[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kawasaki disease (KD; MIM#61175) is a systemic vasculitis syndrome with unknown etiology which predominantly affects infants and children. Recent findings of susceptibility genes for KD suggest possible involvement of the Ca2+/NFAT pathway in the pathogenesis of KD. ORAI1 is a Ca2+ release activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel mediating store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) on the plasma membrane. The gene for ORAI1 is located in chromosome 12q24 where a positive linkage signal was observed in our previous affected sib-pair study of KD. A common non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism located within exon 2 of ORAI1 (rs3741596) was significantly associated with KD (P = 0.028 in the discovery sample set (729 KD cases and 1,315 controls), P = 0.0056 in the replication sample set (1,813 KD cases vs. 1,097 controls) and P = 0.00041 in a meta-analysis by the Mantel-Haenszel method). Interestingly, frequency of the risk allele of rs3741596 is more than 20 times higher in Japanese compared to Europeans. We also found a rare 6 base-pair in-frame insertion variant associated with KD (rs141919534; 2,544 KD cases vs. 2,414 controls, P = 0.012). These data indicate that ORAI1 gene variations are associated with KD and may suggest the potential importance of the Ca2+/NFAT pathway in the pathogenesis of this disorder.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis occurring in medium-sized arteries, especially coronary arteries. Patients with KD who fail to respond to standard therapy with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) face a higher risk of developing coronary artery lesions. Cyclosporin A (CsA) is one treatment option for IVIG-resistant KD. However, the mechanism of its suppression of inflammation in patients with KD remains unknown.
Methods and results:
We analyzed time-line profiles of multiple inflammatory cytokines in sera of 19 patients treated with CsA (4 mg/kg/day, p.o., 14 days) after additional IVIG. Trough concentration of CsA in blood was maintained between 60 and 200 ng/ml. We examined serum samples before, on day 7, and at the end (day 14) of CsA treatment. Assays were conducted using a Milliplex kit®. Fourteen patients responded to CsA and became afebrile within 5 days (Responders), although five patients were regarded as Non-responders. Serum transitional levels of IL-6 (p<0.001), sIL-2R (p<0.001), sTNFRII (p<0.001), and G-CSF (p<0.001) reflect disease severity. In Non-responders, average levels of IL-6 at day 7 (43.5 vs. 13.8 pg/ml, p<0.001) and average levels of sIL-2R at day 14 (21.3 vs. 3.31 pg/ml, p=0.014) were significantly higher than those in Responders.
CsA treatment effectively reduced the persisting serum inflammatory cytokines in most of the IVIG-resistant KD patients. Soluble IL-2R suppression implies a mechanism explaining the effects of CsA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of Kawasaki disease in Japanese subjects using data from 428 individuals with Kawasaki disease (cases) and 3,379 controls genotyped at 473,803 SNPs. We validated the association results in two independent replication panels totaling 754 cases and 947 controls. We observed significant associations in the FAM167A-BLK region at 8p22-23 (rs2254546, P = 8.2 × 10(-21)), in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region at 6p21.3 (rs2857151, P = 4.6 × 10(-11)) and in the CD40 region at 20q13 (rs4813003, P = 4.8 × 10(-8)). We also replicated the association of a functional SNP of FCGR2A (rs1801274, P = 1.6 × 10(-6)) identified in a recently reported GWAS of Kawasaki disease. Our findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of Kawasaki disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase C (ITPKC) (rs28493229) and caspase-3 (CASP3) (rs113420705; formerly rs72689236) are associated with susceptibility to Kawasaki's disease (KD). To evaluate the involvement of these 2 SNPs in the risk for intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) unresponsiveness, we investigated 204 Japanese KD patients who received a single IVIG dose of 2 g kg(-1) (n=70) or 1 g kg(-1) daily for 2 days (n=134). The susceptibility allele of both SNPs showed a trend of overrepresentation in IVIG non-responders and, in combined analysis of these SNPs, patients with at least 1 susceptible allele at both loci had a higher risk for IVIG unresponsiveness (P=0.0014). In 335 prospectively collected KD patients who were treated with IVIG (2 g kg(-1)), this 2-locus model showed a more significant association with resistance to initial and additional IVIG (P=0.011) compared with individual SNPs. We observed a significant association when all KD patients with coronary artery lesions were analyzed with the 2-locus model (P=0.0031). Our findings strongly suggest the existence of genetic factors affecting patients' responses to treatment and the risk for cardiac complications, and provide clues toward understanding the pathophysiology of KD inflammation.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 11 October 2011; doi:10.1038/tpj.2011.45.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · The Pharmacogenomics Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are still no definite treatments for refractory Kawasaki disease (KD). In this pilot study, we evaluated the use of cyclosporin A (CyA) treatment in patients with refractory KD.
We prospectively collected clinical data of CyA treatment (4-8 mg/kg/d, oral administration) for refractory KD patients using the same protocol among several hospitals. Refractory KD is defined as the persistence or recurrence of fever (37.5°C or more of an axillary temperature) at the end of the second intravenous immunoglobulin (2 g/kg) following the initial one.
Subjects were enrolled out of 329 KD patients who were admitted to our 8 hospitals between January 2008 and June 2010. Among a total of 28 patients of refractory KD treated with CyA, 18 (64.3%) responded promptly to be afebrile within 3 days and had decreased C-reactive protein levels, the other 4 became afebrile within 4 to 5 days. However, 6 patients (21.4%) failed to become afebrile within 5 days after the start of CyA and/or high fever returned after becoming afebrile within 5 days. Although hyperkalemia developed in 9 patients at 3 to 7 days after the start of CyA treatment, there were no serious adverse effects such as arrhythmias. Four patients (1.2%), 2 before and the other 2 after the start of CyA treatment, developed coronary arterial lesions.
CyA treatment is considered safe and well tolerated, and a promising option for patients with refractory KD. Further investigations will be needed to clarify optimal dose, safety, and timing of CyA treatment.
No preview · Article · May 2011 · The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal