A. Mangione

University of Naples Federico II, Napoli, Campania, Italy

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Publications (13)53.88 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Bariatric surgery (BS) is known to favorably impact fasting lipid profile. Fasting and postprandial lipids were evaluated before and 2 years after BS in obese type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients. Methods: A prospective study was conducted in 19 obese T2DM patients: ten undergoing sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and nine undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Before and 2 years after BS, clinical parameters and the response of lipid and incretin hormones to a mixed meal (MM) were assessed. Results: The two groups had similar characteristics at baseline. After BS, weight loss was similar in the two groups (p ≤ 0.01). Fasting glucose, insulin, and triglycerides decreased while HDL cholesterol increased in a similar way (p < 0.05); in contrast, fasting LDL cholesterol decreased only after RYGB (p < 0.05). Post-meal glucose concentrations decreased while early insulin response significantly improved after both procedures (p < 0.001 for both). Postprandial triglycerides decreased after both procedures (p < 0.05) while postprandial LDL cholesterol decreased only after RYGB (p < 0.05). Meal-GLP-1 increased postoperatively in both groups although to a greater extent after RYGB (p < 0.001 vs. SG). GIP decreased after both procedures, especially after RYGB (p = 0.003). At multivariate analysis, GLP-1 peak was the best predictor of LDL reduction (β = -0.552, p = 0.039) while the improvement of HOMA-IR (β = 0.574, p = 0.014) and weight loss (β = 0.418, p = 0.036) predicted triglycerides reduction. Conclusions: Both surgical procedures markedly reduce fasting and postprandial triglycerides and increase HDL cholesterol levels. LDL cholesterol decreases only after RYGB through a mechanism likely mediated by the restoration of GLP-1.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Obesity Surgery

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Postprandial lipid abnormalities are considered an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Hence, it is important to find nutritional strategies that are able to positively influence these abnormalities. Although the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and polyphenols on postprandial lipids in humans is still under debate, we evaluated the acute response of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) to test meals that are naturally rich in polyphenols and/or marine long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC) n-3 PUFA). We hypothesized that LC n-3 PUFA would have a different effect on chylomicron and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) alone when compared to the combination with polyphenols. We randomly assigned 78 individuals who were at high cardio-metabolic risk to four isoenergetic diets. These diets only differed in amount of LC n-3 PUFA and/or polyphenols. Prior to starting the intervention, each subject underwent a test meal similar to the type of diet assigned: low in LC n-3 PUFA and polyphenols (control), rich in LC n-3 PUFA and low in polyphenols, rich in polyphenols and low in LC n-3 PUFA, or rich in both. Blood samples were taken before and up to six hours after the test meal in order to evaluate cholesterol and triglycerides (plasma and TRL), apo B-48 (large VLDL), GLP-1, and FFA plasma levels. The levels of chylomicron cholesterol and triglyceride in response to the test meal rich in LC n-3 PUFA were significantly higher than after the control meal (p = 0.037 and p = 0.018); there was no difference in the other variables. In conclusion, this study indicates that acute administration of marine LC n-3 PUFA increases postprandial chylomicron response compared to their lowering chronic effects. These differences underline the importance of understanding the acute and chronic effects of nutritional, as well as of other types of, interventions.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Nutrition Research

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Diabetes

  • No preview · Conference Paper · May 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Until recently, very few intervention studies have investigated the effects of whole-grain cereals on postprandial glucose, insulin and lipid metabolism, and the existing studies have provided mixed results. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week intervention with either a whole-grain-based or a refined cereal-based diet on postprandial glucose, insulin and lipid metabolism in individuals with metabolic syndrome. Sixty-one men and women age range 40-65 years, with the metabolic syndrome were recruited to participate in this study using a parallel group design. After a 4-week run-in period, participants were randomly assigned to a 12-week diet based on whole-grain products (whole-grain group) or refined cereal products (control group). Blood samples were taken at the beginning and end of the intervention, both fasting and 3 h after a lunch, to measure biochemical parameters. Generalized linear model (GLM) was used for between-group comparisons. Overall, 26 participants in the control group and 28 in the whole-grain group completed the dietary intervention. Drop-outs (five in the control and two in the whole-grain group) did not affect randomization. After 12 weeks, postprandial insulin and triglyceride responses (evaluated as average change 2 and 3 h after the meal, respectively) decreased by 29% and 43%, respectively, in the whole-grain group compared to the run-in period. Postprandial insulin and triglyceride responses were significantly lower at the end of the intervention in the whole-grain group compared to the control group (p = 0.04 and p = 0.05; respectively) whereas there was no change in postprandial response of glucose and other parameters evaluated. A twelve week whole-grain cereal-based diet, compared to refined cereals, reduced postprandial insulin and triglycerides responses. This finding may have implications for type 2 diabetes risk and cardiovascular disease.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD
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    ABSTRACT: Background Until recently, very few intervention studies have investigated the effects of whole-grain cereals on postprandial glucose, insulin and lipid metabolism, and the existing studies have provided mixed results. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week intervention with either a whole-grain-based or a refined cereal-based diet on postprandial glucose, insulin and lipid metabolism in individuals with metabolic syndrome. Design Sixty-one men and women age range 40 -65 years, with the metabolic syndrome were recruited to participate in this study using a parallel group design. After a 4-week run-in period, participants were randomly assigned to a 12-week diet based on whole-grain products (whole-grain group) or refined cereal products (control group). Blood samples were taken at the beginning and end of the intervention, both fasting and 3 hours after a lunch, to measure biochemical parameters. Generalized linear model (GLM) was used for between-group comparisons. Results Overall, 26 participants in the control group and 28 in the whole-grain group completed the dietary intervention. Drop-outs (five in the control and two in the whole-grain group) did not affect randomization. After 12 weeks, postprandial insulin and triglyceride responses (evaluated as average change 2 and 3 hours after the meal, respectively) decreased by 29% and 43%, respectively, in the whole-grain group compared to the run-in period. Postprandial insulin and triglyceride responses were significantly lower at the end of the intervention in the whole-grain group compared to the control group (p=0.04 and p=0.05; respectively) whereas there was no change in postprandial response of glucose and other parameters evaluated. Conclusions A twelve week whole-grain cereal-based diet, compared to refined cereals, reduced postprandial insulin and triglycerides responses. This finding may have implications for type 2 diabetes risk and cardiovascular disease.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) concentration is a recognized independent cardiovascular disease risk factor. Diet is the natural approach for these postprandial alterations. Dietary polyphenols and long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3s) are associated with a lower cardiovascular disease risk. This randomized controlled study evaluated, in persons with a high risk of cardiovascular disease, the effects of diets naturally rich in polyphenols and/or marine LCn3s on plasma TRLs and urinary 8-isoprostane concentrations, a biomarker of oxidative stress. According to a 2 × 2 factorial design, 86 overweight/obese individuals with a large waist circumference and any other component of the metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to an isoenergetic diet 1) poor in LCn3s and polyphenols, 2) rich in LCn3, 3) rich in polyphenols, or 4) rich in LCn3s and polyphenols. The diets were similar in all other components. Before and after the 8-wk intervention, fasting and postmeal TRLs and 8-isoprostane concentrations in 24-h urine samples were measured. Dietary adherence was good in all participants. Polyphenols significantly reduced fasting triglyceride concentrations (2-factor ANOVA) in plasma (P = 0.023) and large very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) (P = 0.016) and postprandial triglyceride total area under the curve in plasma (P = 0.041) and large VLDLs (P = 0.004). LCn3s reduced postprandial chylomicron cholesterol and VLDL apolipoprotein B-48. The concentrations of urinary 8-isoprostane decreased significantly with the polyphenol-rich diets. Lipoprotein changes induced by the intervention significantly correlated with changes in 8-isoprostane. Diets naturally rich in polyphenols positively influence fasting and postprandial TRLs and reduce oxidative stress. Marine LCn3s reduce TRLs of exogenous origin. Through their effects on postprandial lipemia and oxidative stress, polyphenols may favorably affect cardiovascular disease risk. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00781365.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a supervised physical training added to a healthy diet-rich in either carbohydrate and fibre (CHO/fibre) or monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA)-on postprandial dyslipidaemia, an independent cardiovascular risk factor particularly relevant in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Participants were forty-five overweight/obese subjects with T2D, of both genders, in good blood glucose control with diet or diet+metformin, with normal fasting plasma lipids. According to a parallel groups 2 × 2 factorial design, participants were randomized to an 8-week isoenergetic intervention with a CHO/fibre or a MUFA diet, with or without a supervised low-volume aerobic training programme. The main outcome of the study was the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of lipid concentrations in the plasma chylomicron+VLDL lipoprotein fraction, isolated by preparative ultracentrifugation (NCT01025856). Body weight remained stable during the trial in all groups. Physical fitness slightly improved with training (VO2 peak, 16 ± 4 vs. 15 ± 3 ml/kg/min, M ± SD, p < 0.05). Postprandial triglyceride and cholesterol iAUCs in plasma and chylomicron+VLDL fraction decreased after the CHO/fibre diet, but increased after the MUFA diet with a significant effect for diet by two-way ANOVA (p < 0.05). The addition of exercise training to either dietary intervention did not significantly influence postprandial lipid response. A diet rich in carbohydrates and fibre reduced postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins compared with a diet rich in MUFA in patients with T2D. A supervised low-volume physical training did not significantly influence these dietary effects.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Acta Diabetologica

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Oct 2012
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects of qualitative dietary changes and the interaction with aerobic exercise training on liver fat content independent of weight loss in patients with type 2 diabetes. With use of a factorial 2 × 2 randomized parallel-group design, 37 men and 8 women, aged 35-70 years, with type 2 diabetes in satisfactory blood glucose control on diet or diet plus metformin treatment were assigned to one of the following groups for an 8-week period: 1) high-carbohydrate/high-fiber/low-glycemic index diet (CHO/fiber group), 2) high-MUFA diet (MUFA group), 3) high-carbohydrate/high-fiber/low-glycemic index diet plus physical activity program (CHO/fiber+Ex group), and 4) high-MUFA diet plus physical activity program (MUFA+Ex group). Before and after intervention, hepatic fat content was measured by (1)H NMR. Dietary compliance was optimal and body weight remained stable in all groups. Liver fat content decreased more in MUFA (-29%) and MUFA+Ex (-25%) groups than in CHO/fiber (-4%) and CHO/fiber+Ex groups (-6%). Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA, including baseline values as covariate, showed a significant effect on liver fat content for diet (P = 0.006), with no effects for exercise training (P = 0.789) or diet-exercise interaction (P = 0.712). An isocaloric diet enriched in MUFA compared with a diet higher in carbohydrate and fiber was associated with a clinically relevant reduction of hepatic fat content in type 2 diabetic patients independent of an aerobic training program and should be considered for the nutritional management of hepatic steatosis in people with type 2 diabetes.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Diabetes care
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes is associated with atherogenic abnormalities of postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. This study evaluated whether ezetimibe, by inhibiting intestinal cholesterol absorption, influences chylomicrons and VLDL particles at fasting and after a standard meal. By a double blind cross-over design 15 subjects with type 2 diabetes and hypercholesterolaemia followed in random order a 6-week treatment with ezetimibe 10mg+simvastatin 20 mg (EZE+S) or placebo+simvastatin 20 mg (P+S) and, after a 6-week wash-out period, crossed over to the other treatment (NCT00699023). At the end of each period lipids, apoB-48, and apoB-100 concentrations in plasma and lipoprotein fractions (separated by discontinuous density gradient ultracentrifugation) were determined before and over 6h following a high-fat test meal. Compared with P+S, EZE+S induced, (a) beside a greater decrease in LDL cholesterol, (b) a significant decrease in chylomicron lipid content both at fasting and postprandially (4.4 ± 2.7 vs. 8.3 ± 8.7 mg/dl × 6 h total AUC for cholesterol, p < 0.05; 18 ± 12 vs. 29 ± 24 mg/dl triglyceride concentrations at 6h, p < 0.05), (c) a significant decrease in chylomicron postprandial apoB-48 (0.03 ± 0.03 vs. 0.09 ± 0.08 mg/l at 4 h, p < 0.05), and (d) significant fasting and postprandial decreases in the cholesterol content of VLDL, IDL, and LDL, as shown by the significant reduction of the cholesterol/triglyceride ratio in these lipoproteins. A 6-week treatment with ezetimibe and simvastatin, compared to simvastatin alone, positively influences lipoprotein profile both at fasting and postprandially in type 2 diabetic patients by favouring the production of cholesterol-poor chylomicrons and VLDL particles that have less atherogenic potential.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Atherosclerosis
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    ABSTRACT: Postprandial glycemic variability in type 2 diabetes: effects of dietary approach rich in fibre and with a low glycemic index The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects on glycemic variability of a diet rich in fibre compared to a diet rich in monounsaturated fat (MUFA) in type 2 diabetic patients. According to a randomized cross-over design, after a run-in period of 4 weeks, 12 type 2 diabetic patients, 9 males and 3 women, followed for 4 weeks a diet rich in fibre and with a low glycemic index or a diet rich in MUFA, low in fibre and with a high glycemic index. Thereafter, patients crossed over to the alternate diet for another 4 weeks. At the end of each period blood samples for determination of glucose were taken 2, 4, 6 hours after a test meal similar, for composition, to the corresponding diet. A statistically significant reduction of postprandial glucose coefficient of variation (18 ± 11% vs 30 ± 12%; p < 0.02) and of the mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (MAGE) (23 ± 12 vs 37 ± 21 mg/dl; p < 0.05) was found. In conclusion, a diet relatively rich in carbohydrates, dietary fibre and with a low glycemic index may be considered the diet of choice for treating type 2 diabetic patients on the basis of its multiple effects on different cardiovascular risk factors, including the reduction of postprandial glycemic variability.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Giornale Italiano di Diabetologia e Metabolismo