- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose Anemia is associated with poor quality of life in dialysis patients. However, data on this association are scarce on transplant patients. We aimed to find the frequency of anemia, and the effect of anemia on the quality-of-life parameters in patients who have undergone kidney transplantation. Methods Anemia was defined by a hemoglobin (Hgb) level of <12 g/dL and severe anemia by a Hgb level of <10 g/dL. All patients were evaluated with the Kidney Disease Quality of Life (KDQOL-SF) scale forms. Results Two hundred patients (128 male and 72 female; mean age, 39.2 ± 11.5 years) were examined. Anemia was found in 19% and severe anemia was found in 4.5% of all patients. Low glomerular filtration rate, young age, and female gender were demographic parameters associated with anemia. Parathormone levels were higher in the anemic group. The use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors was significantly higher in the anemic group. In addition, patients with anemia had a lower KDQOL-SF mental health component score than that of the patients without anemia. Conclusions Anemia was related to the degree of renal function in posttransplant patients. Anemia had an important influence on mental health in renal transplant patients.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Data on the long-term mortality and morbidity of living kidney donors are scarce. In the general population, coronary artery calcification (CAC) and progression of CAC are predictors of future cardiac risk. We conducted a study to determine the progression of CAC in renal transplant donors. Methods: We used multidetector computed tomography to examine CAC in 75 former renal transplant donors. A baseline and a follow-up scan were performed and changes in CAC scores were evaluated in each subject individually to calculate the incidence of CAC progression. Results: Baseline CAC prevalence was 16% and the mean CAC score was 5.3 ± 25.8. At the follow-up scan that was performed after an average of 4.8 ± 0.3 years, CAC prevalence increased to 72% and the mean CAC score to 12.5 ± 23.4. Progression of the individual CAC score was found between 18.7 and 26.7%, depending on the method used to define progression. In patients with baseline CAC, the mean annualized rate of CAC progression was 2.1. Presence of hypertension, high systolic blood pressure and an increase in BMI were the determinants of CAC progression. Conclusions: The rate of CAC progression does not seem to be high in carefully selected donors.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome, which is closely related to insulin resistance, is highly prevalent in renal transplant recipients. We aimed to investigate prevalence, risk factors, and progression of metabolic syndrome in renal transplant recipients. One hundred fifty-eight renal transplant recipients who had been on transplantation for more than 1 year and 79 age-sex matched healthy controls were included in the cross-sectional phase of the study. We measured baseline characteristics, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and lipid profiles and we defined metabolic syndrome using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. One hundred twenty-four renal transplant recipients were eligible for the second evaluation after 22.9 ± 3.8 months. Metabolic syndrome prevalence and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance levels were evaluated during the follow-up period. Overall, metabolic syndrome was present in 34.2% of the patients and 12.7% of the controls at the cross-sectional phase of the study (P = .000). Only the hypertension component of metabolic syndrome was significantly increased in patients compared to controls (P = .000). Pretransplantation weight and body mass index were significantly higher in patients who had metabolic syndrome (P = .000). During the follow-up period, prevalence of metabolic syndrome did not change (P = .510); however, body mass index and blood pressure increased and the high density lipoprotein cholesterol component of metabolic syndrome decreased (P = .001). We did not find any significant difference in glomerular filtration rate change among patients with and without metabolic syndrome (-2.2 ± 11.36 vs -6.14 ± 13.19; P = .091). Glucose metabolism parameters including hemoglobin A1c, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance were disturbed in patients with metabolic syndrome (P = .000, P = .001, P = .002, respectively). Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in renal transplant recipients and closely associated with insulin resistance. The prominent criterion of metabolic syndrome in patients seems to be hypertension, especially high systolic blood pressure. The identification of metabolic syndrome as a risk factor may yield new treatment modalities to prevent it.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute renal failure following angiography is usually due to radiocontrast nephropathy; however, cholesterol embolism should be kept in mind when making the differential diagnosis. Cholesterol embolism is a multisystem disease, usually seen in elderly men who have severe atherosclerosis. In this case report, we describe a patient with cholesterol embolism who had a typical clinical history of progressive renal failure. We hope that this case report will emphasize the importance of this overlooked syndrome.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared the tolerability and efficacy of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) versus mycophenolate sodium (MPS) among renal transplant recipients on tacrolimus-based immunosuppression. The 105 patients who underwent kidney transplantation between January 2002 and March 2008 and were treated with steroid, tacrolimus, and a mycophenolic acid compound were enrolled in the study. From patient files we collected on demographics data, donors, immunosuppressive drug doses, biochemical and hematologic parameters, gastrointestinal and hematologic side effects, and kidney function. Fifty-six patients were prescribed MMF and 49 of them were taking MPS. Demographic parameters and pretransplantation dialysis duration were similar between the 2 groups. After the third month, the MPS dose was higher than that of MMF. There were no clinically important differences between the 2 groups, regarding other immunosuppressive drug doses. Gastrointestinal side effects were similar: 42.4% in the MMF versus 44.8% in the MPS group (P = .846). Six patients in the MMF group and 1 patient in the MPS group underwent a switch of the mycophenolic acid therapy due to severe gastrointestinal side effects (P = .183). Biopsy-proven acute rejection was reported in 6 patients on MMF and 7 patients on MPS therapy (P = .768). The log-rank test evaluating a 50% reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) showed no significant difference between the 2 groups (P = .719). No deaths were recorded during the study period; there was only 1 graft loss, which occurred in the MMF group. We did not observe a significant difference in tolerability and efficacy between the 2 widely used mycophenolic acid derivatives. Economic considerations can be an important factor when choosing the drug.