[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Assays for quantification, and methods for removal, of anti-A and anti-B antibodies are the key for the success of ABO incompatible
organ transplantation programs. In order to produce tools that can be used as substrates in tests for anti-A/anti-B quantification
and specificity determination or as affinity matrices in extracorporeal immunoadsorption (IA) columns, we engineered Chinese
hamster ovary (CHO) cells secreting mucin-type fusion proteins carrying blood group A or B determinants on defined O-glycan core saccharide chains. Besides the P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1/mouse immunoglobulin G2b (PSGL-1/mIgG2b) cDNA, CHO cells were transfected with plasmids encoding core 2 (β1,6GlcNAc-T1) or core 3 (β1,3GlcNAc-T6 and β1,3Gal-T5)
enzymes together with α1,2Fuc-T1 or α1,2Fuc-T2 and the A or B gene-encoded α1,3GalNAcT or α1,3Gal-T, respectively. Selected clones with the correct glycophenotype were expanded and cultured
in shaker flasks and Wave bioreactors. Western blotting was used to characterize purified fusion protein and liquid chromatography–mass
spectrometry was used to characterize the released O-glycans. Clones producing PSGL-1/mIgG2b carrying O-glycans with A and B determinants on type 1 (Galβ3GlcNAc), type 2 (Galβ4GlcNAc) and type 3 (Galβ3GalNAcα) outer core saccharide
chains were established. The conversion of CHO cells from exclusive inner core 1 (Galβ3GalNAc) to core 3 (GlcNAcβ3GalNAc)
O-glycan producers was almost complete, whereas conversion to inner core 2 (GlcNAcβ6GalNAc) O-glycans was incomplete as was the α2-fucosylation of the core 1 chain. Sialylation may prevent these biosynthetic steps.
The clinical utility of the blood group A and B substituted mucin-type fusion proteins as substrates in enzyme-linked immunosorbent
assay or as affinity matrices in IA columns is explored.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Targeting antigens to antigen-presenting cells (APC) improve their immunogenicity and capacity to induce Th1 responses and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). We have generated a mucin-type immunoglobulin fusion protein (PSGL-1/mIgG2b), which upon expression in the yeast Pichia pastoris became multivalently substituted with O-linked oligomannose structures and bound the macrophage mannose receptor (MMR) and dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) with high affinity in vitro. Here, its effects on the humoral and cellular anti-ovalbumin (OVA) responses in C57BL/6 mice are presented.
OVA antibody class and subclass responses were determined by ELISA, the generation of anti-OVA CTLs was assessed in 51Cr release assays using in vitro-stimulated immune spleen cells from the different groups of mice as effector cells and OVA peptide-fed RMA-S cells as targets, and evaluation of the type of Th cell response was done by IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5 ELISpot assays.
Immunizations with the OVA − mannosylated PSGL-1/mIgG2b conjugate, especially when combined with the AbISCO®-100 adjuvant, lead to faster, stronger and broader (with regard to IgG subclass) OVA IgG responses, a stronger OVA-specific CTL response and stronger Th1 and Th2 responses than if OVA was used alone or together with AbISCO®-100. Also non-covalent mixing of mannosylated PSGL-1/mIgG2b, OVA and AbISCO®-100 lead to relatively stronger humoral and cellular responses. The O-glycan oligomannoses were necessary because PSGL-1/mIgG2b with mono- and disialyl core 1 structures did not have this effect.
Mannosylated mucin-type fusion proteins can be used as versatile APC-targeting molecules for vaccines and as such enhance both humoral and cellular immune responses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mannose-binding proteins like the macrophage mannose receptor (MR), the dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) play crucial roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. Immunoglobulin fusion proteins of the P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1/mIgG(2b)) carrying mostly O-glycans and, as a control, the α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP/mIgG(2b)) carrying mainly N-linked glycans were stably expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Pichia pastoris-produced PSGL-1/mIgG(2b) was shown to carry O-glycans that mediated strong binding to mannose-specific lectins in a lectin array and were susceptible to cleavage by α-mannosidases including an α1,2- but not an α1,6-mannosidase. Electrospray ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of O-glycans containing up to nine hexoses with the penta- and hexasaccharides being the predominant ones. α1,2- and α1,3-linked, but not α1,6-linked, mannose residues were detected by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy confirming the results of the mannosidase cleavage. The apparent equilibrium dissociation constants for binding of PNGase F-treated mannosylated PSGL-1/mIgG(2b) to MR, DC-SIGN and MBL were shown by surface plasmon resonance to be 126, 56 and 16 nM, respectively. In conclusion, PSGL-1/mIgG(2b) expressed in P. pastoris carried O-glycans mainly comprised of α-linked mannoses and with up to nine residues. It bound mannose-specific receptors with high apparent affinity and may become a potent targeting molecule for these receptors in vivo.