[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and purpose:
Mast cell hyperplasia has been observed in the lungs of mice with experimental asthma, but few reports have studied basophils. Here, we attempted to discriminate and quantify mast cells and basophils in the lungs in a murine asthma model, determine if both cells were increased by multiple antigen challenges and assess the roles of those cells in asthmatic responses.
Sensitized Balb/c mice were intratracheally challenged with ovalbumin four times. Mast cells and basophils in enzymatically digested lung tissue were detected by flow cytometry. An anti-FcεRI monoclonal antibody, MAR-1, was i.p. administered during the multiple challenges.
The numbers of both mast cells (IgE(+) C-kit(+) ) and basophils (IgE(+) C-kit(-) CD49b(+) ) increased in the lungs after three challenges. Treatment with MAR-1 completely abolished the increases; however, a late-phase increase in specific airway resistance (sRaw), and airway eosinophilia and neutrophilia were not affected by the treatment, although the early-phase increase in sRaw was suppressed. MAR-1 reduced antigen-induced airway IL-4 production. Basophils infiltrating the lung clearly produced IL-4 after antigen stimulation in vitro; however, histamine and murine mast cell protease 1 were not increased in the serum after the challenge, indicating that mast cell activation was not evoked.
Conclusion and implications:
Both mast cells and basophils infiltrated the lungs by multiple intratracheal antigen challenges in sensitized mice. Neither mast cells nor basophils were involved in late-phase airway obstruction, although early-phase obstruction was mediated by basophils. Targeting basophils in asthma therapy may be useful for an early asthmatic response.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · British Journal of Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is known that the late asthmatic response (LAR), a characteristic feature of asthma, is closely associated with CD4+ Th2 cell-mediated allergic inflammation. Airway remodeling is also a pathogenesis of asthma, but literature reporting roles of CD4+ cells in the remodeling is controversial. There has been no study that simultaneously assessed the roles of CD4+ cells in both LAR and airway remodeling. Sensitized mice were intratracheally challenged with ovalbumin 4 times. Treatment with an anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) before the 1st challenge almost completely abolished increase in CD4+ cells in the tissues after the 4th challenge. The late phase increase in airway resistance after the 4th challenge was also completely inhibited by anti-CD4 mAb. Parameters of airway remodeling, subepithelial fibrosis and epithelial thickening were attenuated by treatment, whereas the inhibition was only 30% - 40%. Bronchial smooth muscle thickening was not affected. Because interleukin (IL)-5 production as well as eosinophilia was effectively suppressed by anti-CD4 mAb, the effect of anti-IL-5 mAb was also examined, resulting in no inhibition of airway remodeling. Collectively, although the LAR was completely dependent on CD4+ cell activation, airway remodeling was only partially dependent on the cell.
No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neutrophils have been found increasingly in the lungs of patients with severe asthma; however, it is unclear whether the neutrophils contribute to the induction of the airway obstruction. We determined using a murine model whether neutrophils are involved in the late asthmatic response (LAR), and analyzed mechanisms underlying the antigen-induced airway neutrophilia.
BALB/c mice sensitized by ovalbumin (OVA)+Al(OH)(3) were challenged 4 times by intratracheal administration of OVA. Airway mechanics were measured as specific airway resistance.
Induction of the LAR after the 4th challenge coincided with airway neutrophilia. In contrast, eosinophil infiltration was established prior to the 4th challenge. A treatment with an anti-Gr-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) before the 4th challenge selectively suppressed increases in the neutrophil number and myeloperoxidase (MPO) level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and attenuated the magnitude of LAR by 60-70%. Selective suppression of eosinophilia by anti-IL-5 mAb had little effect on the LAR. The increases in neutrophil number and MPO level were partially inhibited by an anti-CD4 mAb treatment. The CD4(+) cell depletion also significantly inhibited increases in neutrophil chemoattractants, IL-17A, keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 in BALF. However, blockade of FcγRII/III failed to suppress the neutrophilia.
These data suggest that neutrophils are key inducers of the LAR, and that the antigen-induced neutrophilia is partially dependent on activated CD4(+) cells that are involved in the production of IL-17A, KC and MIP-2.