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Publications (95)

  • Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi · Alireza Ahmadi · Mohsen Bazargan · [...] · Stacey Teruya
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to describe the demographic profile of self-inflicted harm (SIH) in Los Angeles County between 2001 and 2010 and to investigate trends over this 10-year period. We used the California Hospital Discharge Data to investigate all cases of hospital admission due to SIH, including suicide attempts and if they had a concurrent psychiatric diagnosis based on ICD-9 codes. African-Americans (AA) had the highest 10-year SIH admission rates. SIH admission rates remained steady throughout the 10-year study period. Median age of SIH was significantly lower in Latinos. Episodic mood disorders were the most common psychiatric comorbidity. The use of solid/liquid poisoning was the most common SIH method among all racial/ethnic groups. We found major disparities in SIH admissions across racial/ethnic subgroups. The importance of programs to identify, prevent, and treat SIH in these groups is discussed.
    Article · Jan 2017 · Journal of Forensic Sciences
  • Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi · Valory De Lucia · Deyu Pan · [...] · Mohsen Bazargan
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Residential treatment for alcoholism is associated with high completion rates for clients, yet there appear to be gender disparities in patient referrals and treatment completion rates. We studied whether (A) gender is associated with differential patient placement to outpatient vs. residential treatment facilities and (B) completion rates differ by gender. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed the admission and discharge data from 185 publicly funded substance abuse treatment facilities across Los Angeles County between 2005 and 2010. Results: Among the 33,745 studied cases, women were referred to residential treatment facilities less frequently than men (75% vs. 66%). The adjusted results derived from logistic regression models confirmed that females were more likely to be referred to outpatient treatment than to residential treatment facilities (odds ratio [OR]: 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-1.26). In addition, we observed that compared to White/Caucasian patients, all other races were associated with more referral to outpatient facilities (ie, less referral to residential facilities), indicating a racial disparity on the top of the observed gender disparity. However, there was no significant link between gender and treatment completion rates (OR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.86-1.00). Conclusions: Women seem to have treatment completion rates comparable to men, yet they are less likely to be referred to residential treatment facilities. Hence, there still remains a gender disparity in alcoholic patient referrals. Further studies should delineate which specific therapeutic aspects and programmatic components of women-focused treatments are essential to augment positive treatment outcomes.
    Article · Dec 2016 · Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
  • Hamed Yazdanshenas · Mohsen Bazargan · Loretta Jones · [...] · Deborah A Taira
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Approximately 70 million people in the United States have hypertension. Although antihypertensive therapy can reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with hypertension, often patients do not take their medication as prescribed. Objective The goal of this study was to better understand issues affecting the acceptability and usability of mobile health technology (mHealth) to improve medication adherence for elderly African American and Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander patients with hypertension. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 gatekeeper-stakeholders using targeted open-ended questions. Interviews were deidentified, transcribed, organized, and coded manually by two independent coders. Analysis of patient interviews used largely a deductive approach because the targeted open-ended interview questions were designed to explore issues specific to the design and acceptability of a mHealth intervention for seniors. Results A number of similar themes regarding elements of a successful intervention emerged from our two groups of African American and Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander gatekeeper-stakeholders. First was the need to teach participants both about the importance of adherence to antihypertensive medications. Second, was the use of mobile phones for messaging and patients need to be able to access ongoing technical support. Third, messaging needs to be short and simple, but personalized, and to come from someone the participant trusts and with whom they have a connection. There were some differences between groups. For instance, there was a strong sentiment among the African American group that the church be involved and that the intervention begin with group workshops, whereas the Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander group seemed to believe that the teaching could occur on a one-to-one basis with the health care provider. Conclusions Information from our gatekeeper-stakeholder (key informant) interviews suggests that the design of a mHealth intervention to improve adherence to antihypertensives among the elderly could be very similar for African Americans and Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders. The main difference might be in the way in which the program is initiated (possibly through church-based workshops for African Americans and by individual providers for Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders). Another difference might be who sends the messages with African Americans wanting someone outside the health care system, but Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders preferring a provider.
    Article · Oct 2016
  • Hamed Yazdanshenas · Mohsen Bazargan · James Smith · [...] · Gail Orum
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Older African Americans who experience pain are especially at high risk of underassessment and undertreatment. This study examined patterns and correlates of pain medication use: severity of pain, medical conditions, and access to care. African Americans aged 65 and older were recruited from 16 churches located in south Los Angeles (N = 400). Structured face-to-face interviews and visual inspection of each participant's medications were conducted. More than 39% of participants were aged 75 and older, and 65% were female. Forty-seven percent used at least one type of pain medication. The frequency of pain medication use according to pharmaceutical class was nonopioid, 33%; opioid, 12%; adjuvant, 9%; and other drug, 8%. Seventy-seven percent of nonopioids were nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which 25% of participants with hypertension, 28% with stroke, 26% with kidney disease, and 28% with gastrointestinal problems used. Ninety-eight percent of participants who used NSAIDs, 98% experienced potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) use, 69% experienced drug duplication, and 65% experienced drug-drug interactions. This study suggests severe mismanagement of pain in underserved older African Americans, particularly those with comorbidity, multiple providers, and limited access to health care. The use of pain medication was associated with drug-drug interactions, drug duplication, and PIM use. The data show that many participants with severe pain are not taking pain medication or experience PIM use. One in four participants was taking NSAIDs, which can cause serious side effects in older African Americans with multiple chronic conditions.
    Article · Sep 2016 · Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: p> Objective: We examined variation in rates of hospitalization, risk factors, and costs by race/ethnicity, gender and age among heart failure (HF) patients. Methods: We analyzed California hospital discharge data for patients in 2007 (n=58,544) and 2010 (n=57,219) with a primary diagnosis of HF (ICD-9 codes: 402, 404, 428). HF cases included African Americans (Blacks; 14%), Hispanic/Latinos (21%), and non-Hispanic Whites (65%). Age-adjusted prevalence rates per 100,000 US population were computed per CDC methodology. Results: Four major trends emerged: 1) Overall HF rates declined by 7.7% from 284.7 in 2007 to 262.8 in 2010; despite the decline, the rates for males and Blacks remained higher compared with others in both years; 2) while rates for Blacks (aged ≤54) were 6 times higher compared with same age Whites, rates for Hispanics were higher than Whites in the middle age category; 3) risk factors for HF included hypertension, chronic heart disease, chronic kidney disease, atrial fibrillation, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and 4) submitted hospitalization costs were higher for males, Blacks, and younger patients compared with other groups. Conclusion: Health inequality in HF persists as hospitalization rates for Blacks remain higher compared with Whites and Hispanics. These findings reinforce the need to determine whether increased access to providers, or implementing proven hypertension and diabetes preventive programs among minorities might reduce subsequent hospitalization for HF in these populations. Ethn Dis. 2016;26(3):345-354; doi:10.18865/ed.26.3.345 </p
    Article · Jul 2016 · Ethnicity & disease
  • Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi · Stacey Teruya · Deyu Pan · [...] · Mohsen Bazargan
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine the role of intent and other Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) constructs in predicting college students' willingness to texting while driving (TWD). Methods: This was an, cross-sectional study. Two hundred and forty-three male and female college students enrolled in the 2013-2014 academic year in the College of Health, Human Services & Nursing completed a survey on TWD. Inclusion criteria: All races and ethnicities, ≥ 18 years of age, own a cell phone, and drive a car. Results: Over 70% of the sample (n = 243) reported talking on a cell phone, and sending and receiving text messages "at least a few times" while driving within the past week. However, only 27% reported being stopped by police. Of these, 22% reported being fined. Twenty-six percent reported reading or sending TWD, and having to slam on the brakes to avoid hitting another car or a pedestrian(s) as a result within the past 30 days. In all, 47% of the variance in intention to send TWD was accounted for by the full TPB model. Intention, in turn, predicted willingness to TWD. Intention also mediated the relationship between perceived behavioral control and willingness to TWD. Conclusion: The role of Attitude was found to be the strongest predictor of intention. In addition, intention was found to mediate the relationship of willingness to TWD on perceived behavioral control. These findings highlight potential factors that could be targeted in behavioral change interventions seeking to prevent TWD.
    Article · Apr 2016 · Traffic Injury Prevention
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/aim: To date, few studies have cross-examined the relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and dementia nationally. There is also a lack of evidence regarding dementia subtypes and how this relationship changes among older individuals. The objective was to better delineate this relationship and influence of multiple comorbidities using a nationwide sample. Methods: Data were obtained from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample 1998 to 2011 using appropriate International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Version codes. Descriptive and bivariate analysis was performed. Multivariate nominal logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, race, and comorbidities explored the independent relationship between Alzheimer dementia (AD), non-Alzheimer dementia (VaD), and diabetes. Results: 21% of the participants were diabetic patients, 3.7% had AD, and 2.2% had VaD. Diabetes prevalence in AD, VaD, and no dementia groups were 20.6%, 24.3%, and 26.2%, respectively. In the unadjusted model, those with DM had lower odds of AD (odds ratio [OR] 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72-0.74) and VaD (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.89-0.92). Adjusting for age, sex, race, and comorbidities, diabetic patients had significantly higher odds of VaD (OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.08-1.11) and lower odds of AD (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.86-0.88). Inclusion of interaction terms (age, race/ethnicity, depression, stroke, and hypertension) made the relationship between diabetes and VaD not significant (OR 1.002, 95% CI 0.97-1.03), but the relationship of DM with AD remained significant (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.56-0.58; P < .05). Conclusion: Patients with a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus had lower odds of having AD. Age, race/ethnicity, depression, stroke, and hypertension modified the relationship between DM and both VaD and AD. Further exploration of the relationship between DM and AD is warranted.
    Article · Feb 2016 · Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
  • Mohsen Bazargan · Anna Lucas-Wright · Loretta Jones · [...] · Annette E Maxwell
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: African American women have lower 5-year cancer survival rates than non-Latino White women. Differences in perceived benefits of early cancer detection among racial/ethnic groups may affect cancer-screening behaviors. This study assessed correlates of perceived benefits of early breast, cervical and colorectal cancer detection among 513 African American women. Using a community-partnered participatory research approach, we conducted a survey on cancer screening, risk behaviors, and related knowledge and attitudes among African American parishioners at 11 churches in South Los Angeles, a neighborhood that experiences one of the highest cancer mortality rates in California. African American women who participated in this study were more likely to believe that chances for survival are very good or good after early detection of breast cancer (74%) than after early detection of colorectal (51%) and cervical cancer (52%). Multivariate analyses show that perceived benefit of early cancer detection is associated with higher cancer knowledge and having discussed one's cancer risk with a doctor. Given that 5-year survival rates for early stage breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer range from 84% to 93%, our data suggest that a substantial proportion of African American women in South Los Angeles are not aware of the benefits of early detection, particularly of colorectal and cervical cancers. Programs that increase cancer knowledge and encourage a discussion of individual's cancer risk with a doctor may be able to increase perceived benefit of early detection, a construct that has been shown to be associated with cancer screening in some studies.
    Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Women's Health
  • Mohsen Bazargan · Hamed Yazdanshenas · Shelley Han · Gail Orum
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this study is to identify correlates and the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) use among underserved elderly African Americans. This cross-sectional study recruited 400 elderly African Americans living in South Los Angeles, and used structured, face-to-face surveys. These elicited data pertaining to the type, frequency, dosage, and indications of all medications used by participants. Seventy percent of participants engaged in PIM use and used at least one medication that was classified as "Avoid" (27%) and "Use Conditionally" (43%) through Beers Criteria. Significant correlations emerged between PIM use and the number of autonomic and central nervous system, neurological and psychotherapeutic medications, medication duplications, and drug-drug interactions. Our findings point to the need for multidisciplinary team programs of health care providers that include primary and specialist physicians, pharmacists, nurses, and social workers. Together, they can improve health outcomes, enhance the quality of life, and reduce morbidity and mortality due to inappropriate medication use. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Aging and Health
  • Mohsen Bazargan · Hamed Yazdanshenas · David Gordon · Gail Orum
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examines the type, severity, and correlates of pain among underserved elderly African Americans. This cross-sectional study includes 400 non-institutionalized underserved aged African Americans, recruited from 16 African American churches located in South Los Angeles. Two thirds of our participants reported a level of pain of 5 or higher (on a scale of 0-10) for at least one of the pain items. Participants with severe level of pain showed a higher level of insomnia, depression, and deficiency in activity of daily living as well as a lower level of memory function and quality of physical and mental health. Also, level of pain is a statistically significant correlate of office-based physician visits and emergency department admission. Our findings encourage multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary interventions to include pharmacotherapy, psychological support, and physical rehabilitation, specifically on neuropathic pain among aged African Americans with multiple chronic conditions. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Aging and Health
  • Hamed Yazdanshenas · Mohsen Bazargan · Gail Orum · [...] · Baqar Husaini
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypertension among African Americans is higher compared to Whites and has an early onset, greater severity, and is associated with more organ damage. We examined whether pharmaceutical treatment of hypertension among underserved African American elderly is consistent with the current treatment guidelines and whether treatment variations occur due to existing co-morbidities among the hypertensive. Our study surveyed 400 African Americans, aged ≥ 65 years, recruited from 16 predominantly African American churches located in South Los Angeles. The study used face-to-face interviews which documented type, frequency, and dosage of all medications used by participants. Label information of each drug was recorded. Our data indicate: 1) 29% were on one anti-hypertensive medication; 60% were taking 2-3 medications; and 9% were on four classes of anti-hypertensive medication; 2) among the elderly taking a combination of two or more drugs, ACE or ARB was used 76% in combination of agents, diuretics 60%, calcium channel blockers 63%, and beta-blocker 61%; and 3) 26% of the elderly were taking ≥ 3 medications including a diuretic. Treatment of hypertension appears to be inconsistent with the prevailing treatment guidelines for nearly one-third of the aged African Americans. Further investigation is needed to determine why a significant number of individuals from this under-served population are not receiving care based on established clinical guidelines.
    Article · Nov 2014 · Ethnicity & disease
  • Anna Aziza Lucas-Wright · Loretta Jones · James L. Smith · [...] · Mohsen Bazargan
    Article · Mar 2014 · Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention
  • Mohsen Bazargan · Hamed Yazdanshenas · Gail Orum-Alexander
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: We aimed to describe pattern of medications overuse in prescription and over the counter data in a community-based sample of underserved aged African Americans. Methods: This study recruited 400 elderly African Americans (over 65 years old, taking at least two medications) from 16 churches located in South Los Angeles. Interviewer administer questionnaire was used to collect medication use data. Results: Our data indicates that in total, 3063 medications were used across all pharmaceutical classes by this sample of 400 African American elderly persons participated in this study. There were a total of 796 medications Overuse. Overuse of medication frequency occurred 299 times across all patients. The highest frequency of medication Overuse based on the number of medications (in each class) occurs in the following order: a) Vitamins, Hematinic & Electrolytes (82%), b) Non-Insulin Hypoglycemic Agents (53%), and c) Anti-parkinsonism Agents (50%). Across all Therapeutic classes there were a total of 2366 medications overuse. Overuse of medications frequency occurred 761 times across all patients. The highest frequency of medications overuse based on the number of medications (in each classes) occurs in the following order: a) Cardiovascular, Hypertension & Lipids (96%), b) Vitamin and Health Supplement (82%), c) Autonomic & CNS, Neurology & Psychiatry (79 %).Conclusion: Results suggest there is a need for an interventional study to promote awareness of use and misuse of medications, especially medication Overuse and it is critical that health care providers continue developing technology and resources to address Overuse duplication related issues among the elderly
    Conference Paper · Nov 2013
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: To determine the incidence of potentially inappropriate prescriptions and over the counter medications for patients older than 65 years in a community-based sample of underserved aged African Americans. Methods: This study recruited 400 elderly African Americans (over 65 years old, taking at least two medications) from 16 churches located in South Los Angeles. An Interviewer administered a questionnaire which was used to collect medication use data. Inappropriate prescribing and over the counter medication usage is considered as those included in the Beers criteria 2012. We recorded age, sex, inappropriate drugs and dosage. Results: Data was collected from 400 patients. Inappropriate prescribing and over the counter medication usage occurred among 279 patients (69% of all cases) in which 52 patients were taking more than 2 types of Inappropriate Rx and OTC. Two-thirds (67%, n=187) of the Inappropriate Rx and OTC occurred in females and one-third (33%, n=92) in males. The main drugs involved were OTC (80% of patients) and among RX were Clonidine (7%), Nifedipine (6%), Terazosin (4%). Conclusion: Results suggest the prescription of inappropriate medications in the elderly is high and it seems that our sample of underserved African American elderly continued receiving older medications that were strongly recommended to be avoided. This is important because they are a cause of adverse reactions, which leads to a significant proportion of hospital admissions. The inclusion of warnings in the program of assisted prescribing and distributing of newsletters about these to the personnel involved, improves and minimizes medication-related problems.
    Conference Paper · Nov 2013
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Road traffic injuries, especially those involving motorcycles, are a particular concern in Iran. We aimed to identify the specific cognitive dissonances and consonances associated with risky riding among Iranian motorcyclists. This was a grounded theory qualitative study of male motorcyclists who were >=18 and were living in one of the three cities of Tehran, Isfahan and Ahwaz. Thirty four (n = 34) motorcyclists participated in 19 in-depth interviews and 5 focus-groups between January 2007 and February 2008. We identified four categories of motorcycle riders each endorsing a unique risk bias they employed to justify their risky ridings. The categories included: (1) Risk Managers who justified risky riding by doubting that it would result in negative outcomes if they are competent riders. (2) Risk Utilizers who justified risky riding as functional and practical that would enable them to handle daily chores and responsibilities more efficiently. (3) Risk Calculators who justified risky riding by believing that it will help them to avoid road crashes. (4) Risk Takers who justified risky riding by arguing that risky riding is thrilling and brings them peer recognition. Our findings reveal different groups of motorcyclists according to their different rationalizations for risky riding. Road safety advocates can benefit from our findings by matching relevant and appropriate interventions and incentives to these specific groups.
    Full-text available · Article · Sep 2013 · BMC Public Health
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    Anna Lucas-Wright · Mohsen Bazargan · Loretta Jones · [...] · Annette E Maxwell
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are differences in cancer-risk perception among racial/ethnic groups that may affect health risk behaviors. Using a community partnered-participatory research approach, we conducted a survey on cancer screening, risk behaviors, and related knowledge/attitudes within 11 churches in South Los Angeles with predominantly African-American parishioners. This analysis examines correlates of perceived risk of developing cancer among 755 African American adults. Almost 15 % of participants indicated higher perceived risk for cancer compared to the average man/woman of the same age, 38 % indicated same risk, whereas 48 % perceived lower risk. Sixty-nine individuals (9 %) reported a cancer history and 63 % reported at least one blood relative with cancer. Controlling for demographic characteristics and healthcare access, participants who reported higher risk of cancer had higher level of cancer-related knowledge; were current and ex-smokers; had poorer health status; had a blood relative with cancer; had a cancer history; and had discussed their risk of cancer with their doctor. The bivariate association between high perceived cancer risk and lack of exercise and obesity disappeared after adjusting for demographic characteristics and perceived health status. Our data suggest that a substantial proportion of African Americans in South Los Angeles may underestimate their cancer risk. Additionally, lack of exercise and obesity are not recognized as independent cancer risk factors as much as smoking and personal and family history of cancer. Next steps will be to inform participating churches about our findings and explore their interest in taking steps to reduce health risk behaviors among their parishioners.
    Full-text available · Article · Sep 2013 · Journal of Community Health
  • Loretta Jones · Mohsen Bazargan · Anna Lucas-Wright · [...] · Annette E Maxwell
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most theoretical formulations acknowledge that knowledge and awareness of cancer screening and prevention recommendations significantly influence health behaviors. This study compares perceived knowledge of cancer prevention and screening with test-based knowledge in a community sample. We also examine demographic variables and self-reported cancer screening and prevention behaviors as correlates of both knowledge scores, and consider whether cancer related knowledge can be accurately assessed using just a few, simple questions in a short and easy-to-complete survey. We used a community-partnered participatory research approach to develop our study aims and a survey. The study sample was composed of 180 predominantly African American and Hispanic community individuals who participated in a full-day cancer prevention and screening promotion conference in South Los Angeles, California, on July 2011. Participants completed a self-administered survey in English or Spanish at the beginning of the conference. Our data indicate that perceived and test-based knowledge scores are only moderately correlated. Perceived knowledge score shows a stronger association with demographic characteristics and other cancer related variables than the test-based score. Thirteen out of twenty variables that are examined in our study showed a statistically significant correlation with the perceived knowledge score, however, only four variables demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with the test-based knowledge score. Perceived knowledge of cancer prevention and screening was assessed with fewer items than test-based knowledge. Thus, using this assessment could potentially reduce respondent burden. However, our data demonstrate that perceived and test-based knowledge are separate constructs.
    Article · Mar 2013 · Ethnicity & disease
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The issue of knowledge on school backpacks among parents has received little attention. The objectives of this study were to assess school backpack carriage and its consistency with parents' knowledge about children friendly school backpacks. Methods: This was a randomized cross-sectional study. Totally 307 elementary school children and 250 parents were recruited to assess parental knowledge about standard school backpacks in 2010. Data collection were carried out on an unscheduled day in order to, children and their par¬ents prepared school backpacks based on their own previous habits and behaviors. All statistical analyses were performed using version 16.0 of the statistical software package SPSS Results: Approximately, 132 (51.6%) of the parents were not aware of the recommended weight limit for carrying school backpacks and 144 (56.3%) were not aware that the size of the backpack must be proportionate to the upper back region. Significant difference was found for the mean score of awareness of a safe and standard school backpack between fathers and mothers: fathers had more knowledge about school backpack carriages in comparison with mothers (P<0.001). Conclusion: Children, parents and teachers should be educated about the characteristics of a standard backpack, different strategies. Parents are the best advocates for safety promotion and should represent the group most likely to help to significantly reduce backpack related injuries among school children by selecting safe school backpacks, supervising school backpack carrying and checking backpack weights.
    Full-text available · Article · Dec 2012
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    Salman Otoukesh · Mona Mojtahedzadeh · Dean Sherzai · [...] · Mohsen Bazargan
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction For nearly three decades, the two neighboring countries of Iran and Pakistan hosted millions of Afghans. Today, Afghans still represent the largest group of refugees in the world. This feature has greatly influenced provision of health care for this population. Due to a paucity of research on the health status of Afghan refugees in Iran, this study aim to make a vista on the pattern of different common diseases among Afghan refugees in Iran and use it as an index for performance evaluation of future health services to them. Methods This is a retrospective cross sectional study, in which we collected the demographic and medical data between 2005 and 2010 from referrals to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) offices in Iran. We also considered a comparative review of the burden of disease estimates by the World Health Organization (WHO) for Afghanistan and Iran. Results Total numbers of referrals were 23,152 with 52.6% Female and 47.66% male. 29% were 0–14 years of age, 54% were 15–59, and 17% were 60+. The most common health referral for females and males (0–14) was perinatal diseases (15.16%, 15.2%, respectively). In the females (15–59) it was ophthalmic diseases (13.65%), and for males it was nephropathies (21.4%), and in both sexes (60+) age range it was ophthalmic diseases (21.3%, 19.9%, respectively). The largest ethnic group of afghan refugees in this study was Hazara (55%) followed by Tajik (14%), Fars (12%), Sadat (9%), and 10% others. Ophthalmic diseases were the major cause of referrals by Hazara, Tajik, Fars, and Sadat groups with 26%, 20%, 26%, and 27% respectively. Referrals by pashtun group were mostly for neoplasms (17%), among Uzbek group it was nephropathies (26%), and in Baluch group Hematopoietic disorders (25%). Conclusion These data indicate higher referral rate for women 15–59 years of old and people in 60+ with ophthalmic diseases, neoplasms, and nephropathies. Even given certain intrinsic limitations of such a study, we believe these unique findings are worth further explanation. This implies the need for public health researchers to pursue prospective studies in these areas.
    Full-text available · Article · Dec 2012 · International Journal for Equity in Health
  • Salman Otoukesh · Mona Mojtahedzadeh · Dean Sherzai · [...] · Mohsen Bazargan
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Appendix1. Cause of referrals.
    File available · Data · Dec 2012