[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A prerequisite for establishment of mutualism between the host and the microbial community that inhabits the large intestine is the stringent mucosal compartmentalization of microorganisms. Microbe-loaded dendritic cells trafficking through lymphatics are arrested at the mesenteric lymph nodes, which constitute the firewall of the intestinal lymphatic circulation. We show in different mouse models that the liver, which receives the intestinal venous blood circulation, forms a vascular firewall that captures gut commensal bacteria entering the bloodstream during intestinal pathology. Phagocytic Kupffer cells in the liver of mice clear commensals from the systemic vasculature independently of the spleen through the liver's own arterial supply. Damage to the liver firewall in mice impairs functional clearance of commensals from blood, despite heightened innate immunity, resulting in spontaneous priming of nonmucosal immune responses through increased systemic exposure to gut commensals. Systemic immune responses consistent with increased extraintestinal commensal exposure were found in humans with liver disease (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis). The liver may act as a functional vascular firewall that clears commensals that have penetrated either intestinal or systemic vascular circuits.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Science translational medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human systemic antibody responses to commensal microbiota are not well characterised during health and disease. Of particular interest is the analysis of their potential modulation caused by chronic HIV-1 infection which is associated with sustained enteropathy and systemic B cell disturbances reflected by impaired B cell responses and chronic B cell hyperactivity. The mechanisms underlying B cell hyperactivation and the specificities of the resulting hypergammaglobulinaemia are only poorly understood.
By a technique referred to as live bacterial FACS (fluorescence-activated cell sorting), the present study investigated systemic antibody responses to several gut and skin commensal bacteria as well as Candida albicans in longitudinal plasma and serum samples from healthy donors, chronic HIV-1-infected individuals with or without diarrhoea and patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
The data show that systemic antibody responses to the commensal microbiota were abundantly present in humans and remained remarkably stable over years. Overall systemic antibody responses to gut commensal bacteria were not affected during chronic HIV-1 infection, with titres decreasing when normalised to elevated plasma immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels found in patients with HIV. In contrast, increases in the titres of high affinity antimicrobiota antibodies were detected in patients with IBD, demonstrating that conditions with known increased intestinal permeability and aberrant mutualism can induce changes in antibody titres observed in these assays.
Neither HIV-associated enteropathy nor B cell dysfunction impact on the high-affinity systemic antibody responses to gut commensal bacteria. HIV-associated hypergammaglobulinaemia is therefore unlikely to be driven by induction of antimicrobiota antibodies.