Publications (2)6.73 Total impact
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ABSTRACT: Pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist, reportedly reduces cardiovascular events in diabetic patients. ATP cassette binding transporters (ABC) A1 and G1 are pivotal molecules for cholesterol efflux (ChE) from macrophages and high density-lipoprotein biogenesis, and the A1 transporter is regulated by a PPARγ-liver receptor X (LXR) pathway. Also, pioglitazone induces ABCG1 expression, though the exact mechanism remains unclear. We therefore investigated the effects of pioglitazone on ABCA1/G1 expression in vitro and ex vivo. The effects of pioglitazone on ChE and ABCA1/G1 expressions in macrophages were assessed. Then, mRNA was quantified in macrophages when PPARγ/LXR inhibition by siRNA or overexpression of oxysterol sulfotransferase was performed. ABCA1/G1 promoter activity with mutated LXR-responsive elements was also measured. As an ex vivo study, 15 type 2 diabetic patients were administered pioglitazone or placebo, and ChE assays and protein expressions were determined using macrophages cultured with the corresponding sera. Pioglitazone increased LXRα/ABCA1/G1 expressions, which enhanced ChE from macrophages. Inhibition of PPARγ/LXR pathways revealed that LXR was primarily involved in pioglitazone's transactivation of ABCA1 but only partially involved for ABCG1. Promoter assays showed that ABCG1 was regulated more by the promoter in intron 4 than that upstream of exon 1 but both promoters were responsive to LXR activation. Sera obtained after pioglitazone treatment promoted ChE and ABCA1/G1 expressions in macrophages. Pioglitazone enhanced ChE from macrophages by increasing ABCA1/G1 in LXR-dependent and -independent manners. Our comparable in vitro and ex vivo results shed new light on pioglitazone's novel anti-atherogenic property.
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ABSTRACT: Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is a critical mechanism for the anti-atherogenic property of HDL. The inhibitory effect of the sulfonylurea agent (SUA) glibenclamide on ATP binding-cassette transporter (ABC) A1 may decrease HDL function but it remains unclear whether it attenuates RCT in vivo. We therefore investigated how the SUAs glibenclamide and glimepiride affected the functionality of ABCA1/ABCG1 and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) expression in macrophages in vitro and overall RCT in vivo. RAW264.7, HEK293 and BHK-21 cells were used for in vitro studies. To investigate RCT in vivo, 3H-cholesterol-labeled and acetyl LDL-loaded RAW264.7 cells were injected into mice. High dose (500µM) of glibenclamide inhibited ABCA1 function and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I)-mediated cholesterol efflux, and attenuated ABCA1 expression. Although glimepiride maintained apoA-I-mediated cholesterol efflux from RAW264.7 cells, like glibenclamide, it inhibited ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux from transfected HEK293 cells. Similarly, the SUAs inhibited SR-BI-mediated cholesterol efflux from transfected BHK-21 cells. High doses of SUAs increased ABCG1 expression in RAW264.7 cells, promoting HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux in an ABCG1-independent manner. Low doses (0.1-100 µM) of SUAs did not affect cholesterol efflux from macrophages despite dose-dependent increases in ABCA1/G1 expression. Furthermore, they did not change RCT or plasma lipid levels in mice.Conclusion: High doses of SUAs inhibited the functionality of ABCA1/SR-BI, but not ABCG1. At lower doses, they had no unfavorable effects on cholesterol efflux or overall RCT in vivo. These results indicate that SUAs do not have adverse effects on atherosclerosis contrary to previous findings for glibenclamide.
National Defense Medical College
Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan
- Department of Internal Medicine