[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is no parenteral formulation of the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir, the most widely used anti-influenza virus drug. Oseltamivir resistance is an increasing problem. Zanamivir is effective against the most prevalent oseltamivir-resistant influenza viruses. A parenteral formulation of zanamivir is in development for the treatment of severe influenza. It is not known if there is any pharmacokinetic interaction between the two drugs. Sixteen healthy Thai adult volunteers were studied in an open-label, four-period, randomized two-sequence crossover pharmacokinetic study in which zanamivir was given by constant-rate infusion or slow intravenous injection either alone or together with oral oseltamivir. Plasma concentration profiles of oseltamivir, the active metabolite oseltamivir carboxylate, and zanamivir were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry. Both drugs were well tolerated alone and in combination. The maximum plasma concentrations and the areas under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUC) of oseltamivir and oseltamivir carboxylate were not significantly different when oseltamivir was given separately or together with zanamivir. Maximum plasma concentrations of zanamivir were 10% (95% confidence interval, 7 to 12%) higher when zanamivir was infused concurrently with oral oseltamivir than with infusions before or after oral oseltamivir. The plasma zanamivir total AUC was positively correlated with the total oseltamivir carboxylate AUC (Pearson's correlation coefficient [r(P)] = 0.720, P = 0.002, n = 16) but not with the oseltamivir AUC (r(p) = 0.121, n = 16). There is no clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction between oseltamivir and zanamivir.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An assay for the analysis for the quantification of the anti-influenza drug peramivir in human plasma using high-throughput zwitterionic (ZIC) hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) solid-phase extraction (SPE) in a 96-wellplate format and liquid chromatography coupled to positive tandem mass spectroscopy has been developed and validated. The ZIC-HILIC SPE efficiently removed sources of interference present in the supernatant after protein precipitation of plasma proteins. The main advantage of the ZIC-HILIC SPE sample preparation step was that it allowed load and elution conditions to be optimised to extract only peramivir and minimize co-extraction of lipophilic phospholipids. The method was validated according to published US Food and Drugs Administration guidelines and showed excellent performance. The assay was validated over two calibration ranges (0.952-500 and 50-50,000 ng/mL) to support analysis of peramivir after intra-venous administration. The lower limit of quantification for peramivir in plasma was 1 ng/mL and the upper limit of quantification was 50,000 ng/mL. The within-day and between-day precisions expressed as RSD, were lower than 8% at all tested quality control concentrations and below 11% at the lower limit of quantification. Validation of over-curve samples ensured that it would be possible with dilution if samples went outside the calibration range.
No preview · Article · Dec 2008 · Journal of Chromatography A