[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several recent reports have demonstrated that tyrosine (Y)-methionine (M)-aspartic acid (D)-aspartic acid (D) (YMDD) motif mutations can naturally occur in chronic HBV patients without antiviral treatment such as lamivudine therapy. This paper aims to assess the overall spontaneous incidence and related risk factors of YMDD-motif mutations among lamivudine-naïve chronic HBV carriers, so as to provide some clue for clinical treatment of hepatitis B.
Chinese and English literatures were searched for studies reporting natural YMDD mutations among untreated chronic HBV patients from 2001 to 2010. The incidence estimates were summarized and analyzed by meta-analyses. Forty-seven eligible articles from eight countries were selected in this review (13 in English and 34 in Chinese). The pooled incidence of YMDD-motif mutation among untreated chronic HBV patients from eight countries was 12.21% (95% CI: 9.69%-14.95%). China had an incidence of 13.38% (95% CI: 10.90%-16.07%) and seven other countries had an incidence of 9.90% (95% CI: 3.28%-19.55%), respectively. Lamivudine therapy would increase the risk of mutations 5.23 times higher than the untreated patients. A higher HBV DNA copy number was associated with increased incidence of natural YMDD mutation. No significant difference was found in YMDD mutation incidence between groups of different gender, age, HBeAg status, patients' ALT (alanine aminotransferase) level, and between the groups of HBV genotype B and C.
The YMDD-motif mutations can occur spontaneously with a relatively high incidence in CHB patients untreated with lamivudine. These mutations might be the consequence of accumulated base mismatch due to the nature of viral polymerase. More fundamental and clinical studies are needed to clarify the influence of YMDD mutations in hepatitis B progression and antiviral treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection varies in the outcomes depending on both viral and host factors. This study aims to investigate the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IFNAR2, IL10RB, and IL28RA genes with susceptibility to HCV infection and resolution. Genotyping of IFNAR2, IL10RB, and IL28RA gene polymorphisms were performed using TaqMan® method from 552 patients with sero-positive anti-HCV and 421 uninfected controls. The distribution of IFNAR2 and IL10RB genotypes among the control, persistent infection, and spontaneous clearance groups did not differ. However, IL28RA-rs10903035 A allele was over-represented in persistent infection group when compared with uninfected controls and spontaneous clearance group, respectively (OR=1.54, 95%CI=1.23-1.92, P=0.004; OR=1.42, 95%CI=1.12-1.81, P=0.016), and AA genotype had a significant increased risk of persistent infection in different strata except for the females subgroup (P<0.05). IL28RA-rs11249006 GG genotype showed reduced susceptibility to persistent HCV infection (OR=0.53, 95%CI=0.31-0.91, P=0.044), and the protective effect was significantly different among subgroups stratified by age and likely source of infection (P<0.05). Besides, AG genotype had a significant negative effect on spontaneous clearance of HCV among young subjects (aged ⩽40) and patients infected with viral genotype-1 (P<0.05). Stratified analysis also showed that IL10RB-rs2834167 AG genotype was associated with an increased risk of persistent HCV infection in females, and GG genotype was associated with an increased risk of persistent HCV infection in females and patients with viral genotype non-1 (P<0.05). Haplotype analysis showed that IL28RA rs10903035-rs11249006 haplotype GG played a protective effect for HCV infection (OR=0.21, 95%CI=0.13-0.36, P<0.001; OR=0.20, 95%CI=0.12-0.34, P<0.001). This study indicates that two SNPs in IL28RA are correlated with susceptibility to HCV infection and spontaneous viral clearance, which implicates a primary role of IL28RA in the outcomes of HCV infection.
No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic polymorphisms of the LMP/TAP gene coded by the HLA-II region may be associated with outcomes of HBV infection. We conducted a case-control study to test the hypothesis, including a persistent group of 155 patients with chronic hepatitis B and 36 healthy carriers, a recovered group of 165 individuals spontaneously recovered from HBV infection, and an uninfected group of 278 healthy normal controls. Genotypes of eight polymorphisms of the LMP/TAP gene were analysed by PCR-RFLP. A logistic regression model was used to analyse statistical differences in polymorphisms or haplotypes in different groups. Of the eight polymorphisms, two (TAP1 codon 637 and LMP7 codon 145) were observed to have statistically significant association with outcomes of HBV infection (P<0·05). The two-locus haplotype constructed with two such polymorphisms was analysed. The frequencies of haplotypes B (Asp-Lys), C (Gly-Gln), and D (Gly-Lys) were found to be increased significantly in the persistent group, compared to healthy controls (OR 2·26, 95% CI 1·62-3·15, P<0·001; OR 2·37, 95% CI 1·69-3·32, P<0·001; OR 4·38, 95% CI 1·78-10·77, P=0·001, respectively). The prevalence of haplotypes B (Asp-Lys), C (Gly-Gln), and D (Gly-Lys) were also significantly higher in the persistent infectious group than in the recovered group (OR 2·68, 95% CI 1·81-3·98, P<0·001; OR 2·40, 95% CI 1·62-3·55, P<0·001; OR 3·03, 95% CI 1·22-7·55, P=0·017, respectively). These findings indicated that genetic polymorphisms of the LMP/TAP gene might be an important factor in determining the outcome of HBV infection.
No preview · Article · May 2011 · Epidemiology and Infection
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blood transfusion is one of the most common transmission pathways of hepatitis C virus (HCV). This paper aims to provide a comprehensive and reliable tabulation of available data on the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors for HCV infection among blood donors in Chinese mainland, so as to help make prevention strategies and guide further research.
A systematic review was constructed based on the computerized literature database. Infection rates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using the approximate normal distribution model. Odds ratios and 95% CI were calculated by fixed or random effects models. Data manipulation and statistical analyses were performed using STATA 10.0 and ArcGIS 9.3 was used for map construction.
Two hundred and sixty-five studies met our inclusion criteria. The pooled prevalence of HCV infection among blood donors in Chinese mainland was 8.68% (95% CI: 8.01%-9.39%), and the epidemic was severer in North and Central China, especially in Henan and Hebei. While a significant lower rate was found in Yunnan. Notably, before 1998 the pooled prevalence of HCV infection was 12.87% (95%CI: 11.25%-14.56%) among blood donors, but decreased to 1.71% (95%CI: 1.43%-1.99%) after 1998. No significant difference was found in HCV infection rates between male and female blood donors, or among different blood type donors. The prevalence of HCV infection was found to increase with age. During 1994-1995, the prevalence rate reached the highest with a percentage of 15.78% (95%CI: 12.21%-19.75%), and showed a decreasing trend in the following years. A significant difference was found among groups with different blood donation types, Plasma donors had a relatively higher prevalence than whole blood donors of HCV infection (33.95% vs 7.9%).
The prevalence of HCV infection has rapidly decreased since 1998 and kept a low level in recent years, but some provinces showed relatively higher prevalence than the general population. It is urgent to make efficient measures to prevent HCV secondary transmission and control chronic progress, and the key to reduce the HCV incidence among blood donors is to encourage true voluntary blood donors, strictly implement blood donation law, and avoid cross-infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate a possible association of LMP2/LMP7 genes with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and to assess whether LMP2/LMP7 genes could influence the outcomes of HCV infection among drug users.
Genomic DNAs of 362 anti-HCV sero-positive drug users and 225 control drug users were extracted from the peripheral blood leukocytes. The sero-positive patients were divided into those who had persistent infection and those who had spontaneously cleared the infection. Polymorphisms of LMP genes were determined by PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).
The distribution of LMP2 genotypes among the control, persistent infection and spontaneous clearance groups were not different. However, the LMP7 codon 145 Gln/Lys, Lys/Lys, and Gln/Lys+Lys/Lys genotypes were found significantly more frequent in the persistent infection group than in control group (OR=1.75, 95%CI=1.06∼2.90; OR=3.16, 95%CI=1.23-8.12; OR = 1.94, 95%CI=1.21-3.12, respectively). Similarly, the frequencies of the codon 145 Gln/Lys, Lys/Lys, and Gln/Lys+Lys/Lys genotypes were found significantly more frequent in the persistent infection group than in the spontaneous clearance group (OR=1.64, 95%CI=1.04-2.57; OR=2.40, 95%CI=1.09-5.28; OR=1.76, 95%CI=1.15-2.69, respectively). Stratified analysis indicated that combined genotype Gln/Lys + Lys/Lys of the LMP7 gene was related to an increasing susceptibility to HCV infection (OR=1.91, 95%CI=1.02-3.55; OR=2.19, 95%CI=1.24-3.89; OR=1.91, 95%CI=1.05-3.48, OR=2.86, 95%CI=1.41-5.78, respectively) and the risk of persistent HCV infection (OR=1.94, 95%CI=1.12-3.34; OR=2.02, 95%CI=1.21-3.38; OR=1.78, 95%CI=1.12-2.85, OR=2.23, 95%CI=1.09-4.58, respectively) among > 30-year-old, males, the injection drug user (IDU) subjects and/or the shorter duration drug users (≤5 y).
These results suggest that polymorphism of the LMP7 gene may have an influence on the outcomes of HCV infection, and is one of the factors accounting for the genetic susceptibility to HCV infection among drug users.