[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While transcriptional regulation of the primary and secondary metabolism of the model organism Streptomyces coelicolor is well studied, little is still known about the role small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) play in regulating gene expression in this organism. Here, we report the identification of a second target of the sRNA scr5239, an sRNA highly conserved in streptomycetes. The 159 nt long sRNA binds its target, the mRNA of the cobalamin independent methionine synthase metE (SCO0985), at the 5' end of its open reading frame thereby repressing translation. We show that a high methionine level induces expression of scr5239 itself. This leads, in a negative feedback loop, to the repression of methionine biosynthesis. In contrast to the first reported target of this sRNA, the agarase dagA, this interaction seems to be conserved in a wide number of streptomycetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Streptomycetes are Gram-positive, GC-rich, soil dwelling bacteria, occurring ubiquitary throughout nature. They undergo extensive morphological changes from spores to filamentous mycelia and produce a plethora of secondary metabolites. Owing to their complex life cycle, streptomycetes require efficient regulatory machinery for the control of gene expression. Therefore, they possess a large diversity of regulators. Within this review we summarize the current knowledge about the importance of small non-coding RNA for the control of gene expression in these organisms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have demonstrated the portability of theophylline-dependent synthetic riboswitches for the conditional control of gene expression in Streptomyces coelicolor. The riboswitches mediate dose-dependent, up to 260-fold activation of reporter gene expression. The riboswitch regulation offers a simple method since only a sequence of ~85 nucleotides has to be inserted between a transcriptional start site and the start codon and no further auxiliary factors are necessary. The promoters galP2, ermEp1 and SF14 worked well in concert with the riboswitches. They allowed theophylline-dependent expression of the heterologous β-glucuronidase reporter gene but also of an endogenous gene for the agarase dagA. The successful combination of all tested promoters with the riboswitches underlines the orthogonality of riboswitch regulation. We anticipate that any further natural or synthetic promoter can be combined with the riboswitch.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcriptional regulation of primary and secondary metabolism is well-studied in Streptomyces coelicolor, a model organism for antibiotic production and cell differentiation. In contrast, little is known about post-transcriptional regulation and the potential functions of small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) in this Gram-positive, GC-rich soil bacterium. Here, we report the identification and characterization of scr5239, an sRNA highly conserved in the genus Streptomyces. The sRNA is 159 nt long, composed of five stem-loops, and encoded in the intergenic region between SCO5238 and SCO5239. scr5239 expression is constitutive under several stress and growth conditions but dependent on the nitrogen supply. scr5239 decreases the production of the antibiotic actinorhodin, and represses expression of the extracellular agarase dagA at the post-transcriptional level by direct base pairing to the coding region 33 nt downstream of the ribosome-binding site.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Streptomyces coelicolor is considered the model organism among Gram positive, GC rich bacteria. Its genome has been sequenced but little is known about the occurrence and distribution of small non-coding RNAs in this biotechnologically relevant organism. Using deep sequencing we analyzed the transcriptome at the end of exponential growth, which corresponds to the onset of secondary metabolism. We mapped 193 transcriptional start sites of mRNA genes and identified putative new and alternative open reading frames. We identified 63 non-coding RNAs including 29 cis encoded antisense RNAs, and confirmed expression for 11, most of them being growth-phase dependent. A comparison between the sequencing results and bioinformatic sRNA predictions using Dynalign and RNAz revealed only a small overlap between the different approaches.