[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Femoral nerve block (FNB) and continuous FNB (cFNB) provide superior analgesic and functional outcomes compared with intravenous patient-controlled analgesia following total knee arthroplasty (TKA).
Adductor canal block (ACB) is associated with superior quadriceps strength preservation compared with FNB; however, the evidence for improved post-operative mobilization with ACB remains conflicting. There is no adequately powered randomized controlled trial in the contemporary literature that shows equivalent postoperative analgesia between ACB and FNB.
Sciatic nerve block (SNB) and continuous SNB (cSNB) reduce postoperative pain scores and opioid consumption during the first 24 and 48 hours respectively following TKA; however, the effect on functional outcomes remains inconclusive.
Studies comparing local infiltration analgesia with FNB are difficult to interpret in the clinical setting because of methodological flaws and associated high risk of bias.
There is currently an absence of evidence to support the use of liposomal bupivacaine for surgical site or perineural infiltration following TKA.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Advances in Anesthesia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
In 2009 and again in 2012, the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine assembled an expert panel to assess the evidence basis for ultrasound guidance as a nerve localization tool for regional anesthesia.
The 2012 panel reviewed evidence from the first advisory but focused primarily on new information that had emerged since 2009. A new section was added regarding the accuracy and reliability of ultrasound for determining needle-to-nerve proximity. Jadad scores are used to rank study quality. Grades of recommendations consistent with their level of evidence are provided.
The panel offers recommendations based on synthesis and analysis of literature related to (1) the technical capabilities of ultrasound equipment and its operators, (2) comparison of ultrasound to other methods of nerve localization with regard to block characteristics, (3) comparison of block techniques where ultrasound is the sole nerve localization modality, and (4) major complications. Assessment of evidence strength and recommendations are made for upper- and lower-extremity, truncal, neuraxial, and pediatric blocks.
Scientific evidence from the past 5 years has clarified and strengthened our understanding of ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia as a nerve localization tool. High-level evidence supports ultrasound guidance contributing to superior characteristics with selected blocks, although absolute differences with the comparator technique are often relatively small (especially for upper-extremity blocks). The clinical meaningfulness of these differences is likely of variable importance to individual practitioners. The use of ultrasound significantly reduces the risk of local anesthetic systemic toxicity as well as the incidence and intensity of hemidiaphragmatic paresis, but has no significant effect on the incidence of postoperative neurologic symptoms. WHAT'S NEW IN THIS UPDATE?: This evidence-based assessment of ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia reviews findings from our 2010 publication and focuses on new meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, and large case series published since 2009. New to this exercise is an in-depth analysis of the accuracy and reliability of ultrasound guidance for identifying needle-to-nerve relationships. This version no longer addresses ultrasound for interventional pain medicine procedures, because the growth of that field demands separate consideration. Since our 2010 publication, new information has either supported or strengthened our original conclusions. There is no evidence that ultrasound is inferior to alternative nerve localization methods.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Regional anesthesia and pain medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
This study examined whether a perioperative regimen of pregabalin added to celecoxib improved pain scores and functional outcomes postdischarge up to 3 months after total hip arthroplasty (primary outcome) and acute postoperative pain and adverse effects (secondary outcomes).
One hundred and eighty-four patients were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Two hours before receiving a spinal anaesthetic and undergoing surgery, patients received celecoxib 400 mg p.o. and were randomly assigned to receive either pregabalin 150 mg p.o. or placebo p.o. After surgery, patients received pregabalin 75 mg or placebo twice daily in hospital and for 7 days after discharge. Patients also received celecoxib 200 mg every 12 h for 72 h and morphine i.v. patient-controlled analgesia for 24 h. Pain and function were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, and 3 months after surgery.
There was no difference between groups in physical function or incidence and intensity of chronic pain 3 months after total hip arthroplasty. The pregabalin group used less morphine [mean (sd): 39.85 (28.1) mg] than the placebo group [54.01 (31.2) mg] in the first 24 h after surgery (P<0.01). Pain scores were significantly lower in the pregabalin group vs the placebo group on days 1-7 after hospital discharge, and the pregabalin group required less adjunctive opioid medication (Percocet) 1 week after hospital discharge (P<0.05).
Perioperative administration of pregabalin did not improve pain or physical function at 6 weeks or 3 months after total hip arthroplasty. Perioperative administration of pregabalin decreased opioid consumption in hospital and reduced daily pain scores and adjunct opioid consumption for 1 week after discharge.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with significant postoperative pain. Optimization of postoperative analgesia can improve rehabilitation and functional recovery. There is much debate regarding the best peripheral nerve blocks for optimization of postoperative analgesic and functional outcomes following TKA. Continuous femoral nerve block provides excellent postoperative analgesia. In comparison, adductor canal block may provide relative preservation of quadriceps motor weakness, however, its effect on analgesia, mobilization, long-term functional outcomes, and inpatient falls remains unclear. Sciatic nerve block provides effective analgesia in addition to continuous femoral nerve block, and its clinical benefit may be greatest in patients with opioid tolerance or chronic pain. Studies comparing local infiltration analgesia to femoral nerve block are difficult to interpret due to high risk of bias and methodological flaws. Addition of obturator nerve block may improve postoperative analgesia, but the impact of this on functional outcomes remains unknown.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article reviews and summarizes randomized, controlled studies that have assessed ultrasound (US) guidance for brachial plexus blocks in comparison with other nerve localization methods as well as those that have compared different US-guided brachial plexus block techniques. Both PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched using the MeSH terms anesthetic technique, brachial plexus, and ultrasound. Studies were included if they had randomized allocation comparing US with another conventional nerve localization technique or if they compared 2 different US-guided techniques, such as single versus multiple injections. Each study was classified as a categorical outcome as being supportive, unclear, or negative for the use of US. These were compared with χ analysis with the null hypothesis that US provides no benefit for brachial plexus blocks. Forty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria, and 29 compared US guidance to landmark or peripheral nerve stimulation techniques. Our analysis of the literature supports the use of US over other nerve localization techniques as being beneficial for several block performance outcomes including block performance time, reducing the number of needle passes and the incidence of vascular puncture, shortening sensory block onset time, and improving block success.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
This study was designed to determine whether a 4 day perioperative regimen of gabapentin added to celecoxib improves in-hospital rehabilitation and physical function on postoperative day 4 and 6 weeks and 3 months after total knee arthroplasty (TKA).
After Research Ethics Board approval and informed consent, 212 patients were enrolled in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Two hours before surgery, patients received celecoxib 400 mg p.o. and were randomly assigned to receive either gabapentin 600 mg or placebo p.o. Two hours later, patients received femoral, sciatic nerve blocks, and spinal anaesthesia. After operation, patients received gabapentin 200 mg or placebo three times per day (TID) for 4 days. All patients also received celecoxib 200 mg q12 h for 72 h and i.v. patient-controlled analgesia for 24 h. Pain and function were assessed at baseline, during hospitalization, on postoperative day 4 (POD4), and 6 weeks and 3 months after surgery.
The gabapentin group used less morphine in the first 24 h after surgery [G=38.3 (29.5 mg), P=48.2 (29.4 mg)] (P<0.0125) and had increased knee range of motion compared with the placebo group in-hospital (P<0.05). There were no differences between groups in favour of the gabapentin group for pain or physical function on POD 4 [95% confidence interval (CI): pain: -1.4, 0.5; function: -6.3, 2.0], 6 weeks (95% CI: pain: 0.1, 1.9; function: -0.2, 6.5) or 3 months (95% CI: pain: -0.2, 1.7; function: -2.2, 4.3) after TKA.
In the context of celecoxib, spinal anaesthesia, femoral and sciatic nerve blocks, a dose of gabapentin 600 mg before operation followed by 4 days of gabapentin 200 mg TID decreased postoperative analgesic requirements and improved knee range of motion after TKA. Gabapentin provided no improvement in pain or physical function on POD4 and 6 weeks or 3 months after surgery.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Ontario has introduced strategies over the past decade to reduce wait times and length of stay and improve access to physiotherapy for orthopaedic and other patients. The aim of this study is to explore patients' experiences of joint replacement care during a significant system change in their care setting.
A secondary analysis was done on semi-structured qualitative interviews that were conducted in 2009 with 12 individuals who had undergone at least two hip or knee replacements five years apart at a specialized orthopaedic centre in Ontario, Canada. Interview transcripts were coded and then organized into themes.
Although the original study aimed to capture participants' experiences with changes in anaesthetic technique between their first and second joint replacements, the participants described several unrelated differences in the care they received during this period. For example, participants had difficulty obtaining a referral to an orthopaedic surgeon from their family physician. They also noted that the hospital stay and in-hospital physiotherapy they received were shorter after the second joint replacement surgery. They identified guidance from physiotherapists as an important component of their recovery, but sometimes had difficulty arranging physiotherapy after hospital discharge following their most recent surgery.
The changes described between the first and second joint replacements provide the participants' perspective on the impact of policy changes on wait times, reduced lengths of hospital stay and physiotherapy access. The impact of these policy changes, often made in an attempt to improve access to care, had an unintended and detrimental effect on participants' perceptions and experiences of the quality of care provided.
No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Healthcare policy = Politiques de sante
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: /st>Brachial plexus nerve blocks (BPBs) have analgesic and opioid sparing benefits for upper extremity surgery. Single-injection techniques are limited by the pharmacological duration and therapeutic index of local anaesthetics (LAs). Continuous catheter techniques, while effective can present management challenges. Off-label use of perineural dexamethasone as an LA adjuvant has been utilized to prolong single-injection techniques. The objectives of this systematic review and meta-analysis are to assess the contemporary literature and quantify the effects of dexamethasone on BPB.
/st>The authors searched for randomized, placebo-controlled trials that compared BPB performed with LA alone with that performed with LA and perineural dexamethasone. Meta-analysis was performed using a random effects model with subgroup analysis stratified by LA (long vs intermediate). The primary outcome was duration of sensory block or analgesia; the secondary outcomes were motor block duration, opioid consumption, and BPB complications.
/st>Nine trials (801 patients) were included with 393 patients receiving dexamethasone (4-10 mg). Dexamethasone prolonged the analgesic duration for long-acting LA from 730 to 1306 min [mean difference 576 min, 95% confidence interval (CI) 522-631] and for intermediate from 168 to 343 min (mean 175, 95% CI 73-277). Motor block was prolonged from 664 to 1102 min (mean 438, 95% CI 89-787). The most recent trial demonstrated equivalent prolongation with perineural or systemic administration of dexamethasone compared with placebo.
/st>Perineural administration of dexamethasone with LA prolongs BPB effects with no observed adverse events. The effects of systemic administration of dexamethasone on BPB must be investigated.
Preview · Article · Jan 2014 · BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a common surgical procedure in the elderly and is associated with severe pain after surgery and a high incidence of chronic pain. Several factors are associated with severe acute pain after surgery, including psychological factors and severe preoperative pain. Good acute pain control can be provided with multimodal analgesia, including regional anesthesia techniques. Studies have demonstrated that poor acute pain control after TKA is strongly associated with development of chronic pain, and this emphasizes the importance of attention to good acute pain control after TKA. Pain after discharge from hospital after TKA is currently poorly managed, and this is an area where increased resources need to be focused to improve early pain control. This is particularly as patients are often discharged home within 4-5 days after surgery. Chronic pain after TKA in the elderly can be managed with both pharmacological and non-pharmacological techniques. After excluding treatable causes of pain, the simplest approach is with the use of acetaminophen combined with a short course of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Careful titration of opioid analgesics can also be helpful with other adjuvants such as the antidepressants or antiepileptic medications used especially for patients with neuropathic pain. Topical agents may provide benefit and are associated with fewer systemic side effects than oral administration. Complementary or psychological therapies may be beneficial for those patients who have failed other options or have depression associated with chronic pain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peripheral nerve blocks appear to provide effective analgesia for patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Although the literature supports the use of femoral nerve block, addition of sciatic nerve block is controversial. In this study we investigated the value of sciatic nerve block and an alternative technique of posterior capsule local anesthetic infiltration analgesia. 100 patients were prospectively randomized into three groups. Group 1: sciatic nerve block; Group 2: posterior local anesthetic infiltration; Group 3: control. All patients received a femoral nerve block and spinal anesthesia. There were no differences in pain scores between groups. Sciatic nerve block provided a brief clinically insignificant opioid sparing effect. We conclude that sciatic nerve block and posterior local anesthetic infiltration do not provide significant analgesic benefits.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · The Journal of arthroplasty
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A scoping review was performed to assess published evidence regarding how best to teach ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia (UGRA). The literature search yielded 205 articles, of which 35 met the inclusion criteria. Current literature on the topic can be divided into 3 main themes: the development of motor skills, learning and teaching sonoanatomy, and understanding of the requirements for establishing a UGRA education program and evaluation. We discuss the current status and future direction of research on UGRA training.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Regional anesthesia and pain medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The introduction of ultrasound guidance for regional anesthesia has resulted in an explosion of interest in its use for postoperative analgesia, particularly for orthopedic surgery. Regional anesthesia demonstrates unequivocal superiority compared with systemic opioids with respect to analgesia, reduced opioid consumption, increased patient satisfaction, and earlier achievement of discharge criteria. Improved acute postoperative analgesia can facilitate effective rehabilitation. Investigators are in the early stages of reporting the effects of regional anesthesia on functional outcome. Recent studies reporting functional outcomes have been plagued with sample sizes of inadequate power to generate meaningful results. Furthermore, the functional outcome measures are used inappropriately in terms of clinically meaningful difference, assessment intervals, and/or duration of follow-up. This report aims to address these issues by discussing functional outcomes used in the physiotherapy or orthopedic literature and their appropriate utilization, so that future research into the effects of regional anesthesia can be methodologically sound. Outcomes discussed include those that are physical-performance-based (ie, range of motion, quadriceps strength, Timed Up and Go test, 6-Minute Walk Test, Stair Time, and Self-paced Walk Test) and those that are self-reported (ie,Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, Knee Osteoarthritis Severity Score, Lower Extremity Function Scale).
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Regional anesthesia and pain medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: <⁄span> Despite the success of total hip arthroplasty (THA), some patients experience persistent pain and poor function after surgery. Predictors of poor outcomes include the presence of significant pre- and postoperative pain. Patients undergoing THA often experience severe, long-standing pain before surgery that may compromise the outcome of the procedure.
<⁄span> To evaluate the effects of administering pregabalin and celecoxib for two weeks before and three weeks after THA in patients with moderate to severe pain before surgery. The aim was to determine whether patients with well-controlled pain both before surgery and in the acute postoperative period experience less pain and better physical function six weeks after THA.
<⁄span> A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled pilot study was conducted. Group 1 received pregabalin (75 mg twice per day) and celecoxib (100 mg twice per day) for 14 days before THA and for three weeks after discharge. Group 2 received a placebo for the same duration. All patients received pregabalin and celecoxib 2 h before surgery and while in the hospital.
<⁄span> On the morning of surgery, patients in group 1 reported less pain at rest (mean [± SD] pain intensity measured on a visual analogue scale [VAS] 2.1±1.4) compared with group 2 (3.3±1.9; P=0.04). Patients in group 1 experienced less pain 3 h to 4 h postoperation (P<0.001). There was no difference in morphine consumption between the two groups. Six weeks after THA, movement-evoked pain was lower in group 1 (VAS 0.8±0.6) compared with group 2 (VAS 2.0±1.3; P=0.01). Group 1 reported better physical function, measured using the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index questionnaire score (P=0.04). There was no significant difference in 6 min walk test performance between the two groups.
<⁄span> Intensive pain control with pregabalin and celecoxib improves pain and physical function after THA.