M. Kubo

Okayama University, Okayama, Okayama, Japan

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Publications (60)192.57 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Endothelial function is a prognostic predictor in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, in an era with widespread use of drug-eluting stents, the clinical relevance of endothelial dysfunction on restenosis in patients undergoing PCI has not been fully evaluated. Methods: This study included 80 patients with stable angina pectoris. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery was examined 1 week after PCI. Patients were retrospectively followed-up for an average of 21 months after PCI. The primary endpoints included cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularization, and critical limb ischemia. Results: A drug-eluting stent was used in 58 patients and a cardiovascular event was recorded in 34 patients during follow-up. The incidence of all cardiovascular diseases was significantly greater in the low FMD (median FMD <4.2 %) than the high FMD (median FMD ≥4.2 %) group (60 % vs. 25 %, p <0.01). Furthermore, the incidence of coronary revascularization was significantly higher in the low than the high FMD group (p = 0.02), while the incidence of in-stent restenosis did not differ between the two groups. Cox regression analysis showed that low FMD was an independent predictor of cardiovascular events (hazard ratio: 2.77, 95 % confidence interval: 1.23 to 6.19, p = 0.01). Conclusions: Impaired brachial artery FMD independently predicts long-term cardiovascular events after PCI in the era of drug-eluting stents.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: Ambulatory measurement of intrathoracic impedance (ITI) with an implanted device may detect increases in pulmonary fluid retention early, but the clinical utility of this method is not well established. The goal of this study was to test whether conventional ITI-derived parameters can diagnose fluid retention that may cause early stage heart failure (HF).Methods and Results:HF patients implanted with high-energy devices with OptiVol (Medtronic) monitoring were enrolled in this study. Patients were monitored remotely. At both baseline and OptiVol alert, patients were assessed on standard examinations, including analysis of serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). From April 2010 to August 2011, 195 patients from 12 institutes were enrolled. There were 154 primary OptiVol alert events. BNP level at the alerts was not significantly different from that at baseline. Given that ITI was inversely correlated with log BNP, we added a criterion specifying that the OptiVol alert is triggered only when ITI decreases by ≥4% from baseline. This change improved the diagnostic potential of increase in BNP at OptiVol alert (sensitivity, 75%; specificity, 88%). BNP increase could not be identified based on OptiVol alert. Decrease in ITI ≥4% compared with baseline, in addition to the alert, however, may be a useful marker for the likelihood of HF (Clinical trial info: UMIN000003351).
    Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Circulation Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the role of photospheric plasma motions in the formation and evolution of polar magnetic patches using time-sequence observations with high spatial resolution. The observations were obtained with the spectropolarimeter on board the Hinode satellite. From the statistical analysis using 75 magnetic patches, we found that they are surrounded by strong converging, supergranulation associated flows during their apparent life time and that the converging flow around the patch boundary is better observed in the Doppler velocity profile in the deeper photosphere. Based on our analysis we suggest that the like-polarity magnetic fragments in the polar region are advected and clustered by photospheric converging flows thereby resulting in the formation of polar magnetic patches. Our observations show that, in addition to direct cancellation magnetic patches decay by fragmentation followed by unipolar disappearance or unipolar disappearance without fragmentation. It is possible that the magnetic patches of existing polarity fragment or diffuse away into smaller elements and eventually cancel out with opposite polarity fragments that reach the polar region around solar cycle maximum. This could be one of the possible mechanisms by which the existing polarity decay during the reversal of the polar magnetic field.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Spectro-polarimetric observations in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) range are currently the only means to measure magnetic fields in the upper chromosphere and transition region of the solar atmosphere. The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) aims to measure linear polarization at the hydrogen Lyman- α line (121.6 nm). This measurement requires a polarization sensitivity better than 0.1 %, which is unprecedented in the VUV range. We here present a strategy with which to realize such high-precision spectro-polarimetry. This involves the optimization of instrument design, testing of optical components, extensive analyses of polarization errors, polarization calibration of the instrument, and calibration with onboard data. We expect that this strategy will aid the development of other advanced high-precision polarimeters in the UV as well as in other wavelength ranges.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Solar Physics
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Residual risk of cardiovascular disease from increased small dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL)-cholesterol levels and low n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels is a considerable therapeutic issue. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ezetimibe as an add-on to statins and supplemental eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on sdLDL cholesterol and absorption of EPA in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods: The study population consisted of ten male patients who were concurrently receiving statins and EPA 1,800 mg/day. Serum lipids and PUFAs, including EPA and arachidonic acid, were measured in blood samples collected before ezetimibe (baseline), 4 weeks after starting 10-mg/day ezetimibe, and 4 weeks after discontinuing ezetimibe. Results: Ezetimibe significantly decreased sdLDL-cholesterol levels after 4 weeks of treatment (baseline 35 ± 13 mg/dl; treatment 27 ± 9 mg/dl), but the levels returned to baseline after discontinuation of ezetimibe (37 ± 13 mg/dl). The concentration of EPA did not significantly change during the study. Conclusion: Ezetimibe shows great promise as an add-on therapy to statins to reduce sdLDL-cholesterol-related residual risk of cardiovascular disease without affecting absorption of supplemental EPA in patients with coronary artery disease.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs
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    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Excess visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is closely associated with the presence of coronary artery plaques that are vulnerable to rupture. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have more VAT than patients without DM, but the extent to which VAT contributes to the characteristics of coronary plaques before and after the development of DM is not fully understood. We retrospectively evaluated 456 patients (60% male, age 64 +/- 16 years) who were suspected to have cardiovascular disease and underwent 64-slice computed tomography angiography (CTA). Seventy-one (16%) patients had vulnerable plaques (CT density < 50 Hounsfield Units, positive remodeling index > 1.05, and adjacent spotty areas of calcification). Patients were divided into tertiles according to the VAT area. There were stepwise increases in noncalcified and vulnerable plaques with increasing tertiles of VAT area in patients without DM, but not in patients with DM. Multivariate analysis showed that a larger VAT area was significantly associated with a higher risk of vulnerable plaque in patients without DM (odds ratio 3.17, 95% confidence interval 1.08-9.31, p = 0.04), but not in patients with DM. The VAT area is associated with the characteristics of coronary plaques on CTA in patients without DM, but not in patients with DM. VAT may be a significant cardiometabolic risk factor that is associated with plaque vulnerability before the development of DM. CTA findings may help to improve risk stratification in such patients.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Cardiovascular Diabetology
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    ABSTRACT: The magnetic properties of the Sun's polar faculae are investigated with spectropolarimetric observations of the north polar region obtained by the Hinode satellite in 2007 September. Polar faculae are embedded in nearly all magnetic patches with fluxes greater than $10^{18}$ Mx, while magnetic patches without polar faculae dominate in the flux range below $10^{18}$ Mx. The faculae are considerably smaller than their parent patches, and single magnetic patches contain single or multiple faculae. The faculae in general have higher intrinsic magnetic field strengths than the surrounding regions within their parent patches. Less than 20% of the total magnetic flux contributed by the large (${\ge}10^{18}$ Mx) concentrations, which are known to be modulated by the solar cycle, is accounted for by the associated polar faculae.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Background: A major cause of heart failure (HF) related hospitalizations is fluid accumulation. Recent studies have suggested that intrathoracic impedance (ITI) may be a useful parameter to track daily changes in pulmonary fluid status. OptiVol alert (OA), which is a fluid status algorithm calculated from ITI, can detect impending fluid accumulation at an early stage. However, the sensitivity and specificity of OA for deteriorated HF have not been sufficient for it to be a clinically useful parameter. Therefore, we sought to examine the difference of various parameters between OA and baseline. Objectives: The purpose of study 1 was to examine how various parameters changed in OA compared to baseline. And the purpose of study 2 was to evaluate what parameters could predict increased log BNP. Methods: This study was a prospective multicenter study. Patients who suffered from structural heart disease and who had been implanted with a high energy device with an OptiVol feature were included in this study. The patients underwent various examinations at enrolment and following an OA. In study 1, primary endpoint was to examine how log BNP changed between OA and baseline. Secondary endpoint was to examine how other parameters changed between OA and baseline. We defined low ITI as equal or less than 96% of ITI at baseline. Results: From 2010 to 2011, 200 patients in 12 institutes were enrolled in the present study. Mean age was 65.3 years, mean ejection fraction was 44.2% and mean log BNP was 2.2 ng/ml. We had 376 OA events and 289 periodical follow-up events. In primary endpoint of study 1, there was no significant difference in log BNP between OA and baseline. However, the change rate of ITI was negatively correlated with the change rate of log BNP (r = -0.35, p < 0.01). In 115 OA events with low ITI, log BNP was significantly higher than that at baseline (2.33 vs 2.19, p < 0.01). In secondary endpoint of study 1, there was no significant difference in body weight, cardio-thoracic ratio in chest X ray, end diastolic volume, end systolic volume and tricuspid regurgitation pressure gradient between OA and baseline. In study 2, we searched what parameters could predict increased log BNP by 0.4 compared to that at baseline. To predict increased log BNP by 0.4, the area under ROC curve for OA events with low ITI was significantly larger than that for only OA events (0.78 vs 0.62, p < 0.01). Conclusions: There was no significant difference in log BNP between OA and baseline. However, OA events with low ITI can predict increased BNP, but only OA events.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of Cardiac Failure
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) has been widely used across the world. However, there have been many problems including inappropriate therapies (IAT). IAT caused psychological damage and poor prognosis. Although each company has original algorithms to avoid IAT due to supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), we sometimes have experienced IAT due to SVT. Because recent algorithm to discriminate SVT from ventricular tachycardia (VT) was very complicated, it is difficult to know how we should manage the algorithm setting after IAT events. Then, we sought to examine which algorithm is superior to avoid IAT due to SVT in a simulation. Methods: We collected the intracardiac electrogram of IAT due to SVT. And we created the program to reproduce the same SVT by using the information of AA interval, VV interval and AV interval. We employed ViP-II (Medtronic) as a stimulator, which could deliver the electrical pulse to ICD in same timing as the IAT events. We tested Protecta®, Promote™, INCEPTA™, Lumax® and PARADYM DR™ in nominal setting and modified setting. In nominal setting, cutoff rate of VF zone was 180 beat per minute (bpm) and VT zone was 150 to 180 bpm. Results: Twenty-seven IAT events were examined, 14 IAT events were due to rapid atrial fibrillation (AF) and 13 IAT events were due to paroxysmal SVT (PSVT). In nominal setting (VF zone was above 180bpm and VT zone was from 150 to 180 bpm), mean IAT rate in rapid AF and in PSVT was 78.5±17.5% and 90.8±8.4%, respectively. When we set cutoff rate of VF zone to 240 bpm and VT zone from 150 to 240 bpm, IAT rate due to rapid AF was significantly reduced (78.6±17.5% vs 32.9±21.2%, p < 0.01). However, even though we changed various parameters such as VF zone setting, blanking period, stability or onset criteria, the IAT rate due to PSVT did not significantly reduce. Conclusions: The simulation seems to be useful to find the appropriate setting to avoid IAT. High VF zone setting seems to be useful to avoid IAT due to rapid AF. However, there was no superior algorithm to avoid IAT due to PSVT. Another method such as morphology criteria or catheter ablation may be necessary to avoid IAT due to PSVT.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · European Heart Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The joint Japan/US/UK Hinode mission includes the first large-aperture visible-light solar telescope flown in space. One component of the Focal Plane Package of that telescope is a precision spectro-polarimeter designed to measure full Stokes spectra with the intent of using those spectra to infer the magnetic-field vector at high precision in the solar photosphere. This article describes the characteristics of the flight hardware of the Hinode Spectro-Polarimeter, and summarizes its in-flight performance.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Solar Physics
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    ABSTRACT: SOLAR-C, the fourth space solar mission in Japan, is under study with a launch target of fiscal year 2018. A key concept of the mission is to view the photosphere, chromosphere, and corona as one system coupled by magnetic fields along with resolving the size scale of fundamental physical processes connecting these atmospheric layers. It is especially important to study magnetic structure in the chromosphere as an interface layer between the photosphere and the corona. The SOLAR-C satellite is equipped with three telescopes, the Solar UV-Visible-IR Telescope (SUVIT), the EUV/FUV High Throughput Spectroscopic Telescope (EUVS/LEMUR), and the X-ray Imaging Telescope (XIT). Observations with SUVIT of photospheric and chromospheric magnetic fields make it possible to infer three dimensional magnetic structure extending from the photosphere to the chromosphere and corona.This helps to identify magnetic structures causing magnetic reconnection, and clarify how waves are propagated, reflected, and dissipated. Phenomena indicative of or byproducts of magnetic reconnection, such as flows and shocks, are to be captured by SUVIT and by spectroscopic observations using EUVS/LEMUR, while XIT observes rapid changes in temperature distribution of plasma heated by shock waves.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2012
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    ABSTRACT: The magnetic field plays a crucial role in the chromosphere and the transition region, and our poor empirical knowledge of the magnetic field in the upper chromosphere and transition region is a major impediment to advancing the understanding of the solar atmosphere. The Hanle effect promises to be a valuable alternative to Zeeman effect as a method of measuring the magnetic field in the chromosphere and transition region; it is sensitive to weaker magnetic fields, and also sensitive to tangled, unresolved field structures. CLASP is a sounding rocket experiment that aims to observe the Hanle effect polarization of the Lyman α (1215.67Å) line in the solar chromosphere and transition region, and prove the usefulness of this technique in placing constraints on the magnetic field strength and orientation in the low plasma-β region of the solar atmosphere. The Ly-α line has been chosen because it is a chromospheric/transition-region line, and because the Hanle effect polarization of this line is predicted to be sensitive to 10-250 Gauss, encompassing the range of interest. The CLASP instrument is designed to measure linear polarization in the Ly-α line with a polarization sensitivity of 0.1%. The instrument is currently funded for development. The optical design of the instrument has been finalized, and an extensive series of component-level tests are underway to validate the design.
    No preview · Article · May 2012
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    ABSTRACT: A sounding-rocket program called the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) is proposed to be launched in the summer of 2014. CLASP will observe the solar chromosphere in Ly-alpha (121.567 nm), aiming to detect the linear polarization signal produced by scattering processes and the Hanle effect for the first time. The polarimeter of CLASP consists of a rotating half-waveplate, a beam splitter, and a polarization analyzer. Magnesium Fluoride (MgF2) is used for these optical components, because MgF2 exhibits birefringent property and high transparency at ultraviolet wavelength. The development and comprehensive testing program of the optical components of the polarimeter is underway using the synchrotron beamline at the Ultraviolet Synchrotron Orbital Radiation Facility (UVSOR). The first objective is deriving the optical constants of MgF2 by the measurement of the reflectance and transmittance against oblique incident angles for the s-polarized and the p-polarized light. The ordinary refractive index and extinction coefficient along the ordinary and extraordinary axes are derived with a least-square fitting in such a way that the reflectance and transmittance satisfy the Kramers-Krönig relation. The reflection at the Brewster's Angle of MgF2 plate is confirmed to become a good polarization analyzer at Ly-alpha. The second objective is the retardation measurement of a zeroth-order waveplate made of MgF2. The retardation of a waveplate is determined by observing the modulation amplitude that comes out of a waveplate and a polarization analyzer. We tested a waveplate with the thickness difference of 14.57 um. The 14.57 um waveplate worked as a half-waveplate at 121.74 nm. We derived that a waveplate with the thickness difference of 15.71 um will work as a half-waveplate at Ly-alpha wavelength. We developed a prototype of CLASP polarimeter using the MgF2 half-waveplate and polarization analyzers, and succeeded in obtaining the modulation patterns that are consistent with the theoretical prediction. We confirm that the performance of the prototype is optimized for measuring linear polarization signal with the least effect of the crosstalk from the circular polarization.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the use of statin therapy and achieving the target for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, a substantial number of coronary events are not prevented, and residual risk factors remain unsettled. Recently, ezetimibe has been shown to reduce not only low-density lipoprotein cholesterol but also triglyceride (TG) levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of residual risk factors, mainly hypertriglyceridemia, with endothelial function during statin therapy in patients with coronary heart disease and examine the effect of ezetimibe add-on therapy. A total of 109 consecutive patients with coronary heart disease during statin therapy were enrolled. Lipid profile was measured and endothelial function was assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery in a fasting state. Next, 32 patients with high TG levels (≥150 mg/dl) were prospectively assigned to the ezetimibe add-on group or the no-ezetimibe group, and endothelial function was assessed after 3 months. Multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that serum TG and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were independent determinants of percentage FMD (β = -0.210 and 0.208, respectively, p <0.05). In patients with high TG levels, ezetimibe add-on therapy significantly improved percentage FMD (from 3.3 ± 1.1% to 4.0 ± 1.1%, p <0.005), whereas no significant change was observed in the no-ezetimibe group. Moreover, the improvement in percentage FMD was significantly associated with reduction in serum TG levels (β = -0.387, p <0.05) independent of the change in serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In conclusion, hypertriglyceridemia is independently associated with endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary heart disease during statin therapy. Ezetimibe add-on therapy improves endothelial function in these high-risk populations.
    No preview · Article · May 2011 · The American journal of cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the temporal relation between the Evershed flow, dot-like bright features (penumbral grain), the complex magnetic field structure, and dark lanes (dark core) along bright filaments in a sunspot penumbra. We use a time series of high spatial resolution photospheric intensity, vector magnetic field maps, and Doppler velocity maps obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope aboard the \textit{Hinode} spacecraft. We conclude that the appearance and disappearance of the Evershed flow and penumbra grains occur at nearly the same time and are associated with changes of the inclination angle of the magnetic field from vertical to more horizontal. This supports the idea that Evershed flow is a result of thermal convection in the inclined field lines. The dark core of the bright penumbral filament also appears coincidental with the Evershed flow. However, the dark-cored bright filament survives at least for 10-20 minutes after the disappearance of the Evershed flow. The heat input into the bright filament continues after the end of heat transfer by the Evershed flow. This suggests that local heating along the bright filament is important to maintain the brightness of the bright filament in addition to the heat transfer by the Evershed flow.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2011 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Heart failure is one of the most common causes for hospitalizations. OptiVol alert, which was fluid status algorism calculated from intrathoracic impedance, may detect impending fluid accumulation. Then, we tried to examine the relationship of OptiVol alert or intrathoracic impedance with various parameters. Methods: The patients who were implanted high energy device with OptiVol feature were included in this study. The patients were evaluated various examinations at enrolment and following an OptiVol alert. We examined how various parameters were different between baseline and OptiVol alert, and the relationships among the factors included in OptiVol alert and intrathoracic impedance were evaluated by factor analysis. Results: From April in 2010, 191 patients were eligible for the present study. In all patients, there was no significant difference in all parameters between OptiVol alert and baseline. However, in the patients with ejection fraction less than 35%, BNP value was likely to increase in OptiVol alert compared with that in baseline, but not significantly. In factor analysis, there was no parameter correlated with OptiVol alert. However, intrathoracic impedance was negatively correlated with BNP value. Conclusions: Intrathoracic impedance, but OptiVol alert, seems to represent fluid retention.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Journal of Arrhythmia
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    ABSTRACT: As the number of cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) implantation is increasing, the number of complication is also increasing such as infection, lead fracture or lead perforation. In Japan, we have been able to use Excimer laser since July 2010, we could extract CIED with minimum injury. In our hospital, we have had 15 patients who needed of CIED extraction, including those referred to our hospital. The main reason of CIED extraction was CIED infection in 13 of 15 patients. CIED in 8 patients were extracted by Excimer laser. CIED in 5 of 8 patients were extracted in our hospital. Ten leads in 5 patients could be extracted percutaneously. However, one patient was necessary of sternotomy because we could not catch the lead percutaneously from left subclavian approach and could not extract from femoral approach. After sternotomy, we could catch the lead from innominate vein, and we could extract it by Excimer laser. Seven of 10 leads, one was ICD lead and 6 were pacemaker leads, were extracted by Excimer laser. The mean period from implantation to extraction was 7.6 years and the mean extraction time was 47 minutes. All 7 leads in 5 patients were successfully explanted with no complication.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Journal of Arrhythmia
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest that intrathoracic impedance may be a useful parameter to track daily changes in the pulmonary fluid status. OptiVol indexTM, which was fluid status algorism calculated from intrathoracic impedance, may detect impending fluid accumulation. However, intrathoracic impedance was likely to change in various situations, such as pneumonia, pneumothrax or hemodialysis. We experienced the patient in whom intrathoracic impedance changed along with menstrual cycle. A case was 35-year-old female implanted cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRTD). She was followed in out patient clinic and remote monitoring system. We received OptiVol alertTM once a month and often asked her to come to the hospital to examine if she developed to heart failure. However, she has never developed to heart failure, pneumonia or other diseases. After several OptiVol alertsTM, she noticed that the OptiVol alertTM was appeared just before menses. And intrathoracic impedance was going down 2 weeks before her menses. We could repeatedly observe that OptiVol alertTM was appeared during Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS), which was reported to cause fluid retention. In some report, volume dysregulation is caused by PMS, but is not demonstrated directly. Then, this is the first report that fluid retention in PMS was directly estimated by changing of intrathoracic impedance and OptiVol indexTM.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Journal of Arrhythmia
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    ABSTRACT: A case is 77-year-old male. He was implanted dual chamber pacemaker due to complete atrioventricular block from left side in 1999. In 2006, he was referred to our hospital due to sustained ventricular tachycardia and left ventricular dysfunction. After several examinations, he was diagnosed as cardiac sarcoidosis and implanted cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRTD) from right side, because new lead could not pass between superior vena cava and innominate vein. In 2008, the scar on right side became reddish and swelling. We opened the scar, but we could not detect active infection. Then, we implanted new generator under right pectoral muscle. However, in 2011, he was diagnosed as pocket infection on right side without bacteremia and we extracted all 5 leads by Excimer laser. The pathogenic bacteria was Staphylococcus epidermidis. Because the patient was completely dependent on CRTD, single right ventricular pacing could not maintain hemodynamic. Then we employed dual chamber temporary pacing, which could maintain hemodynamic. Two weeks later, he was implanted new CRTD under left pectoral muscle. During follow up, any sign of device infection has not been appeared so far.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Journal of Arrhythmia

Publication Stats

1k Citations
192.57 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011-2015
    • Okayama University
      Okayama, Okayama, Japan
  • 2014
    • The Graduate University for Advanced Studies
      Миура, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 2008-2014
    • National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
      • Nobeyama Solar Radio Observatory
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
      Chōfu, Tōkyō, Japan
    • National Research Center (CO, USA)
      Boulder, Colorado, United States
  • 2008-2010
    • National Center for Atmospheric Research
      • High Altitude Observatory
      Boulder, Colorado, United States
  • 2004-2008
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Department of Astronomy
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan