[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, the use of stents to assist in the coiling and repair of wide-neck aneurysms has been shown to be highly effective; however, the effect of these stents on the RC of the parent vessel has not been quantified. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of intracranial stenting on the RC of the implanted artery using 3D datasets.
Twenty-four patients receiving FDA-approved neurovascular stents to support coil embolization of brain aneurysms were chosen for this study. The stents were located in the ICA, ACA, or MCA. We analyzed C-arm rotational angiography and contrast-enhanced cone beam CT datasets before and after stent implantation, respectively, to ascertain changes in vessel curvature. The images were reconstructed, and the vessel centerline was extracted. From the centerline, the RC was calculated.
The average implanted stent length was 25.4 ± 5.8 mm, with a pre-implantation RC of 7.1 ± 2.1 mm and a postimplantation RC of 10.7 ± 3.5 mm. This resulted in a 3.6 ± 2.7 mm change in the RC due to implantation (P < .0001), more than a 50% increase from the pre-implantation value. There was no difference in the change of RC for the different locations studied. The change in RC was not impacted by the extent of coil packing within the aneurysm.
The implantation of neurovascular stents can be shown to have a large impact on the RC of the vessel. This will lead to a change in the local hemodynamics and flow pattern within the aneurysm.
Preview · Article · Apr 2012 · American Journal of Neuroradiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recanalization is observed in 20-40% of endovascularly treated intracranial aneurysms. To further reduce the recanalization and expand endovascular treatment, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of closed-cell SACE.
Between 2007 and 2010, 147 consecutive patients (110 women; mean age, 54 years) presenting at 2 centers with 161 wide-neck ruptured and unruptured aneurysms were treated by using SACE. Inclusion criteria were wide-neck aneurysms (>4 mm or a dome/neck ratio ≤2). Clinical outcomes were assessed by the mRS score at baseline, discharge, and follow-up. Aneurysm occlusion was assessed on angiograms by using the RS immediately after SACE and at follow-up.
Eighteen aneurysms (11%) were treated following rupture. Procedure-related mortality and permanent neurologic deficits occurred in 2 (1.4%) and 5 patients (3.4%), respectively. In total, 7 patients (4.8%) died, including 2 with reruptures. Of the 140 surviving patients, 113 (80.7%) patients with 120 aneurysms were available for follow-up neurologic examination at a mean of 11.8 months. An increase in mRS score from admission to follow-up by 1, 2, or 3 points was seen in 7 (6.9%), 1 (1%), and 2 (2%) patients, respectively. Follow-up angiography was performed in 120 aneurysms at a mean of 11.9 months. Recanalization occurred in 12 aneurysms (10%), requiring retreatment in 7 (5.8%). Moderate in-stent stenosis was seen in 1 (0.8%), which remained asymptomatic.
This series adds to the evidence demonstrating the safety and effectiveness of SACE in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. However, SACE of ruptured aneurysms and premature termination of antiplatelet treatment are associated with increased morbidity and mortality.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · American Journal of Neuroradiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mechanical behavior of the thromboembolus is one of the key factors that determine the efficacy of thrombectomy devices for revascularization in AIS. We characterized the mechanical properties and composition of thromboemboli from clinical cases and compared them with commonly used EAs.
Thromboemboli were obtained from patients with AIS by using aspiration devices and from carotid atherosclerotic plaques harvested during endarterectomy. In the laboratory, common EAs were created by varying blood donor species (human, porcine, and bovine), thrombin concentration, and presence of barium sulfate. Stiffness and elasticity of the specimens were measured with DMA. Scanning electron microscopy and histology were used to investigate the ultrastructure and composition of all specimens.
Red thromboemboli from patients composed mainly of fibrin and erythrocytes were much softer than the calcified and cholesterol-rich material. Of the EAs created in the laboratory, those made from bovine blood presented the highest stiffness that was independent of thrombin concentration. Addition of thrombin increased the stiffness and elasticity of human and porcine EAs (P < .05). The presence of barium sulfate significantly reduced the elasticity of all EAs (P < .05).
Endovascular device testing and development requires realistic EAs. The stiffness and elasticity of the cerebral thromboemboli analyzed in this study were closely matched by recalcified porcine EAs and thrombin-induced human EAs. Stiffness of the thrombus extracted from carotid endarterectomy specimens was similar with that of the thrombin-induced bovine and porcine EAs.
No preview · Article · May 2011 · American Journal of Neuroradiology