[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dynamic interactions between human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) and the macrophage govern the tempo of viral dissemination and replication in its human host. HIV-1 affects macrophage phenotype, and the macrophage, in turn, can modulate the viral life cycle. While these processes are linked to host-cell function and survival, the precise intracellular pathways involved are incompletely understood. To elucidate such dynamic virus-cell events, we employed pulsed stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture. Alterations in de novo protein synthesis of HIV-1 infected human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) were examined after 3, 5, and 7 days of viral infection. Synthesis rates of cellular metabolic, regulatory, and DNA packaging activities were decreased, whereas, those affecting antigen presentation (major histocompatibility complex I and II) and interferon-induced antiviral activities were increased. Interestingly, enrichment of proteins linked to chromatin assembly or disassembly, DNA packaging, and nucleosome assembly were identified that paralleled virus-induced cytopathology and replication. We conclude that HIV-1 regulates a range of host MDM proteins that affect its survival and abilities to contain infection.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of Proteome Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biofilms are complex communities of bacteria encased in a matrix composed primarily of polysaccharides, extracellular DNA, and protein. Staphylococcus aureus can form biofilm infections, which are often debilitating due to their chronicity and recalcitrance to antibiotic therapy. Currently, the immune mechanisms elicited during biofilm growth and their impact on bacterial clearance remain to be defined. We used a mouse model of catheter-associated biofilm infection to assess the functional importance of TLR2 and TLR9 in the host immune response during biofilm formation, because ligands for both receptors are present within the biofilm. Interestingly, neither TLR2 nor TLR9 impacted bacterial density or inflammatory mediator secretion during biofilm growth in vivo, suggesting that S. aureus biofilms circumvent these traditional bacterial recognition pathways. Several potential mechanisms were identified to account for biofilm evasion of innate immunity, including significant reductions in IL-1β, TNF-α, CXCL2, and CCL2 expression during biofilm infection compared with the wound healing response elicited by sterile catheters, limited macrophage invasion into biofilms in vivo, and a skewing of the immune response away from a microbicidal phenotype as evidenced by decreases in inducible NO synthase expression concomitant with robust arginase-1 induction. Coculture studies of macrophages with S. aureus biofilms in vitro revealed that macrophages successful at biofilm invasion displayed limited phagocytosis and gene expression patterns reminiscent of alternatively activated M2 macrophages. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that S. aureus biofilms are capable of attenuating traditional host proinflammatory responses, which may explain why biofilm infections persist in an immunocompetent host.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · The Journal of Immunology