[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tooth derived stem cells or dental stem cells are categorized according to the location from which they are isolated and represent a promising source of cells for regenerative medicine. Originally, as one kind of mesenchymal stem cells, they are considered an alternative of bone marrow stromal cells. They share many commonalties but maintain differences. Considering their original function in development and the homeostasis of tooth structures, many applications of these cells in dentistry have aimed at tooth structure regeneration; however, the application in other than tooth structures has been attempted extensively. The availability from discarded or removed teeth can be an innate benefit as a source of autologous cells. Their origin from the neural crest results in exploitation of neurological and numerous other applications. This review briefly highlights current and future perspectives of the regenerative applications of tooth derived stem cells in areas beyond tooth regeneration.
Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Stem cell International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) is an autoimmune condition that primarily affects salivary and lacrimal glands, causing loss of secretion. We have previously shown that microRNA-146a (miR-146a) is over-expressed in the salivary glands and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of SjS-prone mice (C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1Aec2, B6DC) and in PBMC of SjS patients. The purpose of this research was to identify a target molecule of miR-146a and identify subpopulations of cells affected by altered miR-146a in the salivary glands of SjS-prone mice. In silico analyses identified costimulatory molecule CD80 as a potential target of miR-146a. Luciferase assay of the human CD80 3'untranslated region demonstrated miR-146a directly inhibited CD80 protein expression as indicated by reduced luciferase reporter expression and an examination of B6DC salivary glands revealed a reduction in CD80 protein. More interestingly, the specific reduction in CD80 protein was detected from the salivary gland epithelial cell population and in interstitial dendritic cells in the glands as well. The reduction in CD80 protein levels in salivary gland epithelial cells were negatively associated with elevated miR-146a expression. Therefore, this study provides the first indication that salivary gland epithelial cells may be critically involved in SjS progression by altering CD86:CD80 protein ratio in response to miR-146a upregulation.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Molecular Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Periodontal disease initiated by subgingival pathogens is linked with diminished secretion of saliva, and implies pathogenic bacteria dissemination to or affects secondary sites such as the salivary glands. MicroRNAs activated in response to bacteria may modulate immune responses against pathogens. Therefore, Sprague-Dawley rats were infected by oral lavage consisting of polymicrobial inocula, namely Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola, or sham-infected for 12 weeks (n=6). We quantified inflammatory miRNA expression levels of miRNA-132, miR-146a, and miR-155 at secondary sites to the primary infection of the gingiva, including submandibular salivary glands, lacrimal glands, and pancreas. The presence of bacteria was detected in situ at secondary sites. Infected rat gingiva showed increased relative expression of miR-155. In contrast, miRNA-155 expression was decreased in submandibular salivary glands, along with positive identification of P. gingivalis in 2/6 and T. denticola in 1/6 rat salivary glands. Furthermore, miRNA-132 and miRNA-146a were significantly decreased in the pancreas of infected rats. This study is the first to show primary periodontal infections can alter miRNA profiles in secondary sites such as the salivary gland and pancreas. Whether these alterations contribute to pathologies of salivary glands in Sjögren's syndrome or of pancreas in diabetes warrants further investigation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare osseointegration and surface characteristics of zirconia implants made by the powder injection molding (PIM) technique against those made by the conventional milling procedure in rabbit tibiae. Surface characteristics of 2 types of implants were evaluated. Sixteen rabbits received 2 types of external hex implants with similar geometry, either machined zirconia implants or PIM zirconia implants, in the tibiae. Removal torque tests and histomorphometric analyses were performed. The roughness of the PIM zirconia implants was higher than that of machined zirconia implants. The PIM zirconia implants exhibited significantly higher bone-implant contact and removal torque values than the machined zirconia implants (p<0.001). The osseointegration of the PIM zirconia implant is promising, and PIM, using the roughened mold etching technique, can produce substantially rougher surfaces on zirconia implants.
Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Dental Materials Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sjogren's syndrome (SjS) is a chronic autoimmune disorder characterized by immune cell infiltration and progressive injury to the salivary and lacrimal glands. As a consequence, patients with SjS develop xerostomia (dry mouth) and keratoconjunctivitis sicca (dry eyes). SjS is the third most common rheumatic autoimmune disorder, affecting 4 million Americans with over 90% of patients being female. Current diagnostic criteria for SjS frequently utilize histological examinations of minor salivary glands for immune cell foci, serology for autoantibodies, and dry eye evaluation by corneal or conjunctival staining. SjS can be classified as primary or secondary SjS, depending on whether it occurs alone or in association with other systemic rheumatic conditions, respectively. Clinical manifestations typically become apparent when the disease is relatively advanced in SjS patients, which poses a challenge for early diagnosis and treatment of SjS. Therefore, SjS mouse models, because of their close resemblance to the human SjS, have been extremely valuable to identify early disease markers and to investigate underlying biological and immunological dysregulations. However, it is important to bear in mind that no single mouse model has duplicated all aspects of SjS pathogenesis and clinical features, mainly due to the multifactorial etiology of SjS that includes numerous susceptibility genes and environmental factors that appear to play a role in SjS onset and progression. As such, various mouse models have been developed in the field to try to recapitulate SjS. In this review, we focus on recent mouse models of primary SjS xerostomia and describe them under three categories of spontaneous, genetically engineered, and experimentally induced development of SjS-like disease. In addition, we discuss future perspectives of SjS mouse models highlighting pros and cons of utilizing mouse models and demands for improved models.
No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Post Communist Economies
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sjogren's syndrome (SjS) is a chronic autoimmune disorder characterized by immune cell infiltration and progressive injury to the salivary and lacrimal glands. As a consequence, patients with SjS develop xerostomia (dry mouth) and keratoconjunctivitis sicca (dry eyes). SjS is the third most common rheumatic autoimmune disorder, affecting 4 million Americans with over 90% of patients being female. Current diagnostic criteria for SjS frequently utilize histological examinations of minor salivary glands for immune cell foci, serology for autoantibodies, and dry eye evaluation by corneal or conjunctival staining. SjS can be classified as primary or secondary SjS, depending on whether it occurs alone or in association with other systemic rheumatic conditions, respectively. Clinical manifestations typically become apparent when the disease is relatively advanced in SjS patients, which poses a challenge for early diagnosis and treatment of SjS. Therefore, SjS mouse models, because of their close resemblance to the human SjS, have been extremely valuable to identify early disease markers and to investigate underlying biological and immunological dysregulations. However, it is important to bear in mind that no single mouse model has duplicated all aspects of SjS pathogenesis and clinical features, mainly due to the multifactorial etiology of SjS that includes numerous susceptibility genes and environmental factors. As such, various mouse models have been developed in the field to try to recapitulate SjS. In this review, we focus on recent mouse models of primary SjS xerostomia and describe them under three categories of spontaneous, genetically engineered, and experimentally induced models. In addition, we discuss future perspectives highlighting pros and cons of utilizing mouse models and current demands for improved models.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Current Pharmaceutical Design
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with Sjögren's syndrome or head and neck cancer patients who have undergone radiation therapy suffer from severe dry mouth (xerostomia) due to salivary exocrine cell death. Regeneration of the salivary glands requires a better understanding of regulatory mechanisms by which stem cells differentiate into exocrine cells. In our study, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were co-cultured with primary salivary epithelial cells from C57BL/6 mice. Co-cultured bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells clearly resembled salivary epithelial cells, as confirmed by strong expression of salivary gland epithelial cell-specific markers, such as alpha-amylase, muscarinic type 3 receptor, aquaporin-5, and cytokeratin 19. To identify regulatory factors involved in this differentiation, transdifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells were analyzed temporarily by two-dimensional-gel-electrophoresis, which detected 58 protein spots (>1.5 fold change, p<0.05) that were further categorized into 12 temporal expression patterns. Of those proteins only induced in differentiated mesenchymal stem cells, ankryin-repeat-domain-containing-protein 56, high-mobility-group-protein 20B, and transcription factor E2a were selected as putative regulatory factors for mesenchymal stem cell transdifferentiation based on putative roles in salivary gland development. Induction of these molecules was confirmed by RT-PCR and western blotting on separate sets of co-cultured mesenchymal stem cells. In conclusion, our study is the first to identify differentially expressed proteins that are implicated in mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into salivary gland epithelial cells. Further investigation to elucidate regulatory roles of these three transcription factors in mesenchymal stem cell reprogramming will provide a critical foundation for a novel cell-based regenerative therapy for patients with xerostomia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review describes the contemporary aspects of plasma application in dentistry. Previous studies on plasma applications were classified into two categories, surface treatment and direct applications, and were reviewed respectively according to the approach. The current review discussed modification of dental implant surface, enhancing of adhesive qualities, enhancing of polymerization, surface coating and plasma cleaning under the topics of surface treatment. Microbicidal activities, decontamination, root canal disinfection and tooth bleaching were reviewed as direct applications with other miscellaneous ones. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma was of particular focus since it is gaining considerable attention due to the possibility for its use in living tissues. Future perspectives have also been discussed briefly. Although it is still not popular among dentists, plasma has shown promises in several areas of dentistry and is now opening a new era of plasma dentistry.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Clinical Plasma Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evaluation of: Vergadi E, Vaporidi K, Theodorakis EE et al. Akt2 deficiency protects from acute lung injury via alternative macrophage activation and miR-146a induction in mice. J. Immunol. 192, 394-406 (2013). Acute respiratory distress syndrome currently has limited effective treatments; however, recent evidence suggests that modulation of alveolar macrophage responses may be an effective method for protection or repair of lung injury. Vergadi et al. are the first to demonstrate that depletion of Akt2 kinase and microRNA-146a induction in mice resulted in polarization of alveolar macrophages towards an M2 activation phenotype and resulted in less severe injury following acid-induced lung injury. However, this M2 polarization also resulted in increased lung bacterial load following infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Xylitol is a well-known anticaries agent and has been used for the prevention and treatment of dental caries. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of xylitol are evaluated for possible use in the prevention and treatment of periodontal infections.
Cytokine expression was stimulated in THP-1 (human monocyte cell line)-derived macrophages by live Porphyromonas gingivalis, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a commercial multiplex assay kit were used to determine the effects of xylitol on live P. gingivalis-induced production of cytokine. The effects of xylitol on phagocytosis and the production of nitric oxide were determined using phagocytosis assay, viable cell count, and Griess reagent. The effects of xylitol on P. gingivalis adhesion were determined by immunostaining, and costimulatory molecule expression was examined by flow cytometry.
Live P. gingivalis infection increased the production of representative proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-1β, in a multiplicity of infection- and time-dependent manner. Live P. gingivalis also enhanced the release of cytokines and chemokines, such as IL-12 p40, eotaxin, interferon γ-induced protein 10, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1. The pretreatment of xylitol significantly inhibited the P. gingivalis-induced cytokines production and nitric oxide production. In addition, xylitol inhibited the attachment of live P. gingivalis on THP-1-derived macrophages. Furthermore, xylitol exerted antiphagocytic activity against both Escherichia coli and P. gingivalis.
These findings suggest that xylitol acts as an anti-inflammatory agent in THP-1-derived macrophages infected with live P. gingivalis, which supports its use in periodontitis.
No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Journal of Periodontology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Although elevated interleukin-7 (IL-7) levels have been reported in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS), the role of IL-7 in this disease remains unclear. We undertook this study to characterize the previously unexplored role of IL-7 in the development and onset of primary SS using the C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1Aec2 (B6.NOD-Aec) mouse model, which recapitulates human primary SS.
For gain-of-function studies, recombinant IL-7 or control phosphate buffered saline was injected intraperitoneally (IP) into 12-week-old B6.NOD-Aec mice for 8 weeks. For loss-of-function studies, anti-IL-7 receptor α-chain (anti-IL-7Rα) antibody or its isotype control IgG was administered IP into 16-week-old B6.NOD-Aec mice. Salivary flow measurement, histologic and flow cytometric analysis of salivary glands, and serum antinuclear antibody assay were performed to assess various disease parameters.
Administration of exogenous IL-7 accelerated the development of primary SS, whereas blockade of IL-7Rα signaling almost completely abolished the development of primary SS, based on salivary gland inflammation and apoptosis, autoantibody production, and secretory dysfunction. IL-7 positively regulated interferon-γ (IFNγ)-producing Th1 and CD8+ T cells in the salivary glands without affecting IL-17. Moreover, IL-7 enhanced the expression of CXCR3 ligands in a T cell- and IFNγ-dependent manner. Accordingly, IFNγ induced a human salivary gland epithelial cell line to produce CXCR3 ligands. IL-7 also increased the level of tumor necrosis factor α, another Th1-associated cytokine that can facilitate tissue destruction and inflammation.
IL-7 plays a pivotal pathogenic role in SS, which is underpinned by an enhanced Th1 response and IFNγ/CXCR3 ligand-mediated lymphocyte infiltration of target organs. These results suggest that targeting the IL-7 pathway may be a potential future strategy for preventing and treating SS.
No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Arthritis & Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: Although elevated IL-7 levels were reported in patients with primary Sjӧgren’s syndrome (pSjS), the role of IL-7 in this disease remains unclear. In this study, we characterized the previously unexplored in vivo role of IL-7 in the development and onset of pSjS using C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1Aec2 (B6.NOD-Aec)mouse model that replicates human pSjS.
Methods: For gain-of-function studies, recombinant human IL-7 (5 µg) or control PBS was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) into female B6.NOD-Aec mice, 3 times per week for 8 weeks, starting from 12 weeks of age. For loss-of-function studies, 100 µg neutralizing anti-IL-7 receptor antibody (A7R34) or its isotype control IgG was administered i.p. into B6.NOD-Aec mice, 3 times per week for 8 weeks, starting from 16 weeks of age. Mice were then analyzed for various disease parameters by salivary flow measurement, salivary gland histological examination and serum antinuclear antibody assay.
Results: Administration of exogenous IL-7 accelerated the development and onset of pSjS, whereas blockade of IL-7 receptor signaling almost completely abolished the development of this disease, based on parameters including salivary gland inflammation and apoptosis, autoantibody production and salivary gland secretory dysfunction. IL-7 positively regulated IFN-g-producing Th1 and CD8 T cells and overall IFN-g levels in the salivary glands, without affecting IL-17. IL-7 enhanced the expression of CXCR3 ligands in salivary glands in a T cell- and IFN-g-dependent fashion, suggesting a chemotactic mechanism that accelerates the infiltration of lymphocytes. All data were obtained from 6-9 mice from 2-3 independent experiments. Student’s t-test was performed for statistical analysis with P values smaller than 0.05 being considered statistically significant.
Conclusions: IL-7 plays a pivotal pathogenic role in SjS, which is underpinned by an enhanced Th1 response and IFN-g-CXCR3 ligand-mediated lymphocyte infiltration of target organs. These results suggest that targeting IL-7 pathway may be a potential future strategy to prevent and treat SjS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the discovery of RNA interference (RNAi), excitement has grown over its potential therapeutic uses. Targeting RNAi pathways provides a powerful tool to change biological processes post-transcriptionally in various health conditions such as cancer or autoimmune diseases. Optimum design of shRNA, siRNA, and miRNA enhances stability and specificity of RNAi-based approaches whereas it has to reduce or prevent undesirable immune responses or off-target effects. Recent advances in understanding pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases have allowed application of these tools in vitro as well as in vivo with some degree of success. Further research on the design and delivery of effectors of RNAi pathway and underlying molecular basis of RNAi would warrant practical use of RNAi-based therapeutics in human applications. This review will focus on the approaches used for current therapeutics and their applications in autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and Sjögren's syndrome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that mainly targets the salivary and lacrimal glands. It has been controversial whether anti-muscarinic type 3 receptor (α-M3R) autoantibodies in patients with SjS inhibit intracellular trafficking of aquaporin-5 (AQP5), water transport protein, leading to secretory dysfunction. To address this issue, GFP-tagged human AQP5 was overexpressed in human salivary gland cells (HSG-hAQP5) and monitored AQP5 trafficking to the plasma membrane following carbachol (CCh, M3R agonist) stimulation. AQP5 trafficking was indeed mediated by M3R stimulation, shown in partial blockage of trafficking by M3R-antagonist 4-DAMP. HSG-hAQP5 pre-incubated with SjS plasma for 24 hours significantly reduced AQP5 trafficking with CCh, compared with HSG-hAQP5 pre-incubated with healthy control (HC) plasma. This inhibition was confirmed by monoclonal α-M3R antibody and pre-absorbed plasma. Interestingly, HSG-hAQP5 pre-incubated with SjS plasma showed no change in cell volume, compared to the cells incubated with HC plasma showing shrinkage by twenty percent after CCh-stimulation. Our findings clearly indicate that binding of anti-M3R autoantibodies to the receptor, which was verified by immunoprecipitation, suppresses AQP5 trafficking to the membrane and contribute to impaired fluid secretion in SjS. Our current study urges further investigations of clinical associations between SjS symptoms, such as degree of secretory dysfunction, cognitive impairment, and/or bladder irritation, and different profiles (titers, isotypes, and/or specificity) of anti-M3R autoantibodies in individuals with SjS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Sjögren’s syndrome (SjS) causes dry mouth and dry eyes by attacking exocrine glands. We reported that microRNA(miR)-146a is upregulated in the target tissue and PBMC of the SjS-mouse model and in human PBMC. In addition, elevated miR-146a altered innate immune functions such as phagocytic activity in vitro. To further identify the roles of miR-146a in innate immunity of SjS, co-stimulatory molecule CD80, which was identified as a potential target molecule by in silico analyses, was evaluated in this study.
Method: CD80 and CD86 were screened by western blot, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry in the salivary glands (SMX) and the spleen of SjS-prone C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1Aec2 (B6DC) and C57BL/6 (B6) at 8 (pre-disease) and 20 weeks (disease). MiR-146a in those tissues and CD80/CD86 in PBMC was measured by qRT-PCR. To determine if miR-146a is a direct target of CD80, HEK293 cells were transfected with a luciferase reporter vector containing human CD80 3’UTR along with pre-miR-146a-mimics (2.5-40nM). Data were analyzed by two-tailed-unpaired t-test or one-way ANOVA where appropriate.
Result: Total protein expression in SMX of B6DC showed reduced CD80 expression compared to B6 at 8 and 20 weeks (n=6/group). In contrast, no substantial difference of CD80 or miR-146a was observed between the strains in the spleen. Luciferase activity was significantly reduced (p<0.001) in the presence of miR-146a mimic at the concentrations tested compared to a negative control, indicating that CD80 is a direct target of miR-146a. Expression of CD80 and CD86 in human PBMC indicates a trend of decreased expression in SjS patients compared to healthy controls, which requires further confirmation.
Conclusion: Our current study identified CD80 as a target molecule of miR-146a and altered CD80 expression by miR-146a was detected in the target tissue of SjS. Impact of altered expression of CD80 on antigen presentation in SjS is currently under active investigation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Muscarinic type 3 receptor (M3R) plays a pivotal role in the induction of glandular fluid secretions. Although M3R is often the target of autoantibodies in Sjögren's syndrome (SjS), chemical agonists for M3R are clinically used to stimulate saliva secretion in patients with SjS. Aside from its activity in promoting glandular fluid secretion, however, it is unclear whether activation of M3R is related to other biological events in SjS. This study aimed to investigate the cytoprotective effect of chemical agonist-mediated M3R activation on apoptosis induced in human salivary gland (HSG) cells. Carbachol (CCh), a muscarinic receptor-specific agonist, abrogated tumor necrosis factor α/interferon γ-induced apoptosis through pathways involving caspase 3/7, but its cytoprotective effect was decreased by a M3R antagonist, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt inhibitor, or an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor. Ligation of M3R with CCh transactivated EGFR and phosphorylated ERK and Akt, the downstream targets of EGFR. Inhibition of intracellular calcium release or protein kinase C δ, both of which are involved in the cell signaling of M3R-mediated fluid secretion, did not affect CCh-induced ERK or Akt phosphorylation. CCh stimulated Src phosphorylation and binding to EGFR. A Src inhibitor attenuated the CCh/M3R-induced cytoprotective effect and EGFR transactivation cascades. Overall, these results indicated that CCh/M3R induced transactivation of EGFR through Src activation leading to ERK and Akt phosphorylation, which in turn suppressed caspase 3/7-mediated apoptotic signals in HSG cells. This study, for the first time, proposes that CCh-mediated M3R activation can promote not only fluid secretion but also survival of salivary gland cells in the inflammatory context of SjS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mouse model is the one of the most frequently used and well-established animal models, and is currently used in many research areas. To date, various mouse models have been utilized to elucidate underlying causes of multifactorial autoimmune conditions, including pathological immune components and specific signaling pathways. This review summarizes the more recent mouse models for Sjögren's syndrome, a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration in the exocrine glands, such as the salivary and lacrimal glands, and loss of secretory function, resulting in dry mouth and dry eyes in patients. Although every Sjögren's syndrome mouse model resembles the major symptoms or phenotypes of Sjögren's syndrome conditions in humans, the characteristics of each model are variable. Moreover, to date, there is no single mouse model that can completely replicate the human conditions. However, unique features of each mouse model provide insights into the roles of potential etiological and immunological factors in the development and progression of Sjögren's syndrome. Here, we will overview the Sjögren's syndrome mouse models. Lessons from these mouse models will aid us to understand underlying immune dysregulation in autoimmune diseases in general, and will guide us to direct future research towards appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.
No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is characterized by xerophthalmia and xerostomia resulting from loss of secretory function due to immune cell infiltration in lacrimal and salivary glands. Current therapeutic strategies for SS use secretagogues to induce secretion via muscarinic receptor stimulation. The purpose of this study was to create a secretagogue-small interfering RNA (siRNA) conjugate to deliver siRNA into cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis, thereby altering epithelial cell responses to external cues, such as proinflammatory or death signals, while simultaneously stimulating secretion.
Based on our expertise with type 3 muscarinic receptor (M3), we used carbachol, a ligand specific for muscarinic receptor, as the secretagogue. Carbachol was synthesized with an active choline group and was conjugated with an siRNA that targets caspase 3. A human salivary gland (HSG) cell line was used to test the efficacy of this secretagogue-siRNA conjugate.
Lipofectamine transfection of the conjugate into HSG cells resulted in a 78% reduction in the expression of the caspase 3 gene, while external conjugate treatment of HSG cells resulted in intracellular calcium release and induction of endocytosis at levels similar to those of carbachol stimulation, indicating that the siRNA and carbachol portions of the conjugate retained their function after conjugation. HSG cells treated with conjugate (without Lipofectamine transfection) exhibited a 50% reduction in caspase 3 gene and protein expression, indicating that our conjugate was effective in delivering functional siRNA into cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor α-induced apoptosis was significantly reduced in conjugate-treated cells.
Our secretagogue-siRNA conjugate prevented cytokine-induced apoptosis in salivary gland epithelial cells, which is critical to maintaining fluid secretion and potentially reversing the clinical hallmark of SS.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · Arthritis & Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Periodontal disease has been recently linked to a variety of systemic conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, preterm delivery, and oral cancer. The most common bacteria associated with periodontal disease, Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) has not yet been studied in the malignant gingival tissues. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of P. gingivalis in specimens from squamous cell carcinoma patients. We have performed immunohistochemical staining to investigate the presence of P. gingivalis and Streptococcus gordonii (S. gordonii), a non invasive oral bacteria, in paraffin embedded samples of gingival squamous cell carcinoma (n = 10) and normal gingiva (n = 5). Staining for P. gingivalis revealed the presence of the bacteria in normal gingival tissues and gingival carcinoma, with higher levels (more than 33%, P < 0.05) detected in the carcinoma samples. The staining intensity was also significantly enhanced in the malignant tissue by 2 folds (P < 0.023) compared to specimens stained for the non-invasive S. gordonii. P. gingivalis is abundantly present in malignant oral epithelium suggesting a potential association of the bacteria with gingival squamous cell carcinoma.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · International Journal of Oral Science