L Elliot Hong

University of Maryland, Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

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Publications (11)55.76 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Reduced speed of cerebral information processing is a cognitive deficit associated with schizophrenia. Normal information processing speed (PS) requires intact white matter (WM) physiology to support information transfer. In a cohort of 107 subjects (47/60 patients/controls), we demonstrate that PS deficits in schizophrenia patients are explained by reduced WM integrity, which is measured using diffusion tensor imaging, mediated by the mismatch in WM/gray matter blood perfusion, and measured using arterial spin labeling. Our findings are specific to PS, and testing this hypothesis for patient-control differences in working memory produces no explanation. We demonstrate that PS deficits in schizophrenia can be explained by neurophysiological alterations in cerebral WM. Whether the disproportionately low WM integrity in schizophrenia is due to illness or secondary due to this disorder deserves further examination. Hum Brain Mapp, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Human Brain Mapping
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    ABSTRACT: The etiopathophysiology of schizophrenia has long been linked to stress and the influence of stress is important in all stages of the illness. Previous examinations of perceived stress and acute stress responses may not capture this longitudinal stress pathophysiology. We hypothesized that the cumulative negative effects of stress, indexed by allostatic load (AL), would be elevated in schizophrenia, and that the AL paradigm would be relevant to our understanding of pathophysiology in schizophrenia. We assessed allostatic load in 30 patients with schizophrenia (SZ; mean age=33; 17 males) and 20 healthy controls (HC; mean age=35; 12 males) using 13 cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune biomarkers. Participants' perceived stress over the past month, functional capacity and psychiatric symptoms were also measured. Controlling for age, SZ had significantly higher AL as compared to HC (p=0.007). Greater AL was present in both early course and chronic SZ, and was associated with reduced functional capacity (p=0.006) and more psychotic symptoms (p=0.048) in SZ. Current level of perceived stress was not significantly elevated in SZ or associated with AL in either group. The higher AL found in SZ may reflect increased bodily "wear and tear", possibly caused by more chronic stress exposure or maladaptive responses to stress over time, although additional research is required to differentiate these causes. The higher AL is similarly present in early and chronic SZ, suggesting primary maladaptive stress physiology rather than secondary effects from medications or chronic illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Psychoneuroendocrinology
  • Kelly Register-Brown · L. Elliot Hong
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    ABSTRACT: The duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) has been associated with a wide range of clinical outcomes, and is considered to be one of the key parameters in managing clinical high risk and first episode psychosis patients. However, considerable discrepancies exist in the way that DUP is estimated in different studies. There is no standard or consensus on which method is most reliable and valid for assessing DUP.Methods This review aimed to quantitatively assess different DUP measurement instruments and definitions by comparing their inter-rater reliability, and their strength of validity in predicting biological and clinical outcomes.ResultsNine instruments designed for measuring DUP were found. Their inter-rater reliability were found to be adequate to excellent, although quite varied. This analysis did not show that any instrument was clearly outstanding compared to the others, although the limited available data do not exclude this possibility. DUP was also significantly associated with a range of outcomes, although mostly with small effect sizes. However, non-instrument based, ad hoc clinical interviews remained the most common way of measuring DUP. Definitions of onset of psychosis and onset of treatment were inconsistent among studies.Conclusions This review did not find quantitative evidence to support the use of one instrument over another. DUP remains a promising modifiable risk factor for a range of long-term clinical outcomes. Future research should quantify and improve the reliability and validity of the structured instruments for DUP measurement.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Schizophrenia Research
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    ABSTRACT: Meta-analyses estimate a statistical effect size for a test or an analysis by combining results from multiple studies without necessarily having access to each individual study's raw data. Multi-site meta-analysis is crucial for imaging genetics, as single sites rarely have a sample size large enough to pick up effects of single genetic variants associated with brain measures. However, if raw data can be shared, combining data in a "mega-analysis" is thought to improve power and precision in estimating global effects. As part of an ENIGMA-DTI investigation, we use fractional anisotropy (FA) maps from 5 studies (total N=2, 203 subjects, aged 9-85) to estimate heritability. We combine the studies through meta-and mega-analyses as well as a mixture of the two - combining some cohorts with mega-analysis and meta-analyzing the results with those of the remaining sites. A combination of mega-and meta-approaches may boost power compared to meta-analysis alone.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014
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    ABSTRACT: This article reviews work published by the ENIGMA Consortium and its Working Groups (http://enigma.ini.usc.edu). It was written collaboratively; P.T. wrote the first draft and all listed authors revised and edited the document for important intellectual content, using Google Docs for parallel editing, and approved it. Some ENIGMA investigators contributed to the design and implementation of ENIGMA or provided data but did not participate in the analysis or writing of this report. A complete listing of ENIGMA investigators is available at http://enigma.ini.usc.edu/publications/the-enigma-consortium-in-review/ For ADNI, some investigators contributed to the design and implementation of ADNI or provided data but did not participate in the analysis or writing of this report. A complete listing of ADNI investigators is available at http://adni.loni.usc.edu/wp-content/uploads/how_to_apply/ ADNI_Acknowledgement_List.pdf The work reviewed here was funded by a large number of federal and private agencies worldwide, listed in Stein et al. (2012); the funding for listed consortia is also itemized in Stein et al. (2012).
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Brain Imaging and Behavior
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    Ivan Kramer · L Elliot Hong
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    ABSTRACT: The relative importance of genetics and the environment in causing schizophrenia is still being debated. Although the high proportion of monozygote cotwins of schizophrenia patients who are discordant suggests that there may be a significant environmental contribution to the development of schizophrenia, this discordance is predicted by an accumulative multimutation model of schizophrenia onset constructed here implying a genetic origin of schizophrenia. In this model, schizophrenics are viewed as having been born with the genetic susceptibility to develop schizophrenia. As susceptible gene carriers age, they randomly accumulate the necessary mutations to cause schizophrenia, the last needed mutation coinciding with disease onset. The mutation model predicts that the concordance rate in monozygote twin studies will monotonically increase with age, theoretically approaching 100% given sufficient longevity. In dizygote cotwins of schizophrenia patients, the model predicts that at least 71% of cotwins are incapable of developing schizophrenia even though every cotwin and their schizophrenic twin shared a similar early environment. The multimutation model is shown to fit all of the monozygote and dizygote concordance rate data of the principle classical twin studies completed before 1970 considered in this paper. Thus, the genetic hypothesis of schizophrenia can be tested by bringing these studies up to date.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2013
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    ABSTRACT: The ENIGMA (Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) Consortium was set up to analyze brain measures and genotypes from multiple sites across the world to improve the power to detect genetic variants that influence the brain. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) yields quantitative measures sensitive to brain development and degeneration, and some common genetic variants may be associated with white matter integrity or connectivity. DTI measures, such as the fractional anisotropy (FA) of water diffusion, may be useful for identifying genetic variants that influence brain microstructure. However, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) require large populations to obtain sufficient power to detect and replicate significant effects, motivating a multi-site consortium effort. As part of an ENIGMA-DTI working group, we analyzed high-resolution FA images from multiple imaging sites across North America, Australia, and Europe, to address the challenge of harmonizing imaging data collected at multiple sites. Four hundred images of healthy adults aged 18-85 from four sites were used to create a template and corresponding skeletonized FA image as a common reference space. Using twin and pedigree samples of different ethnicities, we used our common template to evaluate the heritability of tract-derived FA measures. We show that our template is reliable for integrating multiple datasets by combining results through meta-analysis and unifying the data through exploratory mega-analyses. Our results may help prioritize regions of the FA map that are consistently influenced by additive genetic factors for future genetic discovery studies. Protocols and templates are publicly available at (http://enigma.loni.ucla.edu/ongoing/dti-working-group/).
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · NeuroImage
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    ABSTRACT: This study is the first to show a relationship between in-vivo brain gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) levels and auditory inhibitory electrophysiological measures in schizophrenia. Results revealed a strong association between GABA levels and gating of the theta-alpha and beta activities in schizophrenia.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is associated with a high prevalence of smoking. Functional connectivity between the dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) and limbic regions including the ventral striatum, extended amygdala and parahippocampal areas has been previously implicated in the genetics and clinical severity of smoking. In this study, we test the hypothesis that dACC functional circuits are key paths for the high risk of smoking comorbidity in schizophrenia. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed using the dACC as a seed region in smoking and nonsmoking patients with schizophrenia (n = 54), matched controls (n = 65), and nonpsychotic first-degree relatives (n = 24). Multiple regions had decreased connectivity with the dACC in schizophrenia patients when compared with matched controls (n = 65). Several of these functional circuits were also associated with nicotine addiction severity; the largest cluster included limbic areas such as the parahippocampal, extended amygdala, ventral striatal, and posterior insula regions, indicating an overlap of schizophrenia and nicotine addiction on to this circuit. These same functional connectivity-defined circuits were also significantly impaired in schizophrenia nonsmokers compared with control nonsmokers and in nonpsychotic first-degree relatives. Functional connectivity between the dACC and limbic regions is inherently abnormal in schizophrenia, related to its genetic liability regardless of smoking, and overlaps with a nicotine addiction-related circuit. Our findings establish a biologically defined brain circuit mechanism that contributes to the high prevalence of smoking.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Schizophrenia Bulletin
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Elevated rate of aging-related biological and functional decline, termed "accelerated aging," is reported in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and major depressive disorder (MDD). We used diffusion tensor imaging derived fractional anisotropy (FA) as a biomarker of aging-related decline in white matter (WM) integrity to test the hypotheses of accelerated aging in SCZ and MDD. Methods: The SCZ cohort comprised 58 SCZ patients and 60 controls (aged 20-60 years). The MDD cohort comprised 136 MDD patients and 351 controls (aged 20-79 years). The main outcome measures were the diagnosis-by-age interaction on whole-brain-averaged WM FA values and FA values from 12 major WM tracts. Results: Diagnosis-by-age interaction for the whole-brain average FA was significant for the SCZ (p = .04) but not the MDD (p = .80) cohort. Diagnosis-by-age interaction was nominally significant (p<.05) for five WM tracts for SCZ and for none of the tracts in the MDD cohort. Tract-specific heterochronicity of the onset of age-related decline in SCZ demonstrated strong negative correlations with the age-of-peak myelination and the rates of age-related decline obtained from normative sample (r =-.61 and-.80, p<.05, respectively). No such trends existed for MDD cohort. Conclusions: Cerebral WM showed accelerated aging in SCZ but not in MDD, suggesting some difference in the pathophysiology underlying their WM aging changes. Tract-specific heterochronicity of WM development modulated presentation of accelerated aging in SCZ: WM tracts that matured later in life appeared more sensitive to the pathophysiology of SCZ and demonstrated more susceptibility to disorder-related accelerated decline in FA values with age. This trend was not observed in MDD cohort.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Biological psychiatry
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    Lauren V Moran · L Elliot Hong
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    ABSTRACT: There is growing recognition that neural oscillations are important in a wide range of perceptual and cognitive functions. One of the key issues in electrophysiological studies of schizophrenia is whether high or low frequency oscillations, or both, are related to schizophrenia because many brain functions are modulated with frequency specificities. Many recent electrophysiological studies of schizophrenia have focused on high frequency oscillations at gamma band and in general support gamma band dysfunction in schizophrenia. We discuss the concept that gamma oscillation abnormalities in schizophrenia often occur in the background of oscillation abnormalities of lower frequencies. The review discusses the basic neurobiology for the emergence of oscillations of all frequency bands in association with networks of inhibitory interneurons and the convergence and divergence of such mechanisms in generating high vs low frequency oscillations. We then review the literature of oscillatory frequency abnormalities identified in each frequency band in schizophrenia. By describing some of the key functional roles exerted by gamma, low frequencies, and their cross-frequency coupling, we conceptualize that even isolated alterations in gamma or low frequency oscillations may impact the interactions of high and low frequency bands that are involved in key cognitive functions. The review concludes that studying the full spectrum and the interaction of gamma and low frequency oscillations may be critical for deciphering the complex electrophysiological abnormalities observed in schizophrenia patients.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Schizophrenia Bulletin