[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSEAberrant mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is common in sarcomas and other malignancies. Drug resistance and toxicities often limit benefits of systemic chemotherapy used to treat metastatic sarcomas. This large randomized placebo-controlled phase III trial evaluated the mTOR inhibitor ridaforolimus to assess maintenance of disease control in advanced sarcomas. PATIENTS AND METHODS
Patients with metastatic soft tissue or bone sarcomas who achieved objective response or stable disease with prior chemotherapy were randomly assigned to receive ridaforolimus 40 mg or placebo once per day for 5 days every week. Primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS); secondary end points included overall survival (OS), best target lesion response, safety, and tolerability.ResultsA total of 711 patients were enrolled, and 702 received blinded study drug. Ridaforolimus treatment led to a modest, although significant, improvement in PFS per independent review compared with placebo (hazard ratio [HR], 0.72; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.85; P = .001; median PFS, 17.7 v 14.6 weeks). Ridaforolimus induced a mean 1.3% decrease in target lesion size versus a 10.3% increase with placebo (P < .001). Median OS with ridaforolimus was 90.6 weeks versus 85.3 weeks with placebo (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.12; P = .46). Adverse events (AEs) more common with ridaforolimus included stomatitis, infections, fatigue, thrombocytopenia, noninfectious pneumonitis, hyperglycemia, and rash. Grade ≥ 3 AEs were more common with ridaforolimus than placebo (64.1% v 25.6%). CONCLUSION
Ridaforolimus delayed tumor progression to a small statistically significant degree in patients with metastatic sarcoma who experienced benefit with prior chemotherapy. Toxicities were observed with ridaforolimus, as expected with mTOR inhibition. These data provide a foundation on which to further improve control of sarcomas.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacokinetics and preliminary activity of TH-302, a hypoxia-activated prodrug, in combination with doxorubicin in patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma. Patients and
TH-302 was administered intravenously on days 1 and 8 and doxorubicin 75 mg/m² on day 1 (2 h after TH-302) of every 3-week cycle. TH-302 starting dose was 240 mg/m² with a classic 3 + 3 dose escalation. Pharmacokinetics were assessed on days 1 and 8 of cycle 1. Tumor assessments were performed after every second cycle.
Sixteen patients enrolled. Prophylactic growth factor support was added due to grade 4 neutropenia. The MTD was 300 mg/m². DLTs at 340 mg/m² were neutropenia-associated infection and grade 4 thrombocytopenia. Common adverse events included fatigue, nausea and skin rash. There was no evidence of pharmacokinetic interaction between TH-302 and doxorubicin. Five of 15 (33%) evaluable patients had a partial response by RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) criteria.
The hematologic toxicity of doxorubicin is increased when combined with TH-302. This can be mitigated by prophylactic growth factor support. Toxicities were manageable and there was evidence of antitumor activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TZT-1027, a novel chemotherapeutic agent, is derived from dolastatin 10, and blocks cells during G2/M-phase by interfering with microtubule assembly and stability. TZT-1027 has exhibited potential cytotoxic activity in several human cancer cell lines (in vitro) and also demonstrated antitumor activity in human xenografts (in vivo). In addition, Phase I clinical investigations suggested activity in STS (soft-tissue sarcoma).
Eligible patients were those who had histologic evidence of locally advanced or metastatic STS and who had received 1 prior treatment regimen with an anthracycline-based chemotherapy for metastatic disease. Subjects received intravenous infusions of TZT-1027 over 1 hour on Day 1 and Day 8 of each 21-day treatment course. Efficacy was evaluated per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria.
Twenty-nine patients were enrolled and 28 patients received at least 1 course of study drug and were eligible for efficacy and safety evaluation. The median age of the patients was 48 years (range, 23-73 years) and the median baseline Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status was 1 (range, 0-2). A total of 67 courses (range, 1-9 courses; median, 2 courses) of TZT-1027 were administered. No patient in the study demonstrated an objective response to treatment. Of 6 patients (21.4%) who experienced disease stabilization, 1 continued to have stable disease for 9.3 months. The median time to tumor progression was 44 days (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 43.0-54.0) and the median survival was 178 days (95% CI, 134.0-317.0). The most commonly reported toxicities were neutropenia, fatigue, and constipation.
TZT-1027 was found to be safe and well tolerated, and the hematologic toxicities observed were consistent with preclinical toxicology and Phase I study findings. No confirmed responses were seen in the current study.