[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Butorphanol ([BT] an opioid receptor agonist/antagonist) is different from other opioid agonists in that a single dose of BT can elicit up to 12 g of chow intake in a satiated rat whereas most opioid agonists induce a mild feeding response (2-3 g). Here, we first examined whether the effectiveness of BT to elicit feeding was affected by dose, method of infusion and possible tachyphylaxis following administration. Secondly, we examined whether BT administration influenced hypothalamic NPY gene expression and peptide levels. A single dose administration of BT (4 mg/kg) significantly increased food intake at 2, 3 and 6 h after administration. However following repeated injections of BT at 4 mg/kg, the cumulative long-term intake of BT-treated rats did not differ from that of controls, indicating that the animals compensate for the increased feeding following BT injection by decreased feeding at a later time. An ascending dose schedule of repeated BT injections resulted in additional feeding. NPY gene expression in the ARC was influenced by how much food had been consumed, but not by BT. The amount of food consumed and the level of NPY mRNA were inversely correlated. This is consistent with NPY's role in normal feeding. BT treatment did not affect either NPY or leptin RIA levels. We conclude that the feeding produced by BT is sensitive to dose and dosing paradigm. Further, its mechanism of action does not appear to be mediated by NPY or leptin pathways.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Butorphanol (BT), a mixed kappa- and mu-opioid receptor agonist, induces vigorous food intake in rats. Peripheral injection of BT seems to increase food intake more effectively than intracerebroventricular administration. To further elucidate the nature of BT's influence on consummatory behavior, we examined which feeding-related brain areas exhibit increased c-Fos immunoreactivity (IR) following subcutaneous injection of 4 mg/kg body weight BT, a dose known to induce a maximal orexigenic response. We also evaluated whether direct administration of BT into the forebrain regions activated by peripheral BT injection affects food intake. Peripheral BT administration induced c-Fos-IR in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). However, 0.1-30 microg BT infused into the CeA, failed to increase food intake 1, 2, and 4 h after injection. Only the highest dose of BT (30 microg) injected into the PVN increased feeding. These results suggest that the PVN, CeA, and NTS mediate the effects of peripherally-injected BT. The PVN or CeA are probably not the main target sites of immediate BT action.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effects of obesity on gene expression for opioid peptides and neuropeptide-Y (NPY) in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), and on opioid peptides and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were examined in obese Zucker rats (18 weeks old). Obese Zucker rats are insulin-resistant, diabetic and hyperleptinemic as indicated by high serum glucose, insulin and leptin levels. ARC proOpiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA levels were significantly lower in the obese relative to lean Zucker rats and ARC proNeuropeptide Y (proNPY) mRNA levels were higher (P<0.05). There were no differences in proDynorphin and proEnkephalin mRNA levels in the ARC (0.05). Obese Zucker rats had lower alpha-MSH and dynorphin A(1-17) peptide levels in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) (P<0.05), but did not have lower PVN beta-endorphin peptide levels (0.05). The decrease in POMC in the ARC and decrease in alpha-MSH in the PVN seen in the obese Zucker rat in the present study suggest that reduced activity of the melanocortin system in the ARC to PVN pathway may contribute to the related hyperphagia. Reduced activity of the melanocortin system in the ARC to PVN pathway may be due to a disturbance of leptin signaling coupling to POMC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effects of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes and insulin on opioid peptide gene expression were examined in rats. In experiment 1, three groups were administered STZ (75 mg/kg ip single injection). Two groups were killed at either 2 or 4 wk. In the third group, insulin treatment (7.0 IU/kg x 1 day for 3 wk) was initiated 1 wk after STZ injection. STZ induced hyperphagia and reduced weight gain. Insulin decreased food intake and increased body weight relative to diabetes. Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA in arcuate nucleus (Arc) and pituitary decreased in diabetes and normalized after insulin treatment. Prodynorphin (proDyn) mRNA increased in diabetes and normalized in the pituitary after insulin but not in the Arc. Diabetes did not alter proenkephalin (proEnk) expression in the Arc or pituitary, nor dynorphin A1-17 or beta-endorphin in paraventricular nucleus (PVN). alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) peptide levels were decreased in the PVN and normalized following insulin treatment. Diabetes increased Arc neuropeptide Y mRNA, and insulin suppressed this increase. In experiment 2, insulin (2.5 IU/kg sc) daily for 1 wk in normal rats increased Arc POMC mRNA, but not proDyn and proEnk mRNA. These results suggest that Arc POMC expression and PVN alpha-MSH peptide levels decrease in diabetes. Also, insulin may influence Arc and pituitary POMC activity in neurons that regulate energy metabolism.
No preview · Article · Jun 1999 · The American journal of physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the effect of feeding either a bland cornstarch-based diet (BCD) or a highly palatable, high fat diet containing sucrose (HPD) on hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) gene expression for neuropeptide-Y (NPY). Male Sprague-Dawley rats received either BCD ad libitum, HPD ad libitum, HPD pair-fed to the caloric intake of the BCD, or the HPD at 60% of ad libitum HPD intake for 7 days. Animals receiving the HPD ad libitum consumed more calories and gained more weight than animals receiving the BCD (P<0.001). The HPD did not affect ARC NPY mRNA levels, whether the subjects were allowed to overeat or pair-fed to the BCD (P>0.05). However, feeding the HPD at 60% of ad libitum intake of the HPD, increased NPY mRNA levels in the ARC relative to the other treatments (P<0.01). The present data are consistent with the view that NPY in ARC responds to energy deficits rather than to hyperphagia stimuli related to palatability.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The state of lactation results in increased food intake to compensate for the increased energy expenditure to produce nutrients supplied to the offspring. In this study, Sprague-Dawley female rats lactating for 10-16 days, and rats 7 days post-lactation were implanted with osmotic minipumps infusing either naltrexone (NTX) (70 microg/h) or saline (0.9%) over a 48 h period. mRNA levels of pro-dynorphin (proDYN), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and pro-enkephalin (proENK) were measured in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and whole pituitary of both groups. In both saline- and NTX-treated lactating subjects, food intake was higher than in post-lactating subjects (P < 0.01). In post-lactating subjects, NTX decreased food intake by 27% during the infusion period (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in body weight between the treatment groups; however, naltrexone decreased body weight gain in both lactating and post-lactating subjects. In both saline and NTX-treated lactating subjects, ARC mRNA levels of proDYN, POMC and proENK were significantly decreased compared with the saline or NTX-treated post-lactating subjects (P < 0.01). NTX did not significantly influence gene expression of opioid peptides in the ARC in either the lactating or the post-lactating subjects. Neither the lactation condition nor NTX administration significantly changed mRNA levels of proDYN, POMC or proENK in whole pituitary. Thus, as has been noted in energy-deprived rats, opioid peptide gene expression is decreased in the ARC of lactating rats, a period during which rats have increased energy requirements.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although opioid administration induces food intake, the relationship between endogenous opioid synthesis and food consumption is unclear. Two studies examined the effects of food restriction and deprivation on opioid mRNA levels in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the rat. Body weight significantly decreased following food restriction and deprivation (P < 0.0001). In experiment 1, food restriction of 10,20,30, and 40% (g) of ad libitum intake for 14 days decreased proDynorphin (proDyn), proEnkephalin (proEnk), and proOpiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA levels in a linear fashion relative to changes in body weight (r = 0.398, P = 0.0011; r = 0.455, P = 0.0028; r = 0.292, P = 0.0642, respectively). In experiment 2, 48 h deprivation significantly decreased mRNA levels of proDyn and POMC by 23.7% (P < 0.05) and 45.6% (P < 0.01), respectively, whereas 24 h food deprivation decreased POMC mRNA by 43.% (P < 0.01). proEnk mRNA was not affected by 24- or 48-h food deprivation. Restricting food intake suppressed mRNA levels of proDyn, proEnk, and POMC by 29.7, 22.3, and 44.4%, respectively, in 20% restricted rats and by 35.5, 26.8, and 45.6%, respectively, in 40%restricted rats (P < 0.01). It appears that ARC mRNA levels of proDyn, proEnk, and POMC are directly related to the amount of food consumed and/or changes in body weight in food-restricted and food-deprived rats.
No preview · Article · Jun 1996 · The American journal of physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Opioid involvement in regulating the intake of highly palatable diets was studied by examining the effect of feeding either a cornstarch-based diet (CHO) or a high fat diet containing sucrose (Fat/Sucrose) on hypothalamic opioid levels. Rats received either CHO ad libitum, Fat/Sucrose ad libitum, Fat/Sucrose pair-fed to the caloric intake of CHO, or Fat/Sucrose at 60% of ad libitum Fat/Sucrose intake. Animals receiving Fat/Sucrose ad libitum consumed more calories and gained more weight than animals receiving CHO (P < 0.001). Relative to CHO, ad libitum intake of Fat/Sucrose elevated proDynorphin mRNA levels in the arcuate and Dynorphin A1-17 levels in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) (P < 0.05), but did not affect arcuate mRNA levels of proEnkephalin or proOpiomelanocortin (POMC), or PVN levels of Met-Enkephalin or beta-Endorphin. Pair-feeding the Fat/Sucrose diet to the level of intake of the CHO diet resulted in levels of proDynorphin and Dynorphin A1-17 that were similar in the two diet groups. Pair-feeding Fat/Sucrose reduced mRNA levels of proDynorpin, proEnkephalin and POMC, and Dynorphin A1-17 levels, relative to ad libitum feeding of Fat/Sucrose. Met-Enkephalin and beta-Endorphin were not affected by dietary treatment. Feeding Fat/Sucrose at 60% of ad libitum intake resulted in mRNA levels of proDynorphin, proEnkephalin and POMC, and Dynorphin A1-17 levels that were similar to those observed in CHO group. Hypothalamic Dynorphin A1-17 and proDynorphin mRNA levels are stimulated by feeding a highly palatable diet rich in fat and sucrose. The increased synthesis may be due in part to a palatability-induced overconsumption of calories. Caloric restriction of the same diet decreases mRNA levels of proDynorphin, proEnkephalin and POMC, as well as levels of Dynorphin A1-17.