Gerold Meinhardt

Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Seattle, Washington, United States

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Publications (14)145.19 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background and aims: Transarterial chemoembolization with doxorubicin-eluting beads (DC Bead(®); DEB-TACE) is effective in patients with BCLC stage B hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The multikinase inhibitor sorafenib enhances overall survival (OS) and time to tumor progression (TTP) in patients with advanced HCC. This exploratory phase II trial tested the efficacy and safety of DEB-TACE plus sorafenib in patients with intermediate-stage HCC. Methods: Patients with intermediate-stage multinodular HCC without macrovascular invasion (MVI) or extrahepatic spread (EHS) were randomized 1:1 to DEB-TACE (150 mg doxorubicin) plus sorafenib 400 mg bid or placebo. The primary endpoint was TTP by blinded central review. Secondary endpoints included time to MVI/EHS, OS, overall response rate (ORR) using modified RECIST criteria (mRECIST), disease control rate (DCR), time to unTACEable progression (TTUP), and safety. Results: Of 307 patients randomized, 154 received sorafenib and 153 received placebo. Median TTP for subjects receiving sorafenib plus DEB-TACE or placebo plus DEB-TACE was similar (169 vs 166 days, respectively; HR 0.797, P=0.072). Median time to MVI/EHS (HR 0.621, P=0.076) and OS (HR 0.898,P=0.29) had not been reached. The ORRs for patients in the sorafenib and placebo groups with post-baseline scans were 55.9% and 41.3%, respectively, and the DCRs were 89.2% and 76.1%, respectively. TTUP was lower with sorafenib than with placebo (HR 1.586; 95% CI, 1.200-2.096; median 95 vs 224 days). No unexpected AEs related to sorafenib were observed. Conclusion: Sorafenib plus DEB-TACE was technically feasible, but the combination did not improve TTP in a clinically meaningful manner compared with DEB-TACE alone.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Hepatology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: There is no standard of care for adjuvant therapy for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. This trial was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of sorafenib versus placebo as adjuvant therapy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after surgical resection or local ablation. Methods: We undertook this phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma with a complete radiological response after surgical resection (n=900) or local ablation (n=214) in 202 sites (hospitals and research centres) in 28 countries. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 400 mg oral sorafenib or placebo twice a day, for a maximum of 4 years, according to a block randomisation scheme (block size of four) using an interactive voice-response system. Patients were stratified by curative treatment, geography, Child-Pugh status, and recurrence risk. The primary outcome was recurrence-free survival assessed after database cut-off on Nov 29, 2013. We analysed efficacy in the intention-to-treat population and safety in randomly assigned patients receiving at least one study dose. The final analysis is reported. This study is registered with, number NCT00692770. Findings: We screened 1602 patients between Aug 15, 2008, and Nov 17, 2010, and randomly assigned 1114 patients. Of 556 patients in the sorafenib group, 553 (>99%) received the study treatment and 471 (85%) terminated treatment. Of 558 patients in the placebo group, 554 (99%) received the study treatment and 447 (80%) terminated treatment. Median duration of treatment and mean daily dose were 12·5 months (IQR 2·6-35·8) and 577 mg per day (SD 212·8) for sorafenib, compared with 22·2 months (8·1-38·8) and 778·0 mg per day (79·8) for placebo. Dose modification was reported for 497 (89%) of 559 patients in the sorafenib group and 206 (38%) of 548 patients in the placebo group. At final analysis, 464 recurrence-free survival events had occurred (270 in the placebo group and 194 in the sorafenib group). Median follow-up for recurrence-free survival was 8·5 months (IQR 2·9-19·5) in the sorafenib group and 8·4 months (2·9-19·8) in the placebo group. We noted no difference in median recurrence-free survival between the two groups (33·3 months in the sorafenib group vs 33·7 months in the placebo group; hazard ratio [HR] 0·940; 95% CI 0·780-1·134; one-sided p=0·26). The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events were hand-foot skin reaction (154 [28%] of 559 patients in the sorafenib group vs four [<1%] of 548 patients in the placebo group) and diarrhoea (36 [6%] vs five [<1%] in the placebo group). Sorafenib-related serious adverse events included hand-foot skin reaction (ten [2%]), abnormal hepatic function (four [<1%]), and fatigue (three [<1%]). There were four (<1%) drug-related deaths in the sorafenib group and two (<1%) in the placebo group. Interpretation: Our data indicate that sorafenib is not an effective intervention in the adjuvant setting for hepatocellular carcinoma following resection or ablation. Funding: Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals and Onyx Pharmaceuticals.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Lancet Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the clinical outcomes of sorafenib plus either erlotinib or placebo in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a multicenter, multinational, randomized, phase III trial. Patients with advanced HCC and underlying Child-Pugh class A cirrhosis, who were naive to systemic treatment (N = 720), were randomly assigned to sorafenib plus either erlotinib (n = 362) or placebo (n = 358). The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Median OS was similar in the sorafenib plus erlotinib and sorafenib plus placebo groups (9.5 v 8.5 months, respectively; hazard ratio [HR], 0.929; P = .408), as was median time to progression (3.2 v 4.0 months, respectively; HR, 1.135; P = .18). In the sorafenib/erlotinib arm versus the sorafenib/placebo arm, the overall response rate trended higher (6.6% v 3.9%, respectively; P = .102), whereas the disease control rate was significantly lower (43.9% v 52.5%, respectively; P = .021). The median durations of treatment with sorafenib were 86 days in the sorafenib/erlotinib arm and 123 days in the sorafenib/placebo arm. In the sorafenib/erlotinib and sorafenib/placebo arms, the rates of treatment-emergent serious AEs (58.0% v 54.6%, respectively) and drug-related serious AEs (21.0% v 22.8%, respectively) were similar. AEs matched the known safety profiles of both agents, but rates of rash/desquamation, anorexia, and diarrhea were higher in the sorafenib/erlotinib arm, whereas rates of alopecia and hand-foot skin reaction were higher in the sorafenib/placebo arm. Withdrawal rates for AEs during cycles 1 to 3 were higher in the sorafenib/erlotinib arm. Adding erlotinib to sorafenib did not improve survival in patients with advanced HCC. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Clinical Oncology

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Annals of Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Pharmacological inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors, like vatalanib, have been tested in randomised trials (CONFIRM (Colorectal Oral Novel therapy For the Inhibition of Angiogenesis and Retarding of Metastases) 1 and 2) in colorectal cancer showing activity in a subgroup of patients with high serum LDH expression. In the current study, we assessed the predictive role of vascular density (VD) in patients treated in the above trials. Methods: Paraffin-embedded materials from 141 patients were analysed with immunohistochemistry for the expression of the CD31 (pan-endothelial cell marker) and of phosphorylated pVEGFR2/KDR on endothelial cells. The VD was correlated with response to therapy and with progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: A significant association of pVEGFR2/KDR+ VD with poor response in the placebo group was noted (response rates (RRs) 15% (3/20) when high VD vs 52% (26/50) when low VD; P=0.006). The RR increased from 15 (3/20) to 50% (11/22) in tumours with high VD when vatalanib was added to chemotherapy (P=0.02). A significantly improved PFS was noted in patients with high pVEGFR2/KDR+ VD when treated with vatalanib (P=0.002). A similar effect was also noted in patients with high CD31+ VD (P=0.07). Overall survival was marginally improved (P=0.07). Conclusion: Assessment of the activated vessel density may allow the stratification of patients recruited in randomised trials with VEGFR-targeting anti-angiogenic agents, unmasking their therapeutic potential and enabling their introduction in the clinical practice for the benefit of specific patient subgroups, at the same time reducing the cost of therapy.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2012 · British Journal of Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: The phase III CONFIRM clinical trials demonstrated that metastatic colorectal cancer patients with elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) had improved outcome when the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibitor PTK/ZK (Vatalanib) was added to FOLFOX4 chemotherapy. We investigated the hypothesis that high intratumoral expression of genes regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF1α), namely LDHA, glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1), VEGFA, VEGFR1, and VEGFR2, were predictive of outcome in CONFIRM-1. Tumor tissue was isolated by laser-capture microdissection from 85 CONFIRM-1 tumor specimens; FOLFOX4/placebo n=42, FOLFOX4/PTK/ZK n=43. Gene expression was analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR. In univariate analyses, elevated mRNA expression of LDHA, GLUT-1, and VEGFR1 were associated with response to FOLFOX4/PTK/ZK. In univariate and multivariate analyses, elevated LDHA and VEGFR1 mRNA levels were associated with improved progression-free survival in FOLFOX4/PTK/ZK patients. Furthermore, increased HIF1α and VEGFR2 mRNA levels were associated with decreased survival in FOLFOX/placebo patients but not in patients who received FOLFOX4/PTK/ZK. These are the first data suggesting intratumoral mRNA expression of genes involved in angiogenesis/HIF pathway may predict outcome to VEGFR-inhibitors. Biomarkers that assist in directing VEGFR-inhibitors toward patients with an increased likelihood of benefit will improve the cost-effectiveness of these promising agents.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 5 June 2012; doi:10.1038/tpj.2012.23.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · The Pharmacogenomics Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Validated biomarkers of prognosis and response to drug have not been identified for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). One of the objectives of the phase III, randomized, controlled Sorafenib HCC Assessment Randomized Protocol (SHARP) trial was to explore the ability of plasma biomarkers to predict prognosis and therapeutic efficacy. In SHARP, 602 patients with advanced HCC were randomized to receive either oral sorafenib 400 mg twice a day per os or matching placebo daily on a continuous basis. Ten plasma biomarkers implicated in the pathogenesis of HCC were measured in 491 patients at baseline and in 305 after 12 weeks of treatment. The candidate biomarkers were analyzed to identify correlates of prognosis or predictors of response to sorafenib. In both the entire patient population and the placebo cohort, baseline angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) and VEGF concentrations independently predicted survival. Clinical variables such as macroscopic vascular invasion, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, and baseline α-fetoprotein and alkaline phosphatase concentrations also independently predicted survival in these groups. In the sorafenib cohort, trends toward enhanced survival benefit from sorafenib were observed in patients with high s-c-KIT or low hepatocyte growth factor concentration at baseline (P of interaction = 0.081 and 0.073, respectively). The angiogenesis biomarkers Ang2 and VEGF were independent predictors of survival in patients with advanced HCC. In contrast, none of the biomarkers tested significantly predicted response to sorafenib.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Clinical Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: In Japan and South Korea, transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) is an important locoregional treatment for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor, has been shown effective and safe in patients with advanced HCC. This phase III trial assessed the efficacy and safety of sorafenib in Japanese and Korean patients with unresectable HCC who responded to TACE. Patients (n=458) with unresectable HCC, Child-Pugh class A cirrhosis and ≥25% tumour necrosis/shrinkage 1-3 months after 1 or 2 TACE sessions were randomised 1:1 to sorafenib 400mg bid or placebo and treated until progression/recurrence or unacceptable toxicity. Primary end-point was time to progression/recurrence (TTP). Secondary end-point was overall survival (OS). Baseline characteristics in the two groups were similar; >50% of patients started sorafenib>9 weeks after TACE. Median TTP in the sorafenib and placebo groups was 5.4 and 3.7 months, respectively (hazard ratio (HR), 0.87; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.70-1.09; P=0.252). HR (sorafenib/placebo) for OS was 1.06 (95% CI, 0.69-1.64; P=0.790). Median daily dose of sorafenib was 386 mg, with 73% of patients having dose reductions and 91% having dose interruptions. Median administration of sorafenib and placebo was 17.1 and 20.1 weeks, respectively. No unexpected adverse events were observed. This trial, conducted prior to the reporting of registrational phase III trials, found that sorafenib did not significantly prolong TTP in patients who responded to TACE. This may have been due to delays in starting sorafenib after TACE and/or low daily sorafenib doses.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990)
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    ABSTRACT: The Colorectal Oral Novel therapy For the Inhibition of angiogenesis and Retarding of Metastases (CONFIRM)-randomized trials, investigating the role of the VEGF-receptor inhibitor PTK787/ZK 222584 (vatalanib) in colorectal cancer (FOLFOX 4 ± vatalanib), showed some benefit in patients with high serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. Here, we investigated the expression of LDH5 (encoded entirely by the LDHA gene, regulated by the hypoxia inducible factors) in cancer tissues from patients recruited in the CONFIRM trials and relationship to response. Paraffin-embedded materials from 179 patients recruited in the CONFIRM trials were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for the expression of the LDH5 protein. Correlations with serum LDH, response, and survival were assessed. A significant association of tumor burden and of poor performance status (PS) with serum LDH was noted. Poor PS and high tumor LDH5 expression predicted for poor response rates. High tissue LDH5 was related to poor progression-free survival (PFS) only in the placebo group of patients, whereas the addition of vatalanib seemed to improved response and PFS in this subgroup. High serum LDH levels were linked with significantly poorer overall survival, which however was not sustained in multivariate analysis. Serum LDH and tissue LDH5 levels are complementary features that help to characterize the activity of LDH in colorectal cancer and have a potent value in predicting response to chemotherapy. The addition of vatalanib diminished the impact of LDH expression on the prognosis of patients.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Clinical Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: PTK787/ZK 222584 (PTK/ZK; vatalanib), an orally active, multitargeted angiogenesis inhibitor, has shown tolerability and promising activity in early-phase studies, which led to a phase III trial in combination with oxaliplatin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin (FOLFOX4). Patients (N = 1,168) with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive FOLFOX4 plus PTK/ZK or placebo ( identifier: NCT00056459). Stratification factors included WHO performance status (0 v 1 or 2) and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; ≤ v > 1.5× the upper limit of normal). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included overall survival (OS) and overall response rate (ORR). PFS, OS, and ORR were not statistically improved with PTK/ZK (P > .05). Median PFS by central review was 7.7 months with PTK/ZK versus 7.6 months with placebo (hazard ratio [HR], 0.88; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.03; P = .118); median OS was 21.4 months with PTK/ZK versus 20.5 months with placebo (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.24; P = .260). In an exploratory post hoc analysis of PFS in patients (n = 158 per arm) with high serum LDH, a potential marker of hypoxia, PFS was longer with PTK/ZK versus placebo (7.7 v 5.8 months, respectively; HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.91; P = .009). Although the efficacy objectives of this study were not met, a subgroup of patients who may potentially benefit from small-molecule vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor therapy has been identified and further research is warranted.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment options for patients with previously treated metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) are limited, and treatments with differing mechanisms of action are needed. PTK787/ZK 222584 (PTK/ZK) is a novel oral angiogenesis inhibitor with therapeutic potential for the treatment of solid tumors. Patients (N = 855) were randomly assigned to treatment with PTK/ZK or placebo once daily in combination with oxaliplatin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin (FOLFOX4). Stratification factors included WHO performance status (PS; 0 v 1 to 2) and lactate dehydrogenase ([LDH] ≤ 1.5× the upper limit of normal [ULN] v > 1.5 × ULN). Treatment was given until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary end point was overall survival (OS); secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of PTK/ZK. No statistically significant differences were seen between the treatment groups for the overall comparison of OS. With PTK/ZK and placebo, respectively, median OS was 13.1 and 11.9 months (hazard ratio [HR], 1.00; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.16; P = .957). Median PFS was longer with PTK/ZK than with placebo (5.6 and 4.2 months, respectively; HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.96; P = .013). An exploratory, post hoc analysis demonstrated improved PFS in patients with high LDH, regardless of WHO PS (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.48 to 0.83; P < .001). PTK/ZK in combination with FOLFOX4 did not improve OS of patients with pretreated mCRC but did improve PFS. The effect of PTK/ZK was more pronounced in patients with high LDH at baseline.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: 4131 Background: ERCC-1 is a nucleotide excision repair gene associated with DNA repair of DNA adducts induced by platinum based chemotherapy. ERCC-1 mRNA levels have been shown to predict outcome in patients with NSCLC, gastric, bladder and ovarian cancer when treated with platinum based chemotherapy. We tested whether ERCC-1 gene expression is associated with outcome in patients with metastatic colon cancer treated with FOLFOX in first and second line treatment with or without PTK/ZK Methods: 191 formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tumor samples from patients enrolled in CONFIRM 1 and CONFIRM2 were analyzed. 85 patients from CONFIRM1 (42 pts treated with FOLFOX, 43 pts with FOLFOX/PTK/ZK) and 106 from CONFIRM2 (54 pts treated with FOLFOX, 52 with FOLFOX/PTK/ZK). FFPE tissues were dissected using laser-captured microdissection and analyzed for ERCC-1 mRNA expression using a quantitative real-time RT-PCR method. Gene expression values (relative mRNA levels) are expressed as ratios between the target gene and internal reference gene (beta-actin). Results: Low ERCC-1 gene expression was associated with better response to FOLFOX chemotherapy in first and second line chemotherapy (p=0.047, p=0.054). ERCC-1 gene expression was associated with overall survival in first and second line FOLFOX chemotherapy (p=0.014, p=0.14). pts with high ERCC-1 did not have any benefit from FOLFOX chemotherapy, but had benefit from treatment of FOLFOX+PTK/ZK, this drug and ERCC1 expression interaction was statistically significant (p=0.015). Conclusions: These results suggest that ERCC-1 gene expression levels predict response and overall survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer enrolled in CONFIRM1 and 2. ERCC-1 gene expression levels may allow the selection of patients who benefit likely from FOLFOX chemotherapy. We could show for the first time that VEGFR TKI efficacy may depend on ERCC-1 status. Further studies are warranted to study this unexpected interaction. Author Disclosure Employment or Leadership Consultant or Advisory Role Stock Ownership Honoraria Research Expert Testimony Other Remuneration Bayer, Novartis, Response Genetics, Inc Bristol-Myers Squibb, Genentech, ImClone, Merck, Pfizer, Response Genetics, Inc Novartis, Response Genetics, Inc Genentech, Merck, Pfizer, Roche, sanofi-aventis Dhont Family Foundation, NCI, NIH, Novartis
    No preview · Article · Jan 2008

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2007 · EJC Supplements
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    ABSTRACT: The licensing of bevacizumab in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer has fueled research in angiogenesis. Vatalanib (PTK787/ZK 222584), a potent oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor with a selective range of molecular targets, has been extensively investigated and has shown promising results in patients with colorectal cancer in early trials. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI has been useful as a pharmacodynamic tool to define the dose that has a biological effect. The primary objectives of the Phase III CONFIRM (Colorectal Oral Novel Therapy for the Inhibition of Angiogenesis and Retarding of Metastases in First-line) studies were not met. However, an interesting pre-planned subset analysis in both studies showed that patients with high lactate dehydrogenase derived clinical benefit. Although this type of analysis should always be considered with caution, the Phase III clinical programme of vatalanib is continuing with further innovative studies looking at other indications and schedules for vatalanib.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2007 · Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs

Publication Stats

623 Citations
145.19 Total Impact Points


  • 2011
    • Seattle Cancer Care Alliance
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2007
    • Berlin-Chemie AG
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
    • Bayer HealthCare
      Leverkusen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany