[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-tuberculosis drug induced hepatotoxicity (ATDH) is a major adverse drug reaction associated for anti-tuberculosis therapy. The glutathione S-transferases (GST) plays a crucial role in the detoxification of hepatotoxic metabolites of anti-tuberculosis drugs.An association between GSTM1/GSTT1 null mutations and increased risk of ATDH has been demonstrated in adults. Given the ethnic differences and developmental changes, our study aims to investigate the potential impacts of GSTM1/GSTT1genotypes on the development of ATDH in Han Chinese children treated with anti-tuberculosis therapy.
Children receiving anti-tuberculosis therapy with or without evidence of ATDH were considered as the cases or controls, respectively. The GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotyping were performed using the polymerase chain reaction.
One hundred sixty-three children (20 cases and 143 controls) with a mean age of 4.7 years (range: 2 months-14.1 years) were included. For the GSTM1, 14 (70.0%) cases and 96 (67.1%) controls had homozygous null mutations. For the GSTT1, 13 (65.0%) cases and 97 (67.8%) controls had homozygous null mutations. Neither the GSTM1, nor the GSTT1 polymorphism was significantly correlated with the occurrence of ATHD.
Ourresults did not support the GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms as the predictors of ADTH in Chinese Han children treated with anti-tuberculosis drugs. An age-related association between pharmacogenetics and ATHD need to be confirmed in the further study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-10, which are produced by Th2 cells, serve as anti-inflammatory cytokines in the immune responses to tuberculosis (TB). In order to investigate the association between susceptibility to TB and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the IL-4 and IL-10 genes, a case-control study including 346 TB patients and 374 healthy controls was performed in Chinese Han children in North China. Though no significant differences in the allelic and genotypic distributions of SNPs of these two genes were observed between control group and TB group, rs2243268-A and rs2243274-G of the IL-4 gene were associated with reduced risk of developing extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) (Prs2243268 = 0.005 and Prs2243274 = 0.004) and severe TB (Prs2243268 = 0.003 and Prs2243274 = 0.003). The haplotype comprising rs2243268-A and rs2243274-G was found to be a resistance factor against EPTB and severe TB. In addition, after stimulation with inactivated H37Rv, blood samples of the rs2243268 AA+AC carriers showed significantly reduced IL-10 production (P = 0.045) compared to the CC carriers. In conclusion, rs2243268-A and rs2243274-G of the IL-4 gene were found to confer resistance to EPTB and severe TB in Chinese Han children.
No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
IL-6 is a proinflammatory cytokine that plays a critical role in host defense against tuberculosis (TB). Genetic polymorphisms of IL-6 and its receptor IL-6R had been discussed in adult TB recently. However, their role in pediatric TB is still unclear. Due to the obvious differences in TB pathophysiology in children, which may also reflect differences in genetic background, further association studies in pediatric populations are needed.
A case-control study was carried out in a Chinese pediatric population including 353 TB patients and 400 healthy controls. Tag-SNPs of IL-6 and IL-6R genes were selected by Haploview software, genotyped using MassArray, and analyzed statistically.
One polymorphism, rs2229238, in the 3'UTR region of IL-6R was observed to be associated with increased resistance to TB (adjusted P = 0.03). The rs2229238 T allele contributed to a reduced risk to TB in recessive heritable model (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.35-0.78).
By tag-SNP genotyping based case-control study, we identified a genetic polymorphism in the IL-6R 3'UTR that regulates host resistance to pediatric TB in a Chinese population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A susceptibility locus for tuberculosis, a re-emerging infectious disease throughout the world, was previously discovered to exist on chromosome 11p15. IFITM3 gene encoding for interferon inducible transmembrane protein 3, is located at 11p15. It acts as an effector molecule for interferon-gamma, which is essential for anti-tuberculosis immune response. In order to investigate the association between susceptibility to TB and genetic polymorphisms of the IFITM3 core promoter, a case-control study including 368 TB patients and 794 healthy controls was performed in Han Chinese children in northern China. The rs3888188 polymorphism showed significant association with susceptibility to TB. The rs3888188 G allele, acting recessively, was more frequent in TB patients (95% confidence interval: 1.08-1.56, Bonferroni P-value: 0.039). We further assessed the effect of rs3888188 polymorphism on IFITM3 transcription in vitro. As based on luciferase promoter assays, the promoter activity of haplotypes with rs3888188 G allele was lower than that of haplotypes with rs3888188 T allele. Moreover, peripheral-blood mononuclear cells carrying rs3888188 GG genotype showed a reduced IFITM3 mRNA level compared to cells carrying TT or GT genotype. In conclusion, rs3888188, a functional promoter polymorphism of IFITM3, was identified to influence the risk for pediatric TB in Han Chinese population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Host genetic factors play a major role in determining differential susceptibility to human tuberculosis (TB), a re-emerging infectious disease throughout the world. Genetic variations in the IFNG gene coding for interferon gamma (IFN-γ), have been identified in TB patients. To investigate the association of the IFNG polymorphisms with TB susceptibility in Chinese pediatric population. A case-control study of 189 TB patients and 164 controls was performed using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from leukocytes in peripheral blood. Three SNPs of IFNG, including -1616C/T (rs2069705), +874A/T (rs2430561), and +3234C/T (rs2069718), were selected for genotyping and analysis. The +874A and +3234C alleles were more frequent among TB patients (P = 0.108 and P = 0.088), especially in females (both P = 0.029), although this difference was not significant since Bonferroni corrected significance threshold was 0.025 (two of three SNPs were found to be in linkage disequilibrium). More pronounced differences for the +874 and +3234 polymorphisms were found under the genotype comparison between TB cases and controls in the total population [P = 0.026 (borderline non-significance) and P = 0.020, respectively], and in the female subgroup (P = 0.020 and P = 0.020). The dominant model of inheritance was shown to be significant for +874A and +3234C alleles (both P = 0.019) in the female subgroup. The +874A and +3234C alleles were more frequently found in extrapulmonary TB patients than in controls (P = 0.039). Haplotype analysis carried out on these three SNPs showed the TTT haplotype to be more frequent in controls than in TB cases, and this difference showed a strong significance (P = 0.005). The +874A and +3234C alleles may be related to TB susceptibility in the female subgroup in the Chinese pediatric population of North China. The higher rate of +874A (known to correlate with lower IFN-γ expression) in the extrapulmonary TB subgroup suggests a sufficient IFN-γ expression to be not only an important factor for the onset of TB disease but also for limiting its dissemination to lungs.
No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Molecular Biology Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Genetic factors are involved in the etiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Recently, ALOX5 has been identified as a candidate gene for tuberculosis (TB) susceptibility. We investigated whether an association between ALOX5 and TB exists in a Chinese pediatric population from northern China.
We conducted a case-control study comprising 488 individuals aged 2 months to 17 years by genotyping 18 tag-single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the ALOX5 gene. The tag-SNPs were selected from the international HapMap project. An Illumina BeadXpress Scanner was utilized for genotyping, supported by the high-density BeadArray technology in combination with an allele-specific extension, adapter ligation, and amplification assay. Statistical analyses were performed to determine correlations between genetic variation and disease.
Our study is the first to show that ALOX5 is associated with susceptibility to pediatric TB in a subset of children in northern China. The rs2115819 T allele of ALOX5 presents a risk factor for childhood TB disease.
No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Our aim was to describe the patient characteristics, clinical-epidemiological profile, and treatment outcome of childhood tuberculosis (TB).
A retrospective, descriptive study was undertaken of 1212 children aged 0 to 18 years admitted to Beijing Children's Hospital for the treatment of TB from January 2002 to December 2010. Statistical significance of category variables was evaluated by using Fisher's exact test.
Fifty-four percent of patients had extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), 38.8% had tuberculous meningitis, and 31.3% had disseminated TB. The last 2 types were defined as severe TB. Most patients with TB (81.6%) were cured or completed treatment. There were more patients aged <5 years and from rural areas with EPTB than with pulmonary tuberculosis. More severe cases of TB were found in patients aged <1 year than other less severe types of TB. Patients with no bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination and a contact history at home had a significantly risk of contracting severe TB. Children aged <1 year and those with severe TB were more likely to have poor treatment outcomes (failed to improve or died). Among those with EPTB, only 61.3% and 61.1% had positive results on the purified protein derivative tuberculin skin test and chest radiograph, respectively.
In this referral hospital setting, more pediatric EPTB and severe TB patients were found among children aged <1 year. Age <1 year and having severe TB were risk factors for treatment failure. Thus, prevention and health care in pediatric TB should focus on both EPTB and severe TB.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) and cytochrome P450 2EI (CYP2E1) play a crucial role in the drug metabolic process. The aim of this study was to understand the genotype and phenotype polymorphisms of NAT2 and CYP2E1 in the Han Chinese pediatric population in order to provide a theoretical basis for individualized drug treatment.
A total of 341 (211 males and 130 females) randomly sampled Han Chinese children, aged from 2 months to 14 years, were enrolled in this study. Genotyping was carried out by PCR method, and metabolic phenotypes were identified.
In this study population, wild genotype was found as a major genotype in seven SNPs of NAT2, rs1801279, rs1041983, rs1801280, rs1799929, rs1799930, rs1208 and rs1799931. The frequency of NAT2 fast metabolism was highest (61.3%), followed by middle to slow metabolism (34.1%). Wild genotype also predominated in the four SNPs of CYP2E1 (rs2031920, rs3813867, rs6413432 and rs72559720) named as CYP2E1*5, *6 and *2, with a frequency of 61.3%, 60.1% and 99.4% respectively. As the relationship between CYP2E1 genotype and phenotype was unknown, phenotyping of CYP2E1 was not done.
The important SNPs of NAT2 and CYP2E1 are predominantly wild genotype in the Han Chinese pediatric population. Fast metabolic phenotype predominates in important SNPs of NAT2.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB) bacilli ingested by macrophages evade host immune responses by multiple mechanisms including the inhibition of apoptosis. As the cytochrome-P-450 system (CYP) contributes to apoptosis it has been suggested that genetic variation in CYP may be associated with susceptibility to TB infection. This study was carried out to evaluate cytochrome P-450 polymorphisms in Chinese Han children and to investigate the effect of these polymorphisms in paediatric TB.
Frequencies for the CYP2C19, CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and CYP2E1 mutated alleles and genotypes were compared between 142 Chinese paediatric TB patients and 150 non-infected controls by real time PCR genotyping on peripheral leukocyte DNA.
CYP2C19 (636 G>A, rs4986893) A allele and AG genotype were associated with decreased susceptibility to TB (P = 0.006, OR= 0.33, 95% CI: 0.15-0.76; and P = 0.005, OR =0.31, 95% CI: 0.14-0.72 respectively), as were the CYP3A5 (6986A>G, rs776746) G allele and particularly homozygous GG (recessive mode) genotype (P = 0.004, OR=0.61, 95% CI: 0.43-0.85; and P=0.002, OR=0.47, 95% CI: 0.29-0.76).
The data suggested that CYP2C19 and CYP3A5 polymorphisms affect susceptibility to paediatric TB. Further studies are indicated to confirm and elucidate these observations.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · The Indian Journal of Medical Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Very few researchers have studied the changes in peripheral lymphocyte patterns in adult tuberculosis (TB) and even less researches have been conducted in pediatric TB. In this study, we obtained blood samples from 114 Chinese pediatric TB patients and 116 matched controls to study the association of phenotypic subsets of peripheral lymphocytes with different clinical phenotypes of TB.
The subjects were classified as the control group and the TB patients group which were further divided into a pulmonary TB group and an extra-pulmonary TB group (more serious than the former). The distribution of lymphocyte subpopulations, including T lymphocytes, CD4(+) T lymphocytes, CD8(+) T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, and natural killer (NK) cells, were quantitatively analyzed by flow cytometry.
Compared to the healthy controls, TB infection was associated with significantly higher B cell (P < 0.0001), and lower T cell (P = 0.029) and NK cell (P < 0.0001) percentages. Compared to pulmonary TB patients, extra-pulmonary TB was associated with relatively higher B cell (P = 0.073), and lower T cell percentages (P = 0.021), higher purified protein derivative (PPD) negative rate (P = 0.061), and poorer PPD response (P = 0.010). Most pulmonary TB cases were primary pulmonary TB (89.1%), and most extra-pulmonary TB cases had TB meningitis (72.1%).
This study demonstrates changes in the lymhocyte distribution in children suffering from different clinical phenotypes of TB; such as primary pulmonary TB, and TB meningitis. These patterns may have significance in understanding the pathogenesis and prognostic markers of the disease, and for developing immunomodulatory modalities of therapy.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Chinese medical journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) have been widely used for the diagnosis of latent and active tuberculosis in adults, a relative lack of validation studies in children has led to caution in their clinical interpretation. This meta-analysis systematically evaluated two IGRAs (ELISA and ELISPOT) and the tuberculin skin test (TST). We searched databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Ovid) between January 2000 and January 2011 using search terms of latent tuberculosis infection or tuberculosis and interferon gamma release assay, or T-SPOT.TB test, or QuantiFERON-TB Gold, or ESAT-6, or CFP-10, and child, or childhood, or pediatrics. We also collected data by performing a manual search of references from relevant articles and communicating with selected authors. The meta-analysis was conducted with random effects models to account for heterogeneity between selected studies. The sensitivities of all three tests in active tuberculosis were similar. The pooled sensitivity was 70% for ELISA studies, 62% for ELISPOT studies and 71% for TST. Calculated sensitivities for IGRAs and the TST differ in culture-confirmed tuberculosis [ELISA (85%) vs. ELISPOT (76%) vs. TST (85%)] and clinical diagnosed cases [ELISA (64%) vs. ELISPOT (58%) vs. TST (66%)]. The pooled specificity was 100% for ELISA and 90% for ELISPOT, but was much lower for TST [56% in all included studies and 49% in children with bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination]. The agreement between the TST and IGRAs in non-BCG-vaccinated children is higher than that in BCG-vaccinated children. In the diagnosis of active tuberculosis in children, the TST and IGRAs have similar sensitivity. By contrast, the specificity of IGRAs is far greater than the TST, particularly in children with previous BCG vaccination.
Preview · Article · Nov 2011 · FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic factors of human susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) are multiple and their effect may be ethnic- and age-dependent. TNFR2 encoded by the TNFRSF1B gene is one of the important TNF-α receptors; its polymorphisms were previously suggested as potential markers of host susceptibility to TB. Here, genotyping of three SNPs in TNFRSF1B 3'UTR (rs1061624, rs5030792, rs3397) was performed in Han Chinese pediatric population (229 TB patients and 233 control subjects). rs5030792 was found homozygous (TT genotype) in all studied individuals. The rs3397-T allele was almost equally represented in both gender groups in this study; in particular, it was detected in 33.9% and 35.2% in female cases and controls, respectively (P=0.8). This latter result differs strikingly from an African study where rs3397-T was found in only 12.8 and 16.2% of Ghanaian female cases and controls, respectively (P=0.007 [Möller et al., 2010. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care. Med. 181, 388-393]). In contrast, rs1061624-A allele, acting recessively, was found to be a possible risk factor for clinical TB in females (P=0.03). The rs1061624 heterozygotes were overdominant in controls versus patients (P=0.015) that warrants further study of their hypothetical advantage in TB. Neither of the common haplotypes was associated with susceptibility to TB. Compared to the published contrasting data on African (7-15%) and European (57%) populations, GTT haplotype was found in an intermediate frequency (26%). Further studies on both adult and pediatric populations in ethnically diverse settings are needed to elucidate the functionality of these 3'UTR SNPs of the TNFR2 gene.
No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 CCL2/MCP-1 is among the key signaling molecules of innate immunity; in particular, it is involved in recruitment of mononuclear and other cells in response to infection, including tuberculosis (TB) and is essential for granuloma formation.
We identified a tag SNP for the CCL2/MCP-1 gene (rs4586 C/T). In order to understand whether this SNP may serve to evaluate the contribution of the CCL2 gene to the expression of TB disease, we further analysed distribution of its alleles and genotypes in 301 TB cases versus 338 non-infected controls (all BCG vaccinated) representing a high-risk pediatric population of North China. In the male TB subgroup, the C allele was identified in a higher rate (P = 0.045), and, acting dominantly, was found to be a risk factor for clinical TB (P = 0.029). Homozygous TT genotype was significantly associated with lower CSF mononuclear leukocyte (ML) counts in patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) (P = 0.001).
The present study found an association of the CCL2 tag SNP rs4586 C allele and pediatric TB disease in males, suggesting that gender may affect the susceptibility to TB even in children. The association of homozygous TT genotype with decreased CSF mononuclear leukocyte (ML) count not only suggests a clinical significance of this SNP, but indicates its potential to assist in the clinical assessment of suspected TBM, where delay is critical and diagnosis is difficult.