[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: More than a decade after West Nile virus (WNV) entered North America, and despite a significant increase in reported cases during the 2012 and 2013 seasons, no treatment or vaccine for humans is available. Although antiviral T cells contribute to the control of WNV, little is known about their regulation during acute infection. We analyzed the expression of Tim-3 and PD-1, two recently identified T cell negative immune checkpoint receptors, over the course of WNV infection. Symptomatic WNV+ donors exhibited higher frequencies of Tim-3+ cells than asymptomatic subjects within naïve/early differentiated CD28+/-CD57-CD4+ and differentiated CD28-CD57-CD8+ T cells. Our study links Tim-3-expression on T cells during acute WNV infection with the development of symptomatic disease, suggesting Tim-3 and its ligands could be targeted therapeutically to alter anti-WNV immunity and improve disease outcome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small, double membrane vesicles derived from leukocytes, platelets and cells of other tissues under physiological or pathological conditions. Generation of EVs in stored blood is thought to be associated with adverse effects and potentially immunosuppression in blood transfusion recipients. We measured the quantity and cells of origin for EVs isolated from stored red blood cell units and tested whether they had any effects on T cell mediated immune responses. Mixing peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with EVs resulted in secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and increased survival of unstimulated PBMCs. EVs augmented mitogen-induced CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell proliferation in an antigen presenting cell (APC)-dependent manner. We demonstrated that EVs interacted primarily with monocytes and induced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. We also showed that the exosome fraction of EVs and not larger microvesicles was responsible for induction of TNF-α production by monocytes. Furthermore, blockade of CD40 or CD40L accessory molecules largely neutralized the EV augmentation of T cell responses, implying a role for cell-cell interaction between T cells and EV-activated monocytes. Contrary to our hypothesis, the data demonstrate that EVs isolated from RBC units increase the potency of APCs and boost mitogen-driven T cell proliferative responses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Blood and plasma donor screening for hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA, HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), and antibodies to surface (anti-HBs) and core (anti-HBc) antigens allows identification of individuals who acquired HBV despite previous HBV vaccination.
Of 14 HBV acute infection donor panels (HBV-DNA-positive/anti-HBc-negative), 6 donors were previously vaccinated (anti-HBs+). We investigated the differences in viral kinetics and immune responses in vaccinated and nonvaccinated individuals. Serial specimens were characterized for HBV DNA and serological markers and 39 cytokines.
The rate of viral load increase was blunted, and virus was cleared more rapidly in vaccinated individuals (P = .004). In unvaccinated individuals, induced protein 10 (IP-10), interleukin 10 (IL-10), macrophage inflammatory protein 1β (MIP-1β), and soluble interleukin 2Rα (sIL-2Rα) levels were commonly elevated at the time of peak viremia. In contrast, vaccinated individuals had earlier peaks in IL-10 and IP-10 responses that occurred at much lower viral loads and coincided with anamnestic anti-hepatitis B surface (HBs) responses and clearance of viremia.
There is earlier engagement of innate and adaptive immunity in infected subjects with previous vaccination, possibly explaining suppressed viremia in vaccine breakthrough infections. Although breakthrough infections occur in partially protected vaccine recipients, vaccination likely contributes to early control of replication, limiting immune activation and preventing development of clinically significant acute and chronic HBV infection.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: West Nile virus (WNV) infection is asymptomatic in most individuals, with a minority developing symptoms ranging from WNV fever to serious neuroinvasive disease. This study investigated the impact of host HLA on the outcome of WNV disease.
A cohort of 210 non-Hispanic mostly white WNV(+) subjects from Canada and the U.S. were typed for HLA-A, B, C, DP, DQ, and DR. The study subjects were divided into three WNV infection outcome groups: asymptomatic (AS), symptomatic (S), and neuroinvasive disease (ND). Allele frequency distribution was compared pair-wise between the AS, S, and ND groups using χ2 and Fisher's exact tests and P values were corrected for multiple comparisons (Pc). Allele frequencies were compared between the groups and the North American population (NA) used as a control group. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the potential synergistic effect of age and HLA allele phenotype on disease outcome.
The alleles HLA-A*68, C*08 and DQB*05 were more frequently associated with severe outcomes (ND vs. AS, P(A*68) = 0.013/Pc = 0.26, P(C*08) = 0.0075/Pc = 0.064, and P(DQB1*05) = 0.029/Pc = 0.68), However the apparent DQB1*05 association was driven by age. The alleles HLA-B*40 and C*03 were more frequently associated with asymptomatic outcome (AS vs. S, P(B*40) = 0.021/Pc = 0.58 and AS vs. ND P(C*03) = 0.039/Pc = 0.64) and their frequencies were lower within WNV(+) subjects with neuroinvasive disease than within the North American population (NA vs. S, P(B*40) = 0.029 and NA vs. ND, P(C*03) = 0.032).
Host HLA may be associated with the outcome of WNV disease; HLA-A*68 and C*08 might function as "susceptible" alleles, whereas HLA-B*40 and C*03 might function as "protective" alleles.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV causes inflammation that can be at least partially corrected by HAART. To determine the qualitative and quantitative nature of cytokine perturbation, we compared cytokine patterns in three HIV clinical groups, including HAART responders (HAART), untreated HIV noncontrollers, and HIV-uninfected (NEG).
Multiplex assays were used to measure 32 cytokines in a cross-sectional study of participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Participants from three groups were included: HAART (n = 17), noncontrollers (n = 14), and HIV NEG (n = 17).
Several cytokines and chemokines showed significant differences between noncontrollers and NEG participants, including elevated interferon gamma-induced 10 (IP-10) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and decreased interleukin-12(p40) [IL-12(p40)], IL-15, and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) in noncontroller participants. Biomarker levels among HAART women more closely resembled the NEG, with the exception of TNF-α and FGF-2. Secondary analyses of the combined HAART and noncontroller groups revealed that IP-10 showed a strong, positive correlation with viral load and negative correlation with CD4(+) T-cell counts. The growth factors vascular endothelial growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and FGF-2 all showed a positive correlation with increased CD4(+) T-cell counts.
Untreated, progressive HIV infection was associated with decreased serum levels of cytokines important in T-cell homeostasis (IL-15) and T-cell phenotype determination (IL-12), and increased levels of innate inflammatory mediators such as IP-10 and TNF-α. HAART was associated with cytokine profiles that more closely resembled those of HIV-uninfected women. The distinctive pattern of cytokine levels in the three study groups may provide insights into HIV pathogenesis, and responses to therapy.
Full-text · Article · May 2011 · AIDS (London, England)