Publications (5)19.37 Total impact

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RIG-I is a DExD/H-box RNA helicase and functions as a critical cytoplasmic sensor for RNA viruses to initiate antiviral interferon (IFN) responses. Here we demonstrate that another DExD/H-box RNA helicase DHX36 is a key molecule for RIG-I signaling by regulating double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase (PKR) activation, which has been shown to be essential for the formation of antiviral stress granule (avSG). We found that DHX36 and PKR form a complex in a dsRNA-dependent manner. By forming this complex, DHX36 facilitates dsRNA binding and phosphorylation of PKR through its ATPase/helicase activity. Using DHX36 KO-inducible MEF cells, we demonstrated that DHX36 deficient cells showed defect in IFN production and higher susceptibility in RNA virus infection, indicating the physiological importance of this complex in host defense. In summary, we identify a novel function of DHX36 as a critical regulator of PKR-dependent avSG to facilitate viral RNA recognition by RIG-I-like receptor (RLR).
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · PLoS Pathogens
  • No preview · Conference Paper · Sep 2013
  • Ryota Ouda · Takashi Fujita
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Host responses to viral infection are critical for controlling viral replication and subsequent viral eradication. In plants and invertebrates, RNA interference is the major antiviral response; that is, the viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) produced during the viral replication cycle triggers a series of events leading to the selective degradation of the target viral RNA in a nucleotide sequence-specific manner [1–3]. In mammals, two immune responses, innate and adaptive immunity, are critical for protecting against viral infections. In innate immunity, the interferon (IFN) system is activated within hours of viral infection and contributes to the direct inhibition of viral replication and promotes the activation of antigen-specific acquired immunity.
    No preview · Chapter · Jan 2012
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In mammals, viral infections are detected by innate immune receptors, including Toll-like receptor and retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR), which activate the type I interferon (IFN) system. IFN essentially activates genes encoding antiviral proteins that inhibit various steps of viral replication as well as facilitate the subsequent activation of acquired immune responses. In this study, we investigated the expression of non-coding RNA upon viral infection or RLR activation. Using a microarray, we identified several microRNAs (miRNA) specifically induced to express by RLR signaling. As suggested by Bioinformatics (miRBase Target Data base), one of the RLR-inducible miRNAs, miR-23b, actually knocked down the expression of very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) and LDLR-related protein 5 (LRP5). Transfection of miR-23b specifically inhibited infection of rhinovirus 1B (RV1B), which utilizes the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family for viral entry. Conversely, introduction of anti-miRNA-23b enhanced the viral yield. Knockdown experiments using small interfering RNA (siRNA) revealed that VLDLR, but not LRP5, is critical for an efficient infection by RV1B. Furthermore, experiments with the transfection of infectious viral RNA revealed that miR-23b did not affect post-entry viral replication. Our results strongly suggest that RIG-I signaling results in the inhibitions of infections of RV1B through the miR-23b-mediated down-regulation of its receptor VLDLR.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In mammals, viral infections are detected by innate immune receptors, including Toll-like receptor (TLR) and retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR), which activate the type I interferon (IFN) system. IFN essentially activates genes encoding antiviral proteins that inhibit various steps of viral replication as well as facilitate the subsequent activation of acquired immune responses. In this study, we investigated the expression of non-coding RNA upon viral infection or RLR activation. Using a microarray, we identified several microRNAs (miRNA) specifically induced to express by RLR signaling. As suggested by Bioinformatics (miRBase Target Database), one of the RLR-inducible miRNA, miR-23b, actually knocked down the expression of very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) and LDLR-related protein 5 (LRP5). Transfection of miR-23b specifically inhibited infection of rhinovirus 1B (RV1B), which utilizes the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family for viral entry. Conversely, introduction of anti-miRNA-23b enhanced the viral yield. Knockdown experiments using small interfering RNA (siRNA) revealed that VLDLR, but not LRP5, is critical for an efficient infection by RV1B. Furthermore, experiments with the transfection of infectious viral RNA revealed that miR-23b did not affect post-entry viral replication. Our results strongly suggest that RIG-I signaling results in the inhibitions of infections of RV1B through the miR-23b-mediated down-regulation of its receptor VLDLR.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of Biological Chemistry