the interaction between Hp and gastrin may explain the pathogenesis of most diseases in the upper gastrointestinal tract. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Acta Physiologica