Caroline M Bateman

Institute of Cancer Research, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (7)97.72 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Studies on twins with concordant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have revealed that ETV6-RUNX1 gene fusion is a common, pre-natal genetic event with other driver aberrations occurring subclonally and probably post-natally. The fetal cell type that is transformed by ETV6-RUNX1 is not identified by such studies or by the analysis of early B-cell lineage phenotype of derived progeny. Ongoing, clonal immunoglobulin (IG) and cross-lineage T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements are features of B-cell precursor leukemia and commence at the pro-B-cell stage of normal B-cell lineage development. We reasoned that shared clonal rearrangements of IG or TCR genes by concordant ALL in twins would be informative about the fetal cell type in which clonal advantage is elicited by ETV6-RUNX1. Five pairs of twins were analyzed for all varieties of IG and TCR gene rearrangements. All pairs showed identical incomplete or complete V(D)J junctions coupled with substantial, subclonal and divergent rearrangements. This pattern was endorsed by single cell genetic scrutiny in one twin pair. Our data suggest that the pre-leukemic initiating function of ETV6-RUNX1 fusion is associated with clonal expansion early in the fetal B-cell lineage.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 12 November 2014. doi:10.1038/leu.2014.322.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Leukemia
  • C M Bateman · D Alpar · A M Ford · S M Colman · D Wren · M Morgan · L Kearney · M Greaves
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    ABSTRACT: Identical twins have provided unique insights on timing or sequence of genetic events in ALL. To date this has mainly focused on ALL with MLL or ETV6-RUNX1 fusions, with hyperdiploid ALL remaining less well characterised. We examined three pairs of monozygotic twins, two concordant and one discordant for hyperdiploid ALL for SNP-defined copy number alterations (CNAs), IGH/L plus TCR gene rearrangements and mutations in NRAS, KRAS, FLT3 and PTPN11 genes. We performed whole exome sequencing in one concordant twin pair. Potential 'driver' CNAs were low, 0 - 3 per case, but all were different within a pair. One patient had an NRAS mutation that was lacking from leukaemic cells of the twin sibling. By exome sequencing there were 12 non-synonymous mutations found in one twin and 5 in the other, one of which in SCL44A2 was shared or identical. Concordant pairs had some identical IGH/L and TCR rearrangements. In the twin pair with discordant hyperdiploid ALL, the healthy co-twin had persistent low level hyperdiploid CD19+ cells which lacked a CNA present in the ALL cells of her sibling. From this data, we propose that hyperdiploid ALL arises in a pre-B cell in-utero and mutational changes necessary for clinical ALL accumulate sub-clonally and post-natally.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 4 June 2014; doi:10.1038/leu.2014.177.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Leukemia
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    ABSTRACT: B-cell precursor childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia with ETV6-RUNX1 (TEL-AML1) fusion has an overall good prognosis, but relapses occur, usually after cessation of treatment and occasionally many years later. We have investigated the clonal origins of relapse by comparing the profiles of genomewide copy number alterations at presentation in 21 patients with those in matched relapse (12-119 months). We identified, in total, 159 copy number alterations at presentation and 231 at relapse (excluding Ig/TCR). Deletions of CDKN2A/B or CCNC (6q16.2-3) or both increased from 38% at presentation to 76% in relapse, suggesting that cell-cycle deregulation contributed to emergence of relapse. A novel observation was recurrent gain of chromosome 16 (2 patients at presentation, 4 at relapse) and deletion of plasmocytoma variant translocation 1 in 3 patients. The data indicate that, irrespective of time to relapse, the relapse clone was derived from either a major or minor clone at presentation. Backtracking analysis by FISH identified a minor subclone at diagnosis whose genotype matched that observed in relapse ∼ 10 years later. These data indicate subclonal diversity at diagnosis, providing a variable basis for intraclonal origins of relapse and extended periods (years) of dormancy, possibly by quiescence, for stem cells in ETV6-RUNX1(+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Blood
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known of the genetic architecture of cancer at the subclonal and single-cell level or in the cells responsible for cancer clone maintenance and propagation. Here we have examined this issue in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in which the ETV6-RUNX1 gene fusion is an early or initiating genetic lesion followed by a modest number of recurrent or 'driver' copy number alterations. By multiplexing fluorescence in situ hybridization probes for these mutations, up to eight genetic abnormalities can be detected in single cells, a genetic signature of subclones identified and a composite picture of subclonal architecture and putative ancestral trees assembled. Subclones in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia have variegated genetics and complex, nonlinear or branching evolutionary histories. Copy number alterations are independently and reiteratively acquired in subclones of individual patients, and in no preferential order. Clonal architecture is dynamic and is subject to change in the lead-up to a diagnosis and in relapse. Leukaemia propagating cells, assayed by serial transplantation in NOD/SCID IL2Rγ(null) mice, are also genetically variegated, mirroring subclonal patterns, and vary in competitive regenerative capacity in vivo. These data have implications for cancer genomics and for the targeted therapy of cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · Nature
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    ABSTRACT: Chimeric fusion genes are highly prevalent in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and are mostly prenatal, early genetic events in the evolutionary trajectory of this cancer. ETV6-RUNX1-positive ALL also has multiple ( approximately 6 per case) copy number alterations (CNAs) as revealed by genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays. Recurrent CNAs are probably "driver" events contributing critically to clonal diversification and selection, but at diagnosis, their developmental timing is "buried" in the leukemia's covert natural history. This conundrum can be resolved with twin pairs. We identified and compared CNAs in 5 pairs of monozygotic twins with concordant ETV6-RUNX1-positive ALL and 1 pair discordant for ETV6-RUNX1 positive ALL. We compared, within each pair, CNAs classified as potential "driver" or "passenger" mutations based upon recurrency and, where known, gene function. An average of 5.1 (range 3-11) CNAs (excluding immunoglobulin/T-cell receptor alterations) were identified per case. All "driver" CNAs (total of 32) were distinct within each of the 5 twin pairs with concordant ALL. "Driver" CNAs in another twin with ALL were all absent in the shared ETV6-RUNX1-positive preleukemic clone of her healthy co-twin. These data place all "driver" CNAs secondary to the prenatal gene fusion event and most probably postnatal in the sequential, molecular pathogenesis of ALL.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2010 · Blood
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    ABSTRACT: Children with Down syndrome (DS) have a greatly increased risk of acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Both DS-AMKL and the related transient myeloproliferative disorder (TMD) have GATA1 mutations as obligatory, early events. To identify mutations contributing to leukemogenesis in DS-ALL, we undertook sequencing of candidate genes, including FLT3, RAS, PTPN11, BRAF, and JAK2. Sequencing of the JAK2 pseudokinase domain identified a specific, acquired mutation, JAK2R683, in 12 (28%) of 42 DS-ALL cases. Functional studies of the common JAK2R683G mutation in murine Ba/F3 cells showed growth factor independence and constitutive activation of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. High-resolution SNP array analysis of 9 DS-ALL cases identified additional submicroscopic deletions in key genes, including ETV6, CDKN2A, and PAX5. These results infer a complex molecular pathogenesis for DS-ALL leukemogenesis, with trisomy 21 as an initiating or first hit and with chromosome aneuploidy, gene deletions, and activating JAK2 mutations as complementary genetic events.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2008 · Blood
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    ABSTRACT: In a small fraction ( approximately 2%) of cases of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) clinical presentation of leukemia is preceded, some 2-9 months earlier, by a transient, remitting phase of nonclassical aplastic anemia, usually in connection with infection. The potential "preleukemic" nature of this prodromal phase has not been fully explored. We have retrospectively analyzed the blood and bone marrow of a child who presented with aplastic anemia 9 months before the development of ETV6-RUNX1 fusion gene positive ALL. High resolution SNP genotyping arrays identified 11 regions of loss of heterozygosity, with and without concurrent copy number changes, at the presentation of ALL. In all cases of copy number change, the deletion or gain identified by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis was confirmed in the ALL blasts by FISH. Retrospective analysis of aplastic phase bone marrow showed that the ETV6-RUNX1 fusion was present along with all of the additional genetic changes assessed, albeit subclonal to ETV6-RUNX1. These data identify for the first time the leukemic genotype of an aplasia preceding clinical ALL and indicate that multiple secondary genetic abnormalities can contribute to a dominant subclone several months before a diagnosis of ALL. These data have implications for the biology of ALL and for management of similar patients.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2008 · Genes Chromosomes and Cancer

Publication Stats

587 Citations
97.72 Total Impact Points

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  • 2008-2014
    • Institute of Cancer Research
      • Centre for Evolution and Cancer
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2010-2011
    • Ontario Institute for Cancer Research
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada