[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
To examine the incidence of cataract and cataract extraction in a trial of folic acid and vitamins B6 and B12.
In a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial, 5442 female health professionals aged 40 years or older with preexisting cardiovascular disease (CVD) or three or more CVD risk factors were randomly assigned to receive a combination of folic acid (2.5 mg/day), vitamin B6 (50 mg/day), and vitamin B12 (1 mg/day), or placebo. A total of 3925 of these women did not have a diagnosis of cataract at baseline and were included in this analysis. The primary endpoint was age-related cataract, defined as an incident age-related lens opacity, responsible for a reduction in best-corrected visual acuity to 20/30 or worse, based on self-report confirmed by medical record review. Extraction of incident age-related cataract was a secondary endpoint of the trial.
During an average of 7.3 years of treatment and follow-up, 408 cataracts and 275 cataract extractions were documented. There were 215 cataracts in the combination treatment group and 193 in the placebo group (hazard ratio, HR, 1.10, 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.90-1.33; p = 0.36). For the secondary endpoint of cataract extraction, there were 155 in the combination treatment group and 120 in the placebo group (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.01-1.63; p = 0.04).
In this large-scale randomized trial of women at high risk of CVD, daily supplementation with a combination of folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 had no significant effect on cataract, but may have increased the risk of cataract extraction.
No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Ophthalmic epidemiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
-Cardiovascular disease (CVD) can occur in individuals with low LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c). We investigated whether detailed measures of LDL subfractions and other lipoproteins can be used to assess CVD risk in a population with both low LDL-c and high C-reactive protein that was randomized to high-intensity statin or placebo.
Methods and results:
-In 11,186 JUPITER participants, we tested whether lipids, apolipoproteins, and ion mobility (IM)-measured particle concentrations at baseline and after random allocation to rosuvastatin 20 mg/d or placebo were associated with first CVD events (n=307) or CVD/all-cause death (n=522). In placebo-allocated participants, baseline LDL-c was not associated with CVD (adjusted HR per SD, 1.03, 95% CI 0.88-1.21). In contrast, associations with CVD events were observed for baseline non-HDL-cholesterol (non-HDL-c: 1.18, 1.01-1.38), apolipoprotein B (apoB: 1.28, 1.11-1.48), and IM-measured non-HDL particles (non-HDL-p: 1.19, 1.05-1.35) and LDL particles (LDL-p: 1.21, 1.07-1.37). Association with CVD events was also observed for several LDL and VLDL subfractions, but not for IM-measured HDL subfractions. In statin-allocated participants, CVD events were associated with on-treatment LDL-c, non-HDL-c, and apoB; these were also associated with CVD/all-cause death, as were several LDL and VLDL subfractions albeit with a pattern of association that differed from the baseline risk.
-In JUPITER, baseline LDL-c was not associated with CVD events, in contrast with significant associations for non-HDL-c and atherogenic particles: apoB and IM-measured non-HDL-p, LDL-p, and select subfractions of VLDL-p and LDL-p. During high-intensity statin therapy, on-treatment levels of LDL-c and atherogenic particles were associated with residual risk of CVD/all-cause death. Clinical Trial Registration Information-ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT00239681.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), a marker of systemic inflammation, may promote atherosclerosis, particularly among adults with elevated blood pressure; however, data are sparse. We examined the association between hsCRP concentrations and risk of total stroke by hypertension status (normotension, prehypertension, and hypertension) among men in the Physicians' Health Study (PHS).
Methods and results:
Blood samples were collected (1996-1997) and assayed for hsCRP among 10 456 initially healthy men from PHS I and PHS II and followed from 1997 to 2012. Self-reported hypertension status, cardiovascular risk factors, lifestyle, and alcohol consumption were obtained from the baseline questionnaire prior to randomization in PHS II. Strokes were updated approximately annually and confirmed by medical records according to the National Survey of Stroke criteria. Multivariable Cox models were used. We observed 395 incident total strokes over 115 791 person-years. In analyses adjusted for potential confounders and stroke risk factors, clinically elevated hsCRP (>3 mg/L) was associated with a 40% significantly greater hazard of total stroke compared with hsCRP <1 mg/L (hazard ratio 1.40, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.87; Ptrend=0.01). Additional adjustment for blood pressure and biomarkers associated with cardiovascular risk marginally attenuated the estimates. Results were similar by hypertension status, although not statistically significant among normotensive and prehypertensive participants due to limited events.
Elevated hsCRP levels were associated with a greater risk of total stroke, even after adjustment for potential confounders and cardiovascular risk factors. Risk of total stroke was significantly higher among hypertensive men with elevated hsCRP compared with normotensive men with low hsCRP.
Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of the American Heart Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/objectives:
Data from previous studies consistently suggest that maternal smoking is positively associated with obesity later in life. Whether this association persists across generations is unknown. We examined whether grand-parental smoking was positively associated with overweight status in adolescence.
Participants were grandmother-mother-child triads in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II), the Nurses Mothers' Cohort Study, and the Growing up Today Study (GUTS). Grandmothers provided information on their and their partner's smoking during pregnancy with the child's mother. Information on child's weight and height at ages 12 (N=3094) and 17 (N=3433) was obtained from annual or biennial GUTS questionnaires. We used logistic regression to estimate ORs of being overweight or obese, relative to normal weight.
Grand-maternal smoking during pregnancy was not associated with overweight status in adolescence. After adjusting for covariates, the OR of being overweight or obese relative to normal weight at age 12 years in girls whose grandmothers smoked 15+ cigarettes daily during pregnancy was 1.21 (95% CI 0.74-1.98; ptrend=0.31) and 1.07 (0.65-1.77; ptrend=0.41) in boys. Grand-paternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with being overweight or obese at age 12 in girls only, but not at age 17 for either sex: the OR for being overweight or obese at age 12 was 1.38 (95% CI 1.01-1.89; ptrend=0.03) in girls, and 1.31 (95% CI 0.97-1.76; ptrend=0.07) in boys. Among children of non-smoking mothers, the OR for granddaughter obesity for grand-paternal smoking was attenuated and no longer significant [OR 1.28 (95% CI 0.87-1.89; ptrend=0.18)].
Our findings suggest that the association between maternal smoking and offspring obesity may not persist beyond the first generation. However, grand-paternal smoking may affect overweight status of the granddaughter, likely through the association between grand-paternal smoking and maternal smoking.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 21 September 2015. doi:10.1038/ijo.2015.186.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · International journal of obesity (2005)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxaliplatin was rapidly adopted for treatment of stage III colon cancer after FDA approval in November 2004, thus providing an opportunity to use calendar time as an instrumental variable in nonexperimental comparative effectiveness research. Assuming instrument validity, instrumental variable analyses account for unmeasured confounding and are particularly valuable in sub-populations of unresolved effectiveness, such as older individuals.
We examined stage III colon cancer patients ages 65+ years initiating chemotherapy between 2003 and 2008 using US population-based cancer registry data linked with Medicare claims (N = 3,660). Risk differences for all-cause mortality were derived from Kaplan-Meier survival curves. We examined instrumental variable strength and compared risk differences with propensity score estimates.
Calendar time greatly affected oxaliplatin receipt. The calendar time instrument compared patients treated from January 2003 through September 2004 (N = 1,449) with those treated from March 2005 through May 2007 (N = 1,432), resulting in 54% compliance. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year local average treatment effect of the risk differences per 100 patients in the "compliers" (95% confidence intervals) were -4.6 (-8.2, -0.44), -6.3 (-12, -0.16), and -9.2 (-15, -2.5), respectively. Corresponding propensity score-matched results were -1.9 (-4.0, 0.2), -3.4 (-6.2, -0.05), and -4.3 (-7.5, -0.96).
Instrumental variable and propensity score analyses both indicate better survival among patients treated with oxaliplatin. As these results are based on different populations and assumptions, the instrumental variable analysis adds to evidence of oxaliplatin's effectiveness in older adults, who bear the greatest burden of colon cancer yet were underrepresented in clinical trials. In nonexperimental comparative effectiveness research of rapidly emerging therapies, the potential to use calendar time as an instrumental variable is worth consideration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Dietary fats have effects on biological pathways that may influence the development and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, associations between n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids and AF are inconsistent, and data on other dietary fats and AF risk are sparse. Objectives: We examined the association between dietary fatty acid (FA) subclasses and risk of incident AF and explored whether these associations differed for sustained and paroxysmal AF. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study in 33,665 women ≥45 y old without cardiovascular disease (CVD) and AF at baseline in 1993. Fat intake was estimated from food frequency questionnaires at baseline and in 2004. Incident AF was confirmed by medical records through October 2013. AF patterns were classified according to the most sustained form of AF within 2 y of diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards models with the use of a competing risk model approach estimated the RR. Results: Over 19.2 y, 1441 cases of incident AF (929 paroxysmal and 467 persistent/chronic) were confirmed. Intakes of total fat and FA subclasses were not associated with risk of AF. Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were differentially associated with AF patterns. The RR for a 5% increment of energy from SFAs was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.04, 2.09) for persistent/chronic and 0.85 (95% CI: 0.66, 1.08) for paroxysmal AF (P-difference = 0.01). For MUFAs, the RR for a 5% increment was 0.67 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.98) for persistent/chronic and 1.03 (95% CI: 0.78, 1.34) for paroxysmal AF, although the difference between patterns was not significant (P-difference = 0.07). Conclusions: Dietary fat was not associated with risk of incident AF in women without established CVD or AF. High SFA and low MUFA intakes were associated with greater risk of persistent or chronic, but not paroxysmal, AF. Improving dietary fat quality may play a role in the prevention of sustained forms of AF.
No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: -Cardiac troponin and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations associate with adverse cardiovascular outcome in primary prevention populations. Whether statin therapy modifies this association is poorly understood.
-We measured high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hsTnI) in 12,956 and BNP in 11,076 participants without cardiovascular disease in the JUPITER (Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin) trial before randomization to rosuvastatin 20 mg per day or placebo. Nearly 92% of participants had detectable circulating hsTnI, and 2.9% of men and 4.1% of women had levels above proposed sex-specific reference limits of 36 and 15 ng/L, respectively. hsTnI concentrations in the highest tertile were associated with a first major cardiovascular event (adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR) 2.19, 95% CI 1.56-3.06; P-trend<0.001). BNP levels in the highest tertile were also associated a first cardiovascular event (aHR 1.94, 95% CI 1.41-2.68, P-trend<0.001). The risk of all-cause mortality was elevated for the highest vs. the lowest tertiles of hsTnI (aHR 2.61, 95% CI 1.81-3.78; P-trend<0.001) and BNP (aHR 1.45, 95% CI 1.03-2.04; P-trend=0.02). Rosuvastatin was equally effective in preventing a first cardiovascular event across categories of hsTnI (aHR range 0.50-0.60) and BNP (aHR range 0.42-0.67) with no statistically significant evidence of interaction (P-interaction=0.53 and 0.20, respectively).
-In a contemporary primary prevention population, baseline cardiac troponin I and BNP were associated with the risk of vascular events and all-cause mortality. The benefits of rosuvastatin were substantial and consistent regardless of baseline hsTnI or BNP concentrations.
-www.clinicaltrials.gov. Identifier: NCT 00239681.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In nonrandomized studies of comparative effectiveness of medications, the prescriber may be the most important determinant of treatment assignment, yet the majority of analyses ignore the prescriber. Via Monte Carlo simulation, we evaluated the bias of 3 approaches that utilize the prescriber in analysis compared against the default approach that ignores the prescriber. Prescriber preference instrumental variable (IV) analyses were unbiased when IV criteria were met, which required no clustering of unmeasured patient characteristics within prescriber. In all other scenarios, IV analyses were highly biased, and stratification on the prescriber reduced confounding bias at the patient or prescriber levels. Including a prescriber random intercept in the propensity score model reversed the direction of confounding from measured patient factors and resulted in unpredictable changes in bias. Therefore, we recommend caution when using the IV approach, particularly when the instrument is weak. Stratification on the prescriber may be more robust; this approach warrants additional research.
No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PurposeThis study aims to explore the influence of gestational age at enrollment, and enrollment before or after prenatal screening, on the estimation of drug effects in pregnancy exposure registries.Methods
We assessed the associations between first trimester antiepileptic drug (AED) exposure and risk of spontaneous abortion and major congenital malformations in the North American AED Registry (1996–2013). We performed logistic regression analyses, conditional or unconditional on gestational age at enrollment, to estimate relative risk (RR) for first trimester AED users compared with non-users. We also compared first trimester users of valproic acid and lamotrigine. Analyses were repeated in women who enrolled before prenatal screening.ResultsEnrollment occurred earlier among 7029 AED users than among 581 non-users; it was similar among AEDs. Comparing AED users with non-users, RR (95% confidence interval) of spontaneous abortion (n = 359) decreased from 5.1 (2.3–14.1) to 2.0 (0.9–5.6) after conditioning on gestational week at enrollment and to 1.9 (0.8–5.4) upon further restriction to before-screening enrollees. RR of congenital malformations (n = 216) changed from 3.1 (1.4–8.5) to 3.2 (1.4–9.0) after conditioning on gestational week at enrollment and to 2.0 (0.7–10.1) upon further restriction to before-screening enrollees. When comparing valproic acid users and lamotrigine users, the RR of congenital malformations was not substantially changed by conditioning or restricting.Conclusions
Spontaneous abortion rates were sensitive to gestational age at enrollment. Estimates of congenital malformation risks for AED users relative to non-users were sensitive to before/after-screening enrollment. This difference was not apparent between active drugs, likely due to similar gestational age at enrollment.
"This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Margulis et al. Effects of gestational age at enrollment in pregnancy exposure registries. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2015 Apr;24(4):343-52. doi: 10.1002/pds.3731, which has been published in final form at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pds.3731/abstract;jsessionid=C9A08A5237555C2C539FC907906F3E91.f01t03. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving."
Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although adult obesity is known to increase endometrial cancer risk, evidence for childhood obesity is limited. We prospectively examined the association between body fatness throughout life and endometrial cancer risk. 47,289 members of the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and 105,386 of the Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II) recalled their body fatness at ages 5, 10, and 20 using a pictogram. Childhood and adolescent body fatness were derived as the average at ages 5 and 10, and ages 10 and 20, respectively. We obtained adult weight from concurrent questionnaires. We calculated hazard ratios (HR) of endometrial cancer using Cox proportional hazards models. During follow-up, 757 incident cases of endometrial cancer were diagnosed. Body fatness in childhood, at age 10, in adolescence, and at age 20 were positively associated with endometrial cancer risk (HR for ≥ Level 5 versus ≤ Level 2 in adolescence: 1.83 (95% CI 1.41-2.37). After adjusting for most recent BMI, none of the associations persisted. Weight change since age 18 was positively associated with endometrial cancer risk [HR for ≥ 25 kg gain versus stable: 2.54 (95% CI 1.80-3.59). Adult BMI was strongly associated with endometrial cancer risk [HR BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 versus BMI ≤ 25 kg/m2: 4.13 (95% CI 3.29-5.16)]. In postmenopausal women, the association with BMI was significantly stronger among non-users of hormone therapy. In conclusion, obesity throughout life is positively associated with endometrial cancer risk, with adult obesity one of the strongest risk factors. Maintaining a healthy weight throughout life remains important. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease may share common biological pathways, with inflammation playing a role in the development of both. Although observational studies have suggested that statin use is associated with a lower risk of fractures, randomized trial data addressing this issue are scant.
To determine whether statin therapy reduces the risk of fracture and, in a secondary analysis, whether baseline levels of the inflammatory biomarker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) are associated with the risk of fracture.
The JUPITER (Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin) trial was an international, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study enrolling 17 802 men older than 50 years and women older than 60 years with hs-CRP level of at least 2 mg/L. Participants were screened from 2003 to 2006 and observed prospectively for up to 5 years (median follow-up, 1.9 years).
Rosuvastatin calcium, 20 mg daily, or placebo.
Incident fracture was a prespecified secondary end point of JUPITER. Fractures were confirmed by radiographs, computed tomography, bone scan, or other methods. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and associated 95% confidence intervals for the risk of fracture according to randomized treatment assignment, as well as increasing tertiles of hs-CRP, controlling for potential confounders.
During the study, 431 incident fractures were reported and confirmed. Among participants allocated to rosuvastatin, 221 fractures were confirmed, compared with 210 among those allocated to placebo, such that the incidence of fracture in the rosuvastatin and placebo groups was 1.20 and 1.14 per 100 person-years, respectively (adjusted HR, 1.06 [95% CI, 0.88-1.28]; P = .53). Overall, increasing baseline hs-CRP level was not associated with an increased risk of fractures (adjusted HR for each unit increase in hs-CRP tertile, 1.06 [95% CI, 0.94-1.20]; P for trend, .34).
Among men and women with elevated hs-CRP level enrolled in a large trial of rosuvastatin therapy for cardiovascular disease, statin therapy did not reduce the risk of fracture. Higher baseline hs-CRP level was not associated with an increased risk of incident fracture.
clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00239681.
No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · JAMA Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:Data from previous studies consistently suggest that maternal smoking is positively associated with the risk of obesity later in life. Whether this association persists across generations is unknown.
Methods:We investigated the association between grandparent smoking status and grandchild overweight status among 3101 grandmother-mother-child triads in the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHS II), the NHS Mothers’ Cohort Study, and the children of NHS II participants who are in the Growing up Today Study (GUTS). Grandmothers of children provided information on their and their partner’s smoking during pregnancy with the child’s mother. Information on child's weight and height at ages 12 and 17 was obtained by self-report from the GUTS questionnaires. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) of being overweight or obese, relative to normal weight.
Results: Seventy-five percent of grandmothers reportedly did not smoke during pregnancy, while 4% quit during pregnancy, 13% continued smoking up to 14 cigarettes/day, and 7% smoked 15+ cigarettes daily throughout pregnancy. Grand-maternal smoking was not associated with being overweight or obese at age 12 or 17 years, in boys or in girls. After adjusting for multiple covariates, the OR of being overweight or obese relative to normal weight at age 12 years in girls whose grandmothers smoked 15+ cigarettes per day during pregnancy with their mothers was 1.23 (95% CI 0.75-2.01; ptrend = 0.25) and 1.08 (0.65-1.97; ptrend = 0.34) in boys. Grand-paternal smoking was positively associated with being overweight or obese at age 12 years in girls but not boys, and not at age 17 years for either: the OR for being overweight or obese at age 12 years was 1.46 (95% CI 1.07-1.99; ptrend = 0.01) in girls, and 1.26 (95% CI 0.94-1.70; ptrend = 0.11) in boys. After restricting to children of non-smoking mothers, the comparable OR for granddaughter obesity was attenuated and no longer significant [OR 1.35 (95% CI 0.93-1.97; ptrend= 0.10)].
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that grand-maternal smoking is not associated with adolescent overweight status in the grandchild. However, grand-paternal smoking may affect overweight status of the granddaughter, likely through the association between grand-paternal smoking and maternal smoking.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims:
Two recent randomized controlled trials of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with history of, or at high risk of, cardiovascular disease (CVD) showed no risk of ischemic cardiovascular events associated with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4i), but an increased risk of heart failure (HF) with saxagliptin. We evaluated the risk of CVD including myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, coronary revascularization, and HF associated with DPP4i in T2DM patients with and without baseline CVD as used in the community.
Using US commercial insurance claims data (2005-2012), we conducted a cohort study that included initiators of DPP4i and non-DPP4i treatments. Composite CVD endpoints including MI, stroke, coronary revascularization, and HF were defined with a hospital discharge diagnosis or procedure code. Cox proportional hazards models compared the risk of composite and individual CVD endpoints in propensity score (PS)-matched initiators of DPP4 versus non-DPP4i.
We included 79,538 (18 % with baseline CVD) persons in PS-matched pairs of DPP4i and non-DPP4i initiators. The incidence rate per 1,000 person-years for composite CVD was 30.30 (95 % CI 28.24-32.51) in DPP4i and 34.76 (95 % CI 32.34-37.36) in non-DPP4i. The PS-matched hazard ratio (HR) for composite CVD was 0.87 (95 % CI 0.79-0.96) in DPP4i versus non-DPP4i. The PS-matched HR for HF was 0.81 (95 % CI 0.70-0.94) in DPP4i versus non-DPP4i. Among patients with baseline CVD, there was no increased risk of CVD or HF associated with DPP4i use.
Among T2DM patients, initiating DPP4i was not associated with a greater risk of CVD or HF compared to non-DPP4i initiators.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Acta Diabetologica